Beginners' Guide/Extra (한국어)
- 1 기타
- 1.1 Sudo
- 1.2 사운드
- 1.3 그래픽 유저 인터페이스(Graphical User Interface)
- 1.3.1 X 설치하기
- 1.3.2 비디오 드라이버 설치하기
- 1.3.3 Install input drivers
- 1.3.4 Configure X (Optional)
- 1.3.5 Testing X
- 1.3.6 Fonts
- 1.3.7 Choose and install a graphical interface
- 1.3.8 Methods for starting your Graphical Environment
- 2 Appendix
이제 필요에 따라 만들어 나가는 데 기반이 되는 완전한 아치 시스템이 완성되어 있을 것입니다. 하지만, 대부분 사람들은 사운드와 그래픽이 완전히 갖춰진, 데스크탑 시스템에 관심이 있을 것입니다. 여기서는 이런 기타 부분을 만들어나가는 과정을 간단히 살펴보도록 합니다.
Sudo는 루트 유저가 아닌 상태에서 시스템을 간단히 관리할 수 있도록 해 줍니다.
Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA)는 커널에 포함되어 있으므로 먼저 시도해 보시기를 권합니다. 하지만 잘 작동하지 않거나 품질에 만족하지 않는다면, Open Sound System도 사용해 보실 수 있습니다. OSSv4는 자유 라이센스로 배포되며 ALSA에 의해 대체된 OSSv3에 비해 많은 발전이 있었다고 평가됩니다. OSS 문서에서 방법을 보실 수 있습니다.
좀 더 전문적인 것을 원한다면, Sound에서 여러가지 문서의 개요를 보십시오.
그래픽 유저 인터페이스(Graphical User Interface)
보통 X나 X11이라고도 불리는 X Window System는 비트맵 디스플레이에 윈도우를 지원하는 네트워크 및 디스플레이 프로토콜입니다. 그래픽 유저 인터페이스(GUI)를 빌드하기 위한 표준 툴킷과 프로토콜을 제공합니다.
이제 팩맨을 이용해서 기반 Xorg 패키지를 설치합니다.
다음과 같이 기반 패키지를 설치합니다.
# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils
다음과 같이 3D 지원을 위해 mesa를 설치합니다.
# pacman -S mesa
glxgears와 glxinfo는 패키지에 포함되어 있습니다. 필요하다면 다음과 같이 설치하십시오.
# pacman -S mesa-demos
비디오 드라이버 설치하기
다음으로, 그래픽 카드 드라이버를 설치해야 합니다.
컴퓨터에 있는 비디오 칩셋을 알아야 합니다. 만약 알지 못한다면, 다음과 같이
/usr/sbin/lspci 프로그램을 사용하십시오.
$ lspci | grep VGA
오픈소스 비디오 드라이버의 전체 목록을 보기 위해서는 다음과 같이 패키지 데이터베이스를 검색하십시오.
$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less
팩맨을 이용해서 비디오 카드나 내장 비디오에 적절한 비디오 드라이버를 설치하십시오. 다음은 Savage 비디오 카드에 대한 예시입니다.
# pacman -S xf86-video-savage
NVIDIA Graphics Cards
NVIDIA users have three options for drivers (in addition to the vesa driver):
- The open-source nouveau driver, which offers fast 2d acceleration and basic 3d support which is good enough for basic compositing (note: does not fully support powersaving yet). Feature Matrix.
- The open-source (but obfuscated) nv driver, which is very slow and only has 2d support.
- The proprietary nvidia drivers, which offer good 3d performance and powersaving. Even if you plan on using the proprietary drivers, it is recommended to start with nouveau and then switch to the binary driver after you have X set up and working. Nouveau often works out-of-the-box, while nvidia will require configuration and likely some troubleshooting. See NVIDIA for more information.
The open-source nouveau driver should be good enough for most users and is recommended:
# pacman -S xf86-video-nouveau
For experimental 3D support:
# pacman -S nouveau-dri
ATI Graphics Cards
ATI owners have two options for drivers (in addition to the vesa driver):
- The open source radeon driver provided by the radeon feature matrix for details. package. See the
- The proprietary fglrx driver provided by the AUR. It supports only newer devices (HD2xxx and newer). It was once a package offered by Arch in the extra repository, but as of March 2009, official support has been dropped because of dissatisfaction with the quality and speed of development of the proprietary driver. See ATI Catalyst for more information. AUR package located in the
The open-source driver is the recommended choice. Install the radeon ATI Driver:
# pacman -S xf86-video-ati
SiS Graphics Cards
SiS cards are not officially supported on Linux. Despite this fact 3 more or less outdated drivers can be installed from the official repositories:
# pacman -S xf86-video-sis
# pacman -S xf86-video-sisusb
# pacman -S xf86-video-sisimedia
If neither of them works for you, searching in the AUR and compiling a driver (with possible downgrading of ) is the only option.
Install input drivers
Udev should be capable of detecting your hardware without problems and evdev () is the modern, hotplugging input driver for almost all devices so in most cases, installing input drivers is not needed. At this point, evdev has already been installed as a dependency of Xorg.
If evdev does not support your device, install the needed driver from the xorg-input-drivers group.
For a complete list of available input drivers, invoke a pacman search:
# pacman -Ss xf86-input | less
Laptop users (or users with a touchscreen) will also need the synaptics package to allow X to configure the touchpad/touchscreen:
# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics
Configure X (Optional)
X Server features auto-configuration and therefore can function without an
xorg.conf. If you still wish to manually configure X Server, please see the Xorg wiki page.
If you do not use a standard US keyboard, you need to set the keyboard layout in
Section "InputClass" Identifier "evdev keyboard catchall" MatchIsKeyboard "on" MatchDevicePath "/dev/input/event*" Driver "evdev" Option "XkbLayout" "be" EndSection
If, for example, you wish to use a variant of the US keyboard, add the following into the same section from the previous example:
Option "XkbLayout" "us" Option "XkbVariant" "dvorak"
/usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst(see text after line beginning with
! layout). For instance the layout: gb corresponds to "English (UK)".
This section will explain how to set up the default X environment with This section below cover installing a desktop environment or window manager of your choice.in order to test X.
Install the default environment:
# pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm
If Xorg was installed before creating the non-root user, there will be a template
.xinitrc file in your home directory that needs to be either deleted or edited in order to start X. Simply deleting it will cause X to run with the default environment installed above.
$ rm ~/.xinitrc
# pacman -S dbus
Start the dbus daemon:
# rc.d start dbus
/usr/sbin/rc.dis an Arch-specific command which acts as a shortcut for executing daemon actions in place of using the full
Add dbus to the
DAEMONS array in
/etc/rc.conf so it starts automatically on boot:
DAEMONS=(... dbus ...)
xorg.conf, as described here.
Finally, start Xorg:
$ xinit -- /usr/bin/X -nolisten tcp
A few movable windows should show up, and your mouse should work. Once you are satisfied that X installation was a success, you may exit out of X by issuing the
exit command into the prompts until you return to the console.
If the screen goes black, you may still attempt to switch to a different virtual console (Template:Keypress, for example), and login blindly as root, followed by Template:Keypress, followed by root's password followed by Template:Keypress.
You can attempt to kill the X server with
/usr/bin/pkill (note the capital letter X):
# pkill X
If pkill does not work, reboot blindly with:
In case of errors
If a problem occurs, look for errors in
/var/log/Xorg.0.log. Be on the lookout for any lines beginning with
(EE) which represent errors, and also
(WW) which are warnings that could indicate other issues.
$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log
Errors may also be searched for in the console output of the virtual console from which X was started.
See the Xorg article for detailed instructions and troubleshooting.
If you are still having trouble after consulting the Xorg article and need assistance via the Arch forums, be sure to install and use :
# pacman -S wgetpaste
Use wgetpaste and provide links for the following files when asking for help in your forum post:
Use it like so:
$ wgetpaste /path/to/file
Post the corresponding links given within your forum post. Be sure to provide appropriate hardware and driver information as well.
At this point, you may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. DejaVu is a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts with good Unicode coverage:
# pacman -S ttf-dejavu
- Refer to Font Configuration for how to configure font rendering and Fonts for font suggestions and installation instructions.
Choose and install a graphical interface
The X Window System provides the basic framework for building a graphical user interface (GUI).
- Window Manager (WM)
- Controls the placement and appearance of application windows in conjunction with the X Window System. See Window managers for more information.
- Desktop Environment (DE)
- Works atop and in conjunction with X, to provide a completely functional and dynamic GUI. A DE typically provides a window manager, icons, applets, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, a suite of applications and abilities like drag and drop. See Desktop environments for more information.
After installing a graphical interface, you may wish to continue with General Recommendations for post-installation instructions.
Methods for starting your Graphical Environment
You might prefer to start X manually from your terminal rather than booting straight into the desktop. For DE-specific commands, please see the wiki page corrosponding to your DE for more information. For more generic X commands, please see the section on the Xorg page.
You might prefer to have the desktop start automatically during boot instead of starting X manually. See Display Manager for instructions on using a login manager or Start X at Boot for two lightweight methods that do not rely on a display manager.
For a list of applications that may be of interest, see Common Applications.
See General Recommendations for post-installation tutorials like setting up CPU frequency scaling or font rendering.