Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide"

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(minor edits. UEFI stuff still needs adjusting, because it's confusing. For example, does 'efibootmgr' need two "\\", or one? And is there an "/boot/efi/EFI/arch" folder, or not (see step #3 of #EFISTUB)?)
(already mentioned in Swap)
 
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<noinclude>
 
 
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
 
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
[[Category:About Arch]]
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[[ar:Beginners' guide]]
[[da:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[bg:Installation guide]]
[[es:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[cs:Installation guide]]
[[hr:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[da:Installation guide]]
[[hu:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[de:Anleitung für Einsteiger]]
[[it:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[el:Installation guide]]
[[ko:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[es:Beginners' guide]]
[[nl:Beginners' Guide/Installatie]]
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[[fa:راهنمای تازه‌کاران]]
[[pl:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[fr:Installation]]
[[pt:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[hr:Installation guide]]
[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor/Instalare]]
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[[hu:Installation guide]]
[[ru:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[id:Installation guide]]
[[sr:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[it:Installation guide]]
[[zh-CN:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[ja:ビギナーズガイド]]
{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. '''[[Beginners' Guide|Click here]]''' if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
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[[ko:Installation guide]]
</noinclude>
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[[lt:Installation guide]]
== Installation ==
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[[nl:Installation guide]]
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[[pl:Installation guide]]
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[[pt:Installation guide]]
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[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor]]
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[[ru:Beginners' guide]]
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[[sk:Installation guide]]
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[[sr:Installation guide]]
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[[sv:Nybörjarguiden]]
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[[tr:Yeni başlayanlar rehberi]]
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[[uk:Installation guide]]
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[[zh-cn:Beginners' guide]]
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[[zh-tw:Installation guide]]
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{{Related articles start}}
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{{Related|:Category:Accessibility}}
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{{Related|Help:Reading}}
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{{Related|Installation guide}}
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{{Related|General recommendations}}
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{{Related|General troubleshooting}}
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{{Related articles end}}
 +
This document will guide you through the process of installing [[Arch Linux]] using the [https://projects.archlinux.org/arch-install-scripts.git/ Arch Install Scripts]. Before installing, you are advised to skim over the [[FAQ]].
  
You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root.
+
The community-maintained [[Main page|ArchWiki]] is the primary resource that should be consulted if issues arise. The [[IRC channel]] (irc://irc.freenode.net/#archlinux) and the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are also excellent resources if an answer cannot be found elsewhere. In accordance with [[the Arch Way]], you are encouraged to type {{ic|man ''command''}} to read the [[man page]] of any command you are unfamiliar with.
  
=== Change the language ===
+
{{Tip|This guide is accessible from the live installation with the [[ELinks]] browser, after the [[#Connect to the Internet]] step. This can be done in a new [[w:Virtual console|virtual console]], switching ({{ic|Alt+arrow}}) between the console containing the web page, and the console where you are performing the installation. Similarly, the {{ic|#archlinux}} [[IRC]] can be accessed using [[irssi]].}}
  
{{Tip|These are optional for the majority of users. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the Wi-Fi password, or if you would like to receive system messages (e.g. possible errors) in your own language.}}
+
== Preparation ==
  
By default, the keyboard layout is set to {{ic|us}}. If you have a non-[[Wikipedia:File:KB_United_States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard layout, run:
+
Arch Linux should run on any [[Wikipedia:P6 (microarchitecture)|i686]] compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the {{Grp|base}} group should take less than 800 MB of disk space.
  
# loadkeys ''layout''
+
See [[:Category:Getting and installing Arch]] for instructions on downloading the installation medium, and methods for booting it to the target machine(s). This guide assumes you use the latest available version.
  
...where ''layout'' can be {{ic|fr}}, {{ic|uk}}, {{ic|be-latin1}}, etc. See [[KEYMAP#Keyboard_layouts|here]] for a comprehensive list.
+
After booting into the installation media, you will be automatically logged in as the root user and presented with a [[Zsh]] shell prompt. For [[create|modifying or creating]] configuration files, typically in {{ic|/etc}}, [[nano#Usage|nano]] or [[vim#Usage|vim]] are suggested.
  
The font should also be changed, because most languages use more glyphs than the 26 letter [[Wikipedia:English_alphabet|English alphabet]]. Otherwise some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. Note that the name is case-sensitive, so please type it ''exactly'' as you see it:
+
=== UEFI mode ===
  
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
+
In case you have a [[UEFI]] motherboard with UEFI mode enabled, the CD/USB will automatically launch Arch Linux via [[systemd-boot]].
  
By default, the language is set to English (US). If you would like to change the language for the install process ''(German, in this example)'', remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the [http://www.greendesktiny.com/support/knowledgebase_detail.php?ref=EUH-483 locale] you want from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, along with English (US). Please choose the {{ic|UTF-8}} entry.
+
To verify you are booted in UEFI mode, check that the following directory is populated:
  
Use {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
+
# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
+
See [[UEFI#UEFI Variables]] for details.
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
+
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
+
  
# locale-gen
+
=== Set the keyboard layout ===
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8
+
  
Remember, {{Keypress|LAlt+LShift}} activates and deactivates the keymap.
+
The default [[Keyboard_configuration_in_console|console keymap]] is set to [[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|us]]. Available choices can be listed with {{ic|ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz}}.  
  
=== Establish an internet connection ===
+
{{Note|{{ic|localectl list-keymaps}} does not work due to bug {{Bug|46725}}.}}
  
The {{ic|dhcpcd}} network daemon is started automatically at boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection, if available. Try pinging a website to see if it was successful. And since Google is always on...
+
For example, to change the layout to {{ic|de-latin1}}, run:
  
{{hc|# ping -c 3 www.google.com|2=
+
# loadkeys ''de-latin1''
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
+
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
+
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=18.2 ms
+
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=16.6 ms
+
  
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
+
If certain characters appear as white squares or other symbols, change the [[Console fonts|console font]]. For example:
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
+
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms}}
+
  
If you get a {{ic|ping: unknown host}} error, you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below.
+
# setfont ''lat9w-16''
  
Otherwise, move on to [[#Prepare_the_storage_drive|Prepare the storage drive]].
+
=== Connect to the Internet ===
  
==== Wired ====
+
The [[dhcpcd]] daemon is enabled on boot for '''wired''' devices, and will attempt to start a connection. To access captive portal login forms, use the [[ELinks]] browser.
  
Follow this procedure if you need to set up a wired connection via a static IP address.
+
Verify a connection was established, for example with {{ic|ping archlinux.org}}. If no connection is available, see [[Network configuration]] or follow the below [[netctl]] examples. Otherwise, continue to [[#Update the system clock]].
  
If your computer is connected to an Ethernet network, in most cases, you will have one interface, called {{ic|eth0}}. If you have additional network cards (apart from the one integrated on the motherboard, for example), their name will follow the sequence {{ic|eth1}}, {{ic|eth2}}, etc.
+
; Netctl preparation
  
You need to know these settings:
+
To prevent conflicts, [[stop]] the enabled ''dhcpcd'' service first, replacing {{ic|''enp0s25''}} with the correct wired interface:
  
* Static IP address.
+
# systemctl stop dhcpcd@''enp0s25''.service
* Subnet mask.
+
* Gateway's IP address.
+
* Name servers' (DNS) IP addresses.
+
* Domain name (unless you're on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).
+
  
Activate the connected Ethernet interface, e.g. for {{ic|eth0}}:
+
[[Network configuration#Device names|Interfaces]] can be listed using {{ic|ip link}}, or {{ic|iw dev}} for wireless devices. They are prefixed with {{ic|en}} (ethernet), {{ic|wl}} (WLAN), or {{ic|ww}} (WWAN).
  
# ip link set eth0 up
+
; Wireless
  
Add the address:
+
[[Wireless_network_configuration#Getting_some_useful_information|List available networks]], and make a connection for a specified interface:
  
  # ip addr add <ip address>/<subnetmask> dev <interface>
+
  # wifi-menu -o ''wlp2s0''
  
For example:
+
The resulting configuration file is stored in {{ic|/etc/netctl}}. For networks which require both a username and password, see [[WPA2 Enterprise#netctl]].
  
# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev eth0
+
; Other
  
For more options, run {{ic|man ip}}.
+
Several example profiles, such as for configuring a [[Network configuration#Static IP address|static IP address]], are available. Copy the required one to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}, for example {{ic|''ethernet-static''}}:
  
Add your gateway like this, substituting your own gateway's IP address:
+
# cp /etc/netctl/examples/''ethernet-static'' /etc/netctl
  
# ip route add default via <ip address>
+
Adjust the copy as needed, and enable it:
  
For example:
+
# netctl start ''ethernet-static''
  
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
+
=== Update the system clock ===
  
Edit {{ic|resolv.conf}}, substituting your name servers' IP addresses and your local domain name:
+
Use [[systemd-timesyncd]] to ensure that your system clock is accurate. To start it:
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/resolv.conf|
+
# timedatectl set-ntp true
nameserver 61.23.173.5
+
nameserver 61.95.849.8
+
search example.com}}
+
  
{{Note|Currently, you may include a maximum of 3 {{ic|nameserver}} lines.}}
+
To check the service status, use {{ic|timedatectl status}}.
  
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Configuring Network]] page.
+
== Prepare the storage devices ==
  
==== Wireless ====
+
{{Warning|In general, partitioning or formatting will make existing data inaccessible and subject to being overwritten, i.e. destroyed, by subsequent operations. For this reason, all data that needs to be preserved must be backed up before proceeding.}}
  
Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (Wi-Fi) during the installation process.
+
In this step, the storage devices that will be used by the new system will be prepared. Read [[Partitioning]] for a more general overview.
  
The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quick-start procedure ''executed at this point in the installation'' will initialize your wireless hardware for use ''in the live environment of the installation media''. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) '''must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it'''.
+
Users intending to create stacked block devices for [[LVM]], [[disk encryption]] or [[RAID]], should keep those instructions in mind when preparing the partitions. If intending to install to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].
  
Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.
+
=== Identify the devices ===
  
{{Note|The following examples use {{ic|wlan0}} for the interface and {{ic|linksys}} for the ESSID. Remember to change these values according to your setup.}}
+
[[File_systems#Identify_the_devices|Identify the devices]] where the new system will be installed:
  
The basic procedure will be:
+
# lsblk
  
* (optional) Identify the wireless interface:
+
Not all devices listed are viable mediums for installation; results ending in {{ic|rom}}, {{ic|loop}} or {{ic|airoot}} can be ignored.
  
# lspci | grep -i net
+
{{Note|In the sections below, the {{ic|sd'''xy'''}} notation will be used ({{ic|'''x'''}} for the device, {{ic|'''y'''}} for an existing partition).}}
  
Or, if using a USB adapter:
+
If the existing partition scheme does not need to be changed, you may skip to [[#Format the partitions]].
  
# lsusb
+
=== Partition the devices ===
  
* Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with {{ic|iwconfig}}:
+
[[Partition]]ing a hard drive divides the available space into sections that can be accessed independently. The required information is stored in a ''partition table'' using a format such as [[MBR]] or [[GPT]]. Existing tables can be printed with {{ic|parted /dev/sd'''x''' print}} or {{ic|fdisk -l /dev/sd'''x'''}}.
  
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless Setup]] for more detailed information.}}
+
To partition devices, use a [[Partitioning#Partitioning tools|partitioning tool]] compatible to the chosen type of partition table. Incompatible tools may result in the destruction of that table, along with existing partitions or data. Choices include:
  
{{hc|# iwconfig|2=
+
{| class="wikitable"
lo no wireless extensions.
+
! Name
eth0 no wireless extensions.
+
! MBR
wlan0    unassociated  ESSID:""
+
! GPT
        Mode:Managed  Channel=0  Access Point: Not-Associated
+
! Variants
        Bit Rate:0 kb/s  Tx-Power=20 dBm  Sensitivity=8/0
+
|-
        Retry limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
+
| [[fdisk]]
        Power Management:off
+
| {{Yes}}
        Link Quality:0  Signal level:0  Noise level:0
+
| {{Yes}}
        Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
+
| ''sfdisk'', ''cfdisk''
        Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0  Missed beacon:0}}
+
|-
 +
| [[gdisk]]
 +
| {{No}}
 +
| {{Yes}}
 +
| ''cgdisk'', ''sgdisk''
 +
|-
 +
| [[parted]]
 +
| {{Yes}}
 +
| {{Yes}}
 +
| [[GParted]]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
In this example, {{ic|wlan0}} is the available wireless interface.
+
The examples below demonstrate a basic [[partition scheme]] for both types of partition tables. They assume that a new, contiguous layout is applied to a single device in {{ic|/dev/sd'''x'''}}. Necessary changes to device names and partition numbers must be done beforehand.
  
* Bring the interface up with:
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!colspan="5" | UEFI/GPT example layout
 +
|-
 +
! Mount point
 +
! Partition
 +
! [[w:GUID_Partition_Table#Partition_type_GUIDs|Partition type (GUID)]]
 +
! Bootable flag
 +
! Suggested size
 +
|-
 +
| /boot
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''1
 +
| [[EFI System Partition]]
 +
| Yes
 +
| 260–512 MiB
 +
|-
 +
| [SWAP]
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''2
 +
| Linux [[swap]]
 +
| No
 +
| More than 512 MiB
 +
|-
 +
| /
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''3
 +
| Linux
 +
| No
 +
| Remainder of the device
 +
|-
 +
!colspan="5" | MBR/BIOS example layout
 +
|-
 +
! Mount point
 +
! Partition
 +
! [[w:Partition type|Partition type]]
 +
! Bootable flag
 +
! Suggested size
 +
|-
 +
| [SWAP]
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''1
 +
| Linux [[swap]]
 +
| No
 +
| More than 512 MiB
 +
|-
 +
| /
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''2
 +
| Linux
 +
| Yes
 +
| Remainder of the device
 +
|}
  
# ip link set wlan0 up
+
=== Format the partitions ===
  
A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:
+
{{Warning|If [[Dual boot with Windows|dual-booting]] with an existing installation of Windows on a UEFI/GPT system, avoid reformatting the UEFI partition, as this includes the Windows ''.efi'' file required to boot it.}}
  
{{hc|# ip link set wlan0 up|
+
Once the partitions have been created, each '''must''' be formatted with an appropriate [[file system]], ''except'' for [[swap]] partitions. All available partitions on the intended installation device can be listed with the following command:
SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}
+
  
If unsure, invoke {{ic|dmesg}} to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset.
+
# lsblk /dev/sd'''x'''
  
Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
+
With the exceptions noted below, it is recommended to use the {{ic|ext4}} file system:
  
{{hc|# dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep firmware|
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sd'''xy'''
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
+
  
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
+
If a swap partition was created, it must be set up and activated with:
  
{{Warning|Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}} in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) '''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!''' Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See [[Wireless Setup]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset.}}
+
# mkswap /dev/sd'''xy'''
 +
# swapon /dev/sd'''xy'''
  
Next, use {{pkg|netcfg}}'s wifi-menu to connect to a network:
+
If a '''new''' UEFI system partition has been created on a UEFI/GPT system, it '''must''' be formatted with a {{ic|fat32}} file system:
  
  # wifi-menu wlan0
+
  # mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sd'''xy'''
 
+
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
+
 
+
==== xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN ====
+
 
+
If you have a router in bridge mode, run:
+
 
+
# pppoe-setup
+
 
+
* Type in the username that the ISP provided you with.
+
* Press {{Keypress|Enter}} for "eth0".
+
* Press {{Keypress|Enter}} for "no", so that it stays up continuously.
+
* Type {{ic|server}} (since this is usually the case).
+
* Press {{Keypress|1}} for a firewall.
+
* Type in the password that the ISP provided you with.
+
* Press {{Keypress|Y}} at the end.
+
 
+
To use these settings and connect to your ISP, run:
+
 
+
# pppoe-start
+
 
+
You may also need to adjust your {{ic|resolv.conf}}:
+
 
+
# echo nameserver 8.8.8.8 > /etc/resolv.conf
+
 
+
If you have an analog modem (dial-up), or an ISDN connection, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
+
 
+
==== Behind a proxy server ====
+
 
+
If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the {{ic|http_proxy}} and {{ic|ftp_proxy}} environment variables. '''[[Proxy|Click here]]''' for more information.
+
 
+
=== Prepare the storage drive ===
+
 
+
{{Warning|Partitioning can destroy data. You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
+
 
+
Absolute beginners are encouraged to use a graphical partitioning tool. [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] is a good example, run from a "live" Linux distribution such as [[Wikipedia:Parted_Magic|Parted Magic]], [[Wikipedia:Ubuntu_(operating_system)|Ubuntu]], [[Wikipedia:Linux_Mint|Linux Mint]], etc. A drive should first be [[partitioning|partitioned]] and the partitions should be formatted with a [[File Systems|file system]] before rebooting.
+
 
+
If you have already done so, proceed to [[#Mount_the_partitions|Mount the partitions]].
+
 
+
Otherwise, see the following example.
+
 
+
==== Example ====
+
 
+
The Arch Linux install media includes the following partitioning tools:
+
 
+
* [[Wikipedia:gdisk|gdisk]] – supports only [[GPT]] partition tables.
+
 
+
* [[Wikipedia:cfdisk|cfdisk]] – supports only [[MBR]] partition tables.
+
 
+
* [[Wikipedia:parted|parted]] – supports both.
+
 
+
This example uses '''cfdisk''', but it can easily be followed using '''gdisk''', which will allow for GPT instead of MBR partitioning.
+
 
+
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[UEFI]] boot:|
+
* If you have a UEFI motherboard, you will need to create an extra [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#Create an UEFI System Partition_in_Linux|UEFI System partition]].
+
* It is recommended to always use GPT for UEFI boot, as some UEFI firmwares do not allow UEFI-MBR boot.}}
+
 
+
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[GPT]] partitioning:|
+
* If you are not dual booting with Windows, then it is advisable to use GPT instead of MBR. Read [[GPT]] for a list of advantages.
+
* If you have a BIOS motherboard (or plan on booting in BIOS compatibility mode) and you want to setup GRUB on a GPT-partitioned drive, you will need to create a 2 MiB "[[GRUB#GPT_specific_instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]". Syslinux doesn't need one.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
+
 
+
# cfdisk /dev/sda
+
 
+
The example system will contain a 15 GB root ({{ic|/}}) partition, a 1 GB {{ic|swap}} partition, and a {{ic|/home}} partition for the remaining space.
+
 
+
It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See [[Partitioning]].
+
 
+
'''Root:'''
+
 
+
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – type in "15360" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Beginning – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Bootable.
+
 
+
'''Swap:'''
+
 
+
* Press the down arrow to move to the free space area.
+
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – type in "1024" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Beginning.
+
* Choose Type (or press {{Keypress|T}}) – press any key to scroll down the list – {{Keypress|Enter}} for 82.
+
 
+
'''Home:'''
+
 
+
* Press the down arrow to move to the free space area.
+
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size).
+
 
+
Here's how it should look like:
+
 
+
Name    Flags    Part Type    FS Type          [Label]      Size (MB)
+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
sda1    Boot      Primary    Linux                            15360
+
sda2              Primary    Linux swap / Solaris              1024
+
sda3              Primary    Linux                            133000*
+
 
+
Double check and make sure that you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing.
+
 
+
If you would like to start over, you can simply select Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit without saving changes and then restart cfdisk.
+
 
+
If you are satisfied, choose Write (or press {{Keypress|Shift+W}}) to finalize and to write the partition table to the drive. Type "yes" and choose Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit cfdisk without making any more changes.
+
 
+
Simply partitioning is not enough; the partitions also need a [[File Systems|filesystem]]. To format the partitions with an ext4 filesystem:
+
 
+
{{Warning|Double check and triple check that it's actually {{ic|/dev/sda1}} that you want to format.}}
+
 
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
+
 
+
Format and activate the swap partition:
+
 
+
# mkswap /dev/sda2
+
# swapon /dev/sda2
+
  
 
=== Mount the partitions ===
 
=== Mount the partitions ===
  
Each partition is identified with a number suffix. For example, {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of the first drive, while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive.
+
Mount the ''root'' partition to the {{ic|/mnt}} directory of the live system:
  
To see the current partition layout:
+
# mount /dev/sd'''xy''' /mnt
  
# lsblk /dev/sda
+
Remaining [[Partitioning#Partition_scheme|partitions]] except ''swap'' may be mounted in any order, after creating the respective mount points. For example, when using a {{ic|/boot}} partition:
  
Pay attention, because the mounting order is important.
+
# mkdir -p /mnt/boot
 +
# mount /dev/sd'''xy''' /mnt/boot
  
First, mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}. Following the example above (yours may be different), it would be:
+
{{ic|/mnt/boot}} is also recommended for mounting the (formatted or already existing) EFI System Partition on a UEFI/GPT system. See [[EFISTUB]] and related articles for alternatives.
  
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
+
== Installation ==
  
Then mount the {{ic|/home}} partition and any other separate partition ({{ic|/boot}}, {{ic|/var}}, etc), if you have any:
+
=== Select the mirrors ===
  
# mkdir /mnt/home
+
Packages to be installed must be downloaded from [[mirror]] servers, which are defined in {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.
# mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/home
+
  
In case you have a separate {{ic|/boot}} partition:
+
The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.
  
# mkdir /mnt/boot
+
The ''pacstrap'' tool used in the next step also installs a copy of the file to the new system, so it is worth getting right.
# mount /dev/sda''X'' /mnt/boot
+
  
In case you have a UEFI motherboard, mount the UEFI partition:
+
=== Install the base packages ===
  
# mkdir /mnt/boot/efi
+
The ''pacstrap'' script installs the {{Grp|base}} group of packages. This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as {{Pkg|btrfs-progs}}; see [https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.both packages.both] for comparison.
# mount /dev/sda''X'' /mnt/boot/efi
+
  
=== Select a mirror ===
+
To build packages from the [[AUR]] or with the [[ABS]], the {{Grp|base-devel}} group is also required. Packages can be [[install]]ed with ''pacman'' anytime after the [[#Change root]] step later, or by appending their names to the ''pacstrap'' command.
  
Before installing, you may want to edit the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by {{ic|pacstrap}} as well, so it's worth getting it right.
+
# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|
+
The {{ic|-i}} switch ensures prompting before package installation. With the base group, the first [[initramfs]] will be generated and installed to the new system's boot path; double-check output prompts {{ic|1===> Image creation successful}} for it.
##
+
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
+
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
+
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
+
##
+
  
<nowiki>Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch</nowiki>
+
== Configuration ==
...}}
+
  
* {{Keypress|Alt+6}} to copy a {{ic|Server}} line.
+
=== fstab ===
* {{Keypress|PageUp}} key to scroll up.
+
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+U}} to paste it at the top of the list.
+
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
+
  
If you want, you can make it the ''only'' mirror available by getting rid of everything else (using {{Keypress|Ctrl+K}}), but it's usually a good idea to have a few more, in case the first one goes offline.
+
Generate an [[fstab]] file. The {{ic|-U}} option indicates [[UUID]]s. Labels can be used instead through the {{ic|-L}} option.
  
{{Tip|
+
# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
* Use the [http://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist/ Mirrorlist Generator] to get an updated list for your country. HTTP mirrors are faster than FTP, because of something called [[Wikipedia:Keepalive|keepalive]]. With FTP, pacman has to send out a signal each time it downloads a package, resulting in a brief pause. For other ways to generate a mirror list, see [[Mirrors#Sorting_mirrors|Sorting mirrors]] and [[Reflector]].
+
* [https://archlinux.org/mirrors/status/ Arch Linux MirrorStatus] reports various aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors, data collection problems, the last time mirrors have been synced, etc.}}
+
  
{{Note|
+
Check the resulting file in {{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}} afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.
* Whenever in the future you change your list of mirrors, always remember to force pacman to refresh all package lists with {{ic|pacman -Syy}}. This is considered to be good practice and will avoid possible headaches. See [[Mirrors]] for more information.
+
* If you're using an older installation medium, your mirrorlist might be outdated, which might lead to problems when updating Arch Linux (see {{Bug|22510}}). Therefore it is advised to obtain the latest mirror information as described below.
+
* Some issues have been reported in the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ Arch Linux forums] regarding network problems that prevent pacman from updating/synchronizing repositories (see [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;68944] and [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;65728]). When installing Arch Linux natively, these issues have been resolved by replacing the default pacman file downloader with an alternative (see [[Improve Pacman Performance]] for more details). When installing Arch Linux as a guest OS in [[VirtualBox]], this issue has also been addressed by using "Host interface" instead of "NAT" in the machine properties.}}
+
  
=== Install the base system ===
+
=== Change root ===
  
The base system is installed using the [https://github.com/falconindy/arch-install-scripts/blob/master/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script.
+
[[chroot#Change root|Chroot]] to the new system:
  
  # pacstrap /mnt base base-devel
+
  # arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash
  
{{Note|If pacman fails to verify your packages, check your system time. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually or with the {{Pkg|ntp}} client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to [[Time]] page for more information on correcting system time.}}
+
=== Locale ===
  
* {{Grp|base}}: Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment.
+
The [[Locale]] defines which language the system uses, and other regional considerations such as currency denomination, numerology, and character sets.
  
* {{Grp|base-devel}}: Extra tools from [core] such as {{ic|make}}, and {{ic|automake}}. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand the system. The ''base-devel'' group will be required to install software from the [[Arch User Repository]].
+
Uncomment {{ic|en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8}} in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, as well as other needed localisations. Save the file, and generate the new locales:
 
+
This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using [[pacman]].
+
 
+
{{Note|Currently, a bug in the {{Pkg|util-linux}} package will display a message during boot (and in the boot log):
+
:: Removing leftover files                          [FAIL]
+
/usr/lib/tmpfiles.d/uuidd.conf Unknown user 'uuidd'
+
See {{Bug|31663}}. This can be fixed by reinstalling {{Pkg|util-linux}} using {{ic|pacman -S util-linux}}. This will likely be fixed in a newer version.}}
+
 
+
=== Generate an fstab ===
+
 
+
Generate an [[fstab]] file with the following command. If you prefer to use UUIDs or labels, add the {{ic|-U}} or {{ic|-L}} option, respectively. It's also a good idea to check it before continuing:
+
 
+
{{Note|If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do '''not''' run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file.}}
+
 
+
# genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
+
# nano /mnt/etc/fstab
+
 
+
Only the root ({{ic|/}}) partition needs {{ic|1}} for the last field. Everything else should have either {{ic|2}} or {{ic|0}} (see [[fstab#Field definitions]]).
+
 
+
Also, {{ic|1=data=ordered}} should be removed. This option will be used automatically whether you specify it or not. No point cluttering up your fstab.
+
 
+
=== Chroot and configure the base system ===
+
 
+
Next, we [[chroot]] into our newly installed system:
+
 
+
# arch-chroot /mnt
+
 
+
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. These can either be created if they do not exist, or edited if you wish to change the defaults.
+
 
+
Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.
+
 
+
==== Locale ====
+
 
+
Locales are used by '''glibc''' and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
+
 
+
There are two files that need editing: {{ic|locale.gen}} and {{ic|locale.conf}}.
+
 
+
* The {{ic|locale.gen}} file is empty by default (everything is commented out) and you need to remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the line(s) you want. You may uncomment more lines than just English (US), as long as you choose their {{ic|UTF-8}} encoding:
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
+
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
+
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
+
  
 
  # locale-gen
 
  # locale-gen
  
This will run on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
+
[[Create]] {{ic|/etc/locale.conf}}, where {{ic|''en_US.UTF-8''}} refers to the '''first column''' of an uncommented entry in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}:
  
* The {{ic|locale.conf}} file doesn't exist by default. Setting only {{ic|LANG}} should be enough. It will act as the default value for all other variables.
+
{{hc|1=/etc/locale.conf|2=
 +
LANG=''en_US.UTF-8''
 +
}}
  
# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
+
If you [[#Set the keyboard layout|set the keyboard layout]], make the changes persistent in {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}}. For example, if {{ic|de-latin1}} was set with ''loadkeys'', and {{ic|lat9w-16}} with ''setfont'', assign the {{ic|KEYMAP}} and {{ic|FONT}} variables accordingly:
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
+
  
{{Note|If you set some other language than English at the beginning of the install, the above commands would be something like:
+
{{hc|1=/etc/vconsole.conf|2=
# echo LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
+
KEYMAP=''de-latin1''
# export LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8
+
FONT=''lat9w-16''
 
}}
 
}}
  
To use other {{ic|LC_*}} variables, first run {{ic|locale}} to see the available options. An advanced example can be found [[Locale#Setting_system-wide_locale|here]].
+
=== Time ===
  
{{Warning|Using the {{ic|LC_ALL}} variable is strongly discouraged because it overrides everything.}}
+
Select a [[time zone]]:
  
==== Console font and keymap ====
+
# tzselect
  
If you set a keymap at [[#Change_the_language|the beginning]] of the install process, load it now, as well, because the environment has changed. For example:
+
Create the symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}}, where {{ic|Zone/Subzone}} is the {{ic|TZ}} value from ''tzselect'':
  
  # loadkeys ''de-latin1''
+
  # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/''Zone''/''SubZone'' /etc/localtime
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
+
  
To make them available after reboot, edit {{ic|vconsole.conf}}:
+
It is recommended to adjust the time skew, and set the time standard to UTC:
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/vconsole.conf|2=
+
# hwclock --systohc --utc
KEYMAP=de-latin1
+
FONT=Lat2-Terminus16
+
FONT_MAP=}}
+
  
* {{ic|KEYMAP}} – Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or X.Org.
+
If other operating systems are installed on the machine, they must be configured accordingly. See [[Time]] for details.
  
* {{ic|FONT}} – Available alternate console fonts reside in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. The default (blank) is safe, but some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. It's recommended that you change it to {{ic|Lat2-Terminus16}}, because according to {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/README.Lat2-Terminus16}}, it claims to support "about 110 language sets".
+
=== Initramfs ===
  
* {{ic|FONT_MAP}} – Defines the console map to load at boot. Read {{ic|man setfont}}. The default (blank) is safe.
+
Because [[mkinitcpio]] was run on installation of {{Pkg|linux}} with ''pacstrap'', most users do not need to regenerate the intramfs image so this step can be skipped.
  
See [[Fonts#Console_fonts|Console fonts]] and {{ic|man vconsole.conf}} for more information.
+
For special configurations, set the correct [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} and [[Mkinitcpio#Image_creation_and_activation|re-generate]] the initramfs image:
  
==== Timezone ====
+
# mkinitcpio -p linux
  
Available time zones and subzones can be found in the {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} directories.
+
=== Boot loader ===
  
To view the available <Zone>, check the directory {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/}}:
+
See [[:Category:Boot loaders]] for available choices and configurations. Choices include [[GRUB]] (BIOS/UEFI), [[systemd-boot]] (UEFI) and [[syslinux]] (BIOS).
  
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/
+
If you have an Intel CPU, in addition to installing a boot loader, install the {{Pkg|intel-ucode}} package and [[Microcode#Enabling_Intel_microcode_updates|enable microcode updates]].
  
Similarly, you can check the contents of directories belonging to a <SubZone>:
+
=== Network configuration ===
  
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe
+
The procedure is similar to [[#Connect to the Internet]] for the live installation environment, except made persistent for subsequent boots.
 
+
Create a symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}} to your zone file {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} using this command:
+
 
+
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime
+
 
+
'''Example:'''
+
 
+
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime
+
 
+
==== Hardware clock ====
+
 
+
Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems. Otherwise, they may overwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts.
+
 
+
You can generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}} automatically by using one of the following commands:
+
 
+
* '''UTC''' (recommended)
+
 
+
: {{Note|Using [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in UTC.}}
+
 
+
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --utc}}
+
 
+
* '''localtime''' (discouraged; used by default in Windows)
+
 
+
: {{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}}
+
 
+
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --localtime}}
+
 
+
If you have (or planning on having) a dual boot setup with Windows:
+
 
+
* Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC. A quick [[Time#UTC_in_Windows|registry fix]] is needed. Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time on-line, because the hardware clock will default back to ''localtime''. If you want such functionality (NTP sync), you should use [[ntpd]] on your Arch Linux installation instead.
+
 
+
* Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to ''localtime'' and remove any time-related daemons from {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}. This will let Windows take care of hardware clock corrections and you will need to remember to boot into Windows at least two times a year (in Spring and Autumn) when [[Wikipedia:Daylight_savings_time|DST]] kicks in. So please don't ask on the forums why the clock is one hour behind or ahead if you usually go for days or weeks without booting into Windows.
+
 
+
==== Kernel modules ====
+
 
+
{{Tip|This is just an example, you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.}}
+
 
+
For kernel modules to load during boot, place a {{ic|*.conf}} file in {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}}, with a name based on the program that uses them.
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf|
+
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.
+
 
+
virtio-net}}
+
 
+
If there are more modules to load per {{ic|*.conf}}, the module names can be separated by newlines. A good example are the [[VirtualBox#Arch_Linux_guests|VirtualBox Guest Additions]].
+
 
+
Empty lines and lines starting with {{ic|#}} or {{ic|;}} are ignored.
+
 
+
==== Daemons ====
+
 
+
{{Tip|The {{ic|DAEMONS}} line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide.}}
+
 
+
[[Daemon|Daemons]] are programs that run in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A few good examples are: a web server that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g. {{ic|httpd}}), an SSH server waiting for a user to log in (e.g. {{ic|sshd}}), a daemon which writes system messages to a log file (e.g. {{ic|syslog-ng}}), a BitTorrent client (e.g. {{ic|rtorrent}}, {{ic|deluged}}), a music player (e.g. {{ic|mpd}}), a firewall (e.g. {{ic|iptables}}), etc. While these are full-featured applications, their work is usually not that visible. Their main advantage is that even if X.Org crashes (or is absent from the system), they will continue to work.
+
 
+
Daemons can be added to the {{ic|DAEMONS}} line in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} and they will start when the system boots, in the order that they are placed. Their names are the equivalent scripts from {{ic|/etc/rc.d/}}.
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/rc.conf|2=
+
DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)}}
+
 
+
* If a script name is prefixed with a bang ({{ic|!}}), it is not run.
+
 
+
* If a script is prefixed with an "at" symbol ({{ic|@}}), it is run in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of this daemon before continuing to the next (this may shorten system boot time). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example, {{ic|mpd}} depends on {{ic|network}}, so backgrounding {{ic|network}} may cause {{ic|mpd}} to break.
+
 
+
A list of available services (and their running status) can be found using the command:
+
 
+
# rc.d list
+
  
 
==== Hostname ====
 
==== Hostname ====
  
Add your ''hostname'' in {{ic|/etc/hostname}}:
+
Set the [[hostname]] by [[add]]ing an entry to {{ic|/etc/hostname}}, where ''myhostname'' is the desired host name:
  
# echo '''myhostname''' > /etc/hostname
+
{{hc|1=/etc/hostname|2=
 +
''myhostname''
 +
}}
  
Set it to your liking (e.g. ''arch''). This is the name of your computer. And add it to {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, as well:
+
It is recommended to append the same host name to {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, for example:
  
{{Warning|This format, including {{ic|localhost}} and your actual hostname, is required for program compatibility. Errors in these entries may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all.}}
+
{{hc|1=/etc/hosts|2=
 
+
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost ''myhostname''
{{hc|# nano /etc/hosts|
+
::1 localhost.localdomain localhost ''myhostname''
127.0.0.1   '''myhostname''' localhost
+
}}
::1         '''myhostname''' localhost
+
   
+
#192.168.1.100 '''myhostname'''.domain.org '''myhostname'''  #Uncomment if you use a static IP and remove this comment.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|{{ic|127.0.0.1}} and {{ic|::1}} are the IPv4 and IPv6 addresses of the local [[Wikipedia:localhost|loopback]] network interface.}}
+
 
+
{{Tip|For convenience, you may also use {{ic|/etc/hosts}} aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web.
+
 
+
192.168.1.90 media
+
192.168.1.88 data
+
 
+
The above example would allow you access to a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.}}
+
 
+
=== Configure the network ===
+
 
+
You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described [[#Establish_an_internet_connection|above]], except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.
+
 
+
{{Note|For more in-depth information on network configration, visit [[Configuring Network]] and [[Wireless Setup]].}}
+
  
 
==== Wired ====
 
==== Wired ====
  
If you only use a single fixed wired network connection, you can use the {{ic|network}} daemon, a simple solution for both dynamic and static IP addressing.
+
When only requiring a single wired connection, [[enable]] the [[dhcpcd]] service:
  
First, ensure that the daemon is listed in the {{ic|DAEMONS}} array:
+
# systemctl enable dhcpcd@''interface''.service
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/rc.conf|2=
+
Where {{ic|''interface''}} is an ethernet [[Network_configuration#Device_names|device name]].
DAEMONS=(... network ...)}}
+
  
Then configure the {{ic|NETWORKING}} section of {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} as follows, depending on your IP addressing type:
+
See [[Network configuration#Configure the IP address]] for other available methods.
 
+
; Dynamic IP
+
 
+
Assuming the network interface to activate at start is {{ic|eth0}}, use this configuration:
+
 
+
interface=eth0
+
address=
+
netmask=
+
gateway=
+
 
+
Your DNS server addresses will be automatically filled in by the {{ic|dhcpcd}} daemon.
+
 
+
; Static IP
+
 
+
If you have a static IP address, use this configuration:
+
 
+
interface=eth0
+
address=192.168.0.2
+
netmask=255.255.255.0
+
broadcast=192.168.0.255
+
gateway=192.168.0.1
+
 
+
You will also need to add your name servers' (DNS) IP addresses and your local domain name to your {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} like this:
+
 
+
nameserver 61.23.173.5
+
nameserver 61.95.849.8
+
search example.com
+
 
+
{{Tip|The {{ic|network}} daemon is suitable for systems connecting wired to a single network. For multiple network configurations (e.g. using a laptop), it is recommended to use a network manager program, such as [[netcfg]], which has been designed to manage both wired and wireless connections.}}
+
  
 
==== Wireless ====
 
==== Wireless ====
  
The {{ic|network}} daemon is not sufficient to handle wireless networking. You will need to install other programs to configure and manage wireless network profiles, such as [[netcfg]].
+
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|iw}}, {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}}, and (for [[Netctl#Wireless_.28WPA-PSK.29|wifi-menu]]) {{Pkg|dialog}} packages:
  
[[NetworkManager]] and [[Wicd]] are other popular alternatives.
+
# pacman -S iw wpa_supplicant dialog
  
* Install the required packages:
+
Additional [[Wireless#Installing driver/firmware|firmware packages]] may also be required. When using ''wifi-menu'', do so after [[#Unmount the partitions and reboot]].
  
# pacman -S wireless_tools netcfg dialog
+
See [[Wireless#Wireless management]] for other available methods.
  
If you use WPA/WPA2 encryption, install:
+
=== Root password ===
  
# pacman -S wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond
+
Set the root [[password]] with:
 
+
If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in the above [[#Wireless|Establish an internet connection]] section and also [[Wireless_Setup#Drivers_and_firmware|here]]), install the package containing your firmware. For example:
+
 
+
# pacman -S zd1211-firmware
+
 
+
* Connect to the network with {{ic|wifi-menu}} (optionally checking the interface name with {{ic|ip link}}, but usually it's {{ic|wlan0}}), which will generate a profile file in {{ic|/etc/network.d}} named after the SSID. There are also templates available in {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples/}} for manual configuration.
+
 
+
# wifi-menu
+
 
+
* Add {{ic|net-auto-wireless}} to the {{ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}, daemon which will connect to known networks and gracefully handle roaming and disconnects:
+
 
+
{{Note|[[Netcfg]] also provides {{ic|net-auto-wired}}, which can be used in conjunction with {{ic|net-auto-wireless}}.}}
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/rc.conf|2=
+
DAEMONS=(... net-auto-wireless ...)}}
+
 
+
* Make sure that the correct wireless interface (usually {{ic|wlan0}}) is set in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}:
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg|2=
+
WIRELESS_INTERFACE="wlan0"}}
+
 
+
It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected, using the {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} variable in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}. If {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} is not set, all known wireless networks will be tried.
+
 
+
==== xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN ====
+
 
+
For xDSL, analog modem (dial-up) and ISDN, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
+
 
+
=== Configure pacman ===
+
 
+
Pacman is the Arch Linux '''pac'''kage '''man'''ager. It is highly recommended to study and learn how to use it. Read {{ic|man pacman}}, have a look at the [[pacman]] article, or check out the [[Pacman Rosetta]] article for a comparison to other popular package managers.
+
 
+
For repository selections and pacman options, edit {{ic|pacman.conf}}:
+
 
+
{{Note|When choosing repos, be sure to uncomment both the {{ic|[''repo_name'']}} header lines, as well as the {{ic|Include}} lines. Failure to do so will result in the selected repository being omitted! This is a very common error.}}
+
 
+
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
+
 
+
Most people will want to use {{ic|[core]}}, {{ic|[extra]}} and {{ic|[community]}}.
+
 
+
If you installed Arch Linux x86_64, it's recommended that you enable the {{ic|[multilib]}} repository, as well (to be able to run both 32 bit and 64 bit applications):
+
 
+
[multilib]
+
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
+
 
+
See [[Official Repositories]] for more information, including details about the purpose of each repository.
+
 
+
For software unavailable directly through pacman, see [[Arch User Repository]].
+
 
+
=== Create an initial ramdisk environment ===
+
 
+
{{Tip|Most users can skip this step and use the defaults provided in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}}. The initramfs image (from the {{ic|/boot}} folder) has already been generated based on this file when the {{Pkg|linux}} package (the Linux kernel) was installed earlier with {{ic|pacstrap}}.}}
+
 
+
Here you need to set the right [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] if the root is on a USB drive, if you use RAID, LVM, or if {{ic|/usr}} is on a separate partition.
+
 
+
Edit {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} as needed and re-generate the initramfs image with:
+
 
+
# mkinitcpio -p linux
+
 
+
=== Set the root password and add a regular user ===
+
 
+
Set the root password with:
+
  
 
  # passwd
 
  # passwd
  
{{Warning|Linux is a multi-user operating system. You should not perform everyday tasks using the root account. It is considered a very poor practice and could be extremely dangerous. The root account should only be used for administrative tasks.}}
+
== Unmount the partitions and reboot ==
  
Then add a normal user account, using one of the two following methods. The user ''archie'' is just an example.
+
Exit from the chroot environment by running {{ic|exit}} or pressing {{ic|Ctrl+D}}.  
  
==== Interactive method ====
+
Partitions will be unmounted automatically by ''systemd'' on shutdown. You may however unmount manually as a safety measure:
  
The {{ic|adduser}} command will prompt for information interactively:
+
# umount -R /mnt
  
{{hc|# adduser|
+
If the partition is "busy", you can find the cause with [[fuser]]. Reboot the computer.
  
Login name for new user []: '''archie'''
+
  # reboot
   
+
User ID ('UID') [ defaults to next available ]:
+
+
Initial group [ users ]:
+
  
Additional groups (comma separated) []: '''audio,video,storage,power,optical,lp,scanner,games'''
+
Remove the installation media, or you may boot back into it. You can log into your new installation as ''root'', using the password you specified with ''passwd''.
  
Home directory [ /home/archie ]:
+
== Post-installation ==
  
Shell [ /bin/bash ]:
+
Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready to be built into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. You are now ''strongly'' advised to read the [[General recommendations]] article, especially the first two sections. Its other sections provide links to post-installation tutorials like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad.
 
+
Expiry date (YYYY-MM-DD) []:}}
+
 
+
As shown in the example, you are advised to enter values only for the {{ic|Login name}}, {{ic|Additional groups}}, and leave the other fields empty.
+
 
+
The {{ic|Additional groups}} list from the example is a typical choice for a desktop system, hence it is recommended especially for beginners:
+
 
+
* '''audio''' - for tasks involving sound card and related software.
+
* '''video''' - for video tasks and hardware acceleration.
+
* '''storage''' - for managing storage devices.
+
* '''power''' - for allowing interactions with power options (e.g. shutdown with power button).
+
* '''optical''' - for managing tasks pertaining to the optical drive(s).
+
* '''lp''' - for managing printing tasks.
+
* '''scanner''' - for using a scanner.
+
* '''games''' - for write permission for games in the games group.
+
 
+
For additional information about listed and other groups, see [[Groups#User_groups|User groups]].
+
 
+
Now you will be presented with a preview of your new account, and the option to cancel or continue operations. After pressing {{Keypress|Enter}} the account will be created, and you will be prompted to enter additional, optional information for the new user (e.g. the full name). After that, you will be asked to enter the password for your account.
+
 
+
==== Non-interactive method ====
+
 
+
# useradd -m -g users -G audio,video,storage,power,optical,lp,scanner,games -s /bin/bash archie
+
# passwd archie
+
 
+
To enter additional information, you can use the {{ic|chfn}} command.
+
 
+
==== Deleting the user account ====
+
 
+
In the event of an error, or if you wish to delete this user account in favor of a different name or for any other reason, use {{ic|userdel}}:
+
 
+
# userdel -r [username]
+
 
+
The {{ic|-r}} option will remove the user's home directory and its content, along with the the user's settings (the so-called "dot" files).
+
 
+
==== More information ====
+
 
+
Read [[Users and Groups]] for further information. If you want to change the name of your user or any existing user, consult the [[Change username]] page. You may also check the man pages for {{ic|usermod(8)}} and {{ic|gpasswd(8)}}.
+
 
+
=== Install and configure a bootloader ===
+
 
+
==== For BIOS motherboards ====
+
 
+
For BIOS systems, there are three bootloaders - Syslinux, GRUB, and [[LILO]]. Choose the bootloader as per your convenience. Below only Syslinux and GRUB are explained.
+
 
+
* Syslinux is (currently) limited to loading only files from the partition where it was installed. Its configuration file is considered to be easier to understand. An example configuration can be found [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1109328#p1109328 here].
+
 
+
* GRUB is more feature-rich and supports more complex scenarios. Its configuration file(s) is more similar to a scripting language, which may be difficult for beginners to manually write. It is recommended that they automatically generate one.
+
 
+
===== Syslinux =====
+
 
+
Install the {{Pkg|syslinux}} package and then use the {{ic|syslinux-install_update}} script to automatically ''install'' the files ({{ic|-i}}), mark the partition ''active'' by setting the boot flag ({{ic|-a}}), and install the ''MBR'' boot code ({{ic|-m}}):
+
 
+
{{Note|If you have partitioned the drive as GPT, install {{Pkg|gptfdisk}} package, as well ({{ic|pacman -S gptfdisk}}), because it contains {{ic|sgdisk}}, which will be used to set the GPT-specific boot flag.}}
+
 
+
# pacman -S syslinux
+
# syslinux-install_update -iam
+
 
+
Configure {{ic|syslinux.cfg}} to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot. Change {{ic|/dev/sda3}} to reflect your root partition ''(if you partitioned your drive as we did in [[#Prepare_the_storage_drive|the example]], your root partition is sda1)''. Do the same for the fallback entry.
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg|2=
+
...
+
LABEL arch
+
        ...
+
        APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro
+
        ...}}
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see [[Syslinux]].
+
 
+
===== GRUB =====
+
 
+
{{Note|For GPT-partitioned drives on BIOS motherboards, GRUB needs a 2 MiB "[[GRUB#GPT_specific_instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]".}}
+
 
+
{{Note|Please do not use {{ic|/dev/sda''X''}} in the below command. You may use {{ic|/dev/sdb}} if you installed Arch there, as long as you set that drive to boot first from the BIOS settings.}}
+
 
+
# pacman -S grub-bios
+
# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck /dev/sda
+
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
+
 
+
While using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
+
 
+
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
+
 
+
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
+
 
+
==== For UEFI motherboards ====
+
 
+
For UEFI boot, the drive needs to be GPT-partitioned, and a UEFI System Partition (512 MiB or higher, FAT32, type {{ic|EF00}}) must be present and mounted on {{ic|/boot/efi}}. If you have followed this guide from the beginning, you've already done all of these.
+
 
+
While there are other [[UEFI_Bootloaders|UEFI bootloaders]] available, using EFISTUB is recommended. Below are instructions for setting up EFISTUB and GRUB.
+
 
+
{{Note|Syslinux does not yet support UEFI.}}
+
 
+
===== EFISTUB =====
+
 
+
The Linux kernel can act as its own bootloader using EFISTUB. This is the UEFI boot method recommended by developers and simpler compared to {{ic|grub-efi-x86_64}}. The below steps set up rEFInd (a fork of rEFIt) to provide a menu for EFISTUB kernels, as well as for booting other UEFI bootloaders. You can also use [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Using_gummiboot|gummiboot]] (not tested) instead of rEFInd. Both rEFInd and gummiboot can detect Windows UEFI bootloader in case of dual-boot.
+
 
+
1. Boot in UEFI mode and load {{ic|efivars}} kernel module before chrooting:
+
 
+
# modprobe efivars      # before chrooting
+
 
+
2. Mount the UEFISYS partition at {{ic|/mnt/boot/efi}}, chroot and [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Setting_up_EFISTUB|copy the kernel and initramfs files]] to {{ic|/boot/efi}}.
+
 
+
3. Every time the kernel and initramfs files are updated in {{ic|/boot}}, they need to be updated in {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch}}. This can be automated either [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Sync_EFISTUB_Kernel_in_UEFISYS_partition_using_Systemd|using systemd]] or [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Sync_EFISTUB_Kernel_in_UEFISYS_partition_using_Incron|using incron]] (for non-systemd setups).
+
 
+
4. Install the following packages:
+
 
+
# pacman -S refind-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
+
 
+
5. Install rEFInd to the UEFISYS partition (summarized from [[UEFI Bootloaders#Using rEFInd]]):
+
 
+
# mkdir -p /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind
+
# cp /usr/lib/refind/refindx64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind/refindx64.efi
+
# cp /usr/lib/refind/config/refind.conf /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind/refind.conf
+
# cp -r /usr/share/refind/icons /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind/icons
+
 
+
6. Create a {{ic|refind_linux.conf}} file with the kernel parameters to be used by rEFInd:
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind_linux.conf|2=
+
"Boot to X"          "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=graphical.target"
+
"Boot to console"    "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=multi-user.target"}}
+
 
+
7. Add rEFInd to UEFI boot menu using [[UEFI#efibootmgr|efibootmgr]].
+
 
+
{{Warning|Using {{ic|efibootmgr}} on Apple Macs may brick the firmware and may need reflash of the motherboard ROM. For Macs, use {{AUR|mactel-boot}}, or "bless" from within Mac OS X.}}
+
 
+
# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Arch Linux (rEFInd)" -l '\\EFI\\arch\\refind\\refindx64.efi'
+
 
+
{{Note|In the above command, X and Y denote the drive and partition of the UEFISYS partition. For example, in {{ic|/dev/sdc5}}, X is "c" and Y is "5".}}
+
 
+
8. (Optional) As a fallback, in case {{ic|efibootmgr}} created boot entry does not work, copy {{ic|refindx64.efi}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi}} as follows:
+
 
+
# cp -r /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind/* /boot/efi/EFI/boot/
+
# mv /boot/efi/EFI/boot/refindx64.efi to /boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi
+
 
+
===== GRUB =====
+
 
+
{{Note|In case you have a system with 32-bit EFI, like pre-2008 Macs, install {{ic|grub-efi-i386}} instead, and use {{ic|1=--target=i386-efi}}.}}
+
 
+
# pacman -S grub-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
+
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
+
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
+
 
+
Run the next command to create a menu entry for GRUB in the UEFI boot menu. See [[UEFI#efibootmgr|efibootmgr]] for more info.
+
 
+
# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Arch Linux (GRUB)" -l '\\EFI\\arch_grub\\grubx64.efi'
+
 
+
While using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
+
 
+
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
+
 
+
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
+
 
+
=== Update the system ===
+
 
+
{{Warning|1=System updates should be performed with care. It is very important to read and understand [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=57205 this] before proceeding.}}
+
 
+
Often, the developers will provide important information about required configurations and modifications for known issues. The Arch Linux user is expected to consult these places before performing an upgrade:
+
 
+
* [https://archlinux.org/news/ Arch news]. If you did not read this before an upgrade and you encounter an error, check the news ''before'' you post a question on the forum!
+
* [https://archlinux.org/pipermail/arch-announce/ Announce mailing list].
+
 
+
Sync, refresh the package database, and upgrade your entire system with:
+
 
+
# pacman -Syu
+
 
+
Or, same thing:
+
 
+
# pacman --sync --refresh --sysupgrade
+
 
+
If you are prompted to upgrade pacman itself at this point, respond by pressing {{Keypress|Y}}, and then reissue the {{ic|pacman -Syu}} command when finished.
+
 
+
{{Note|Occasionally, configuration changes may take place requiring user action during an update; read pacman's output for any pertinent information. See [[Pacnew and Pacsave Files]] for more details.}}
+
 
+
Keep in mind that Arch is a '''rolling release''' distribution. This means the user doesn't have to reinstall or perform elaborate system rebuilds to upgrade to the newest version. Issuing {{ic|pacman -Syu}} periodically (and noting the above warning) keeps the entire system up-to-date and on the bleeding edge. At the end of this upgrade, the system will be completely current.
+
 
+
See [[Pacman]] and [[FAQ#Package Management]] for answers regarding updating and managing packages.
+
 
+
=== Unmount the partitions and reboot ===
+
 
+
Exit from the chroot environment:
+
 
+
# exit
+
 
+
Since the partitions are mounted under {{ic|/mnt}}, we use the following command to unmount them:
+
 
+
# umount /mnt/{boot,home,}
+
 
+
Reboot the computer:
+
 
+
# reboot
+
  
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media, otherwise you will boot back into it.}}<noinclude>
+
For particular areas of interest, see the [[List of applications]].
{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>
+

Latest revision as of 14:01, 24 July 2016

This document will guide you through the process of installing Arch Linux using the Arch Install Scripts. Before installing, you are advised to skim over the FAQ.

The community-maintained ArchWiki is the primary resource that should be consulted if issues arise. The IRC channel (irc://irc.freenode.net/#archlinux) and the forums are also excellent resources if an answer cannot be found elsewhere. In accordance with the Arch Way, you are encouraged to type man command to read the man page of any command you are unfamiliar with.

Tip: This guide is accessible from the live installation with the ELinks browser, after the #Connect to the Internet step. This can be done in a new virtual console, switching (Alt+arrow) between the console containing the web page, and the console where you are performing the installation. Similarly, the #archlinux IRC can be accessed using irssi.

Preparation

Arch Linux should run on any i686 compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the base group should take less than 800 MB of disk space.

See Category:Getting and installing Arch for instructions on downloading the installation medium, and methods for booting it to the target machine(s). This guide assumes you use the latest available version.

After booting into the installation media, you will be automatically logged in as the root user and presented with a Zsh shell prompt. For modifying or creating configuration files, typically in /etc, nano or vim are suggested.

UEFI mode

In case you have a UEFI motherboard with UEFI mode enabled, the CD/USB will automatically launch Arch Linux via systemd-boot.

To verify you are booted in UEFI mode, check that the following directory is populated:

# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars

See UEFI#UEFI Variables for details.

Set the keyboard layout

The default console keymap is set to us. Available choices can be listed with ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz.

Note: localectl list-keymaps does not work due to bug FS#46725.

For example, to change the layout to de-latin1, run:

# loadkeys de-latin1

If certain characters appear as white squares or other symbols, change the console font. For example:

# setfont lat9w-16

Connect to the Internet

The dhcpcd daemon is enabled on boot for wired devices, and will attempt to start a connection. To access captive portal login forms, use the ELinks browser.

Verify a connection was established, for example with ping archlinux.org. If no connection is available, see Network configuration or follow the below netctl examples. Otherwise, continue to #Update the system clock.

Netctl preparation

To prevent conflicts, stop the enabled dhcpcd service first, replacing enp0s25 with the correct wired interface:

# systemctl stop dhcpcd@enp0s25.service

Interfaces can be listed using ip link, or iw dev for wireless devices. They are prefixed with en (ethernet), wl (WLAN), or ww (WWAN).

Wireless

List available networks, and make a connection for a specified interface:

# wifi-menu -o wlp2s0

The resulting configuration file is stored in /etc/netctl. For networks which require both a username and password, see WPA2 Enterprise#netctl.

Other

Several example profiles, such as for configuring a static IP address, are available. Copy the required one to /etc/netctl, for example ethernet-static:

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/ethernet-static /etc/netctl

Adjust the copy as needed, and enable it:

# netctl start ethernet-static

Update the system clock

Use systemd-timesyncd to ensure that your system clock is accurate. To start it:

# timedatectl set-ntp true

To check the service status, use timedatectl status.

Prepare the storage devices

Warning: In general, partitioning or formatting will make existing data inaccessible and subject to being overwritten, i.e. destroyed, by subsequent operations. For this reason, all data that needs to be preserved must be backed up before proceeding.

In this step, the storage devices that will be used by the new system will be prepared. Read Partitioning for a more general overview.

Users intending to create stacked block devices for LVM, disk encryption or RAID, should keep those instructions in mind when preparing the partitions. If intending to install to a USB flash key, see Installing Arch Linux on a USB key.

Identify the devices

Identify the devices where the new system will be installed:

# lsblk

Not all devices listed are viable mediums for installation; results ending in rom, loop or airoot can be ignored.

Note: In the sections below, the sdxy notation will be used (x for the device, y for an existing partition).

If the existing partition scheme does not need to be changed, you may skip to #Format the partitions.

Partition the devices

Partitioning a hard drive divides the available space into sections that can be accessed independently. The required information is stored in a partition table using a format such as MBR or GPT. Existing tables can be printed with parted /dev/sdx print or fdisk -l /dev/sdx.

To partition devices, use a partitioning tool compatible to the chosen type of partition table. Incompatible tools may result in the destruction of that table, along with existing partitions or data. Choices include:

Name MBR GPT Variants
fdisk Yes Yes sfdisk, cfdisk
gdisk No Yes cgdisk, sgdisk
parted Yes Yes GParted

The examples below demonstrate a basic partition scheme for both types of partition tables. They assume that a new, contiguous layout is applied to a single device in /dev/sdx. Necessary changes to device names and partition numbers must be done beforehand.

UEFI/GPT example layout
Mount point Partition Partition type (GUID) Bootable flag Suggested size
/boot /dev/sdx1 EFI System Partition Yes 260–512 MiB
[SWAP] /dev/sdx2 Linux swap No More than 512 MiB
/ /dev/sdx3 Linux No Remainder of the device
MBR/BIOS example layout
Mount point Partition Partition type Bootable flag Suggested size
[SWAP] /dev/sdx1 Linux swap No More than 512 MiB
/ /dev/sdx2 Linux Yes Remainder of the device

Format the partitions

Warning: If dual-booting with an existing installation of Windows on a UEFI/GPT system, avoid reformatting the UEFI partition, as this includes the Windows .efi file required to boot it.

Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system, except for swap partitions. All available partitions on the intended installation device can be listed with the following command:

# lsblk /dev/sdx

With the exceptions noted below, it is recommended to use the ext4 file system:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdxy

If a swap partition was created, it must be set up and activated with:

# mkswap /dev/sdxy
# swapon /dev/sdxy

If a new UEFI system partition has been created on a UEFI/GPT system, it must be formatted with a fat32 file system:

# mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sdxy

Mount the partitions

Mount the root partition to the /mnt directory of the live system:

# mount /dev/sdxy /mnt

Remaining partitions except swap may be mounted in any order, after creating the respective mount points. For example, when using a /boot partition:

# mkdir -p /mnt/boot
# mount /dev/sdxy /mnt/boot

/mnt/boot is also recommended for mounting the (formatted or already existing) EFI System Partition on a UEFI/GPT system. See EFISTUB and related articles for alternatives.

Installation

Select the mirrors

Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.

The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.

The pacstrap tool used in the next step also installs a copy of the file to the new system, so it is worth getting right.

Install the base packages

The pacstrap script installs the base group of packages. This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as btrfs-progs; see packages.both for comparison.

To build packages from the AUR or with the ABS, the base-devel group is also required. Packages can be installed with pacman anytime after the #Change root step later, or by appending their names to the pacstrap command.

# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel

The -i switch ensures prompting before package installation. With the base group, the first initramfs will be generated and installed to the new system's boot path; double-check output prompts ==> Image creation successful for it.

Configuration

fstab

Generate an fstab file. The -U option indicates UUIDs. Labels can be used instead through the -L option.

# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

Check the resulting file in /mnt/etc/fstab afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.

Change root

Chroot to the new system:

# arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash

Locale

The Locale defines which language the system uses, and other regional considerations such as currency denomination, numerology, and character sets.

Uncomment en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 in /etc/locale.gen, as well as other needed localisations. Save the file, and generate the new locales:

# locale-gen

Create /etc/locale.conf, where en_US.UTF-8 refers to the first column of an uncommented entry in /etc/locale.gen:

/etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.UTF-8

If you set the keyboard layout, make the changes persistent in /etc/vconsole.conf. For example, if de-latin1 was set with loadkeys, and lat9w-16 with setfont, assign the KEYMAP and FONT variables accordingly:

/etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1
FONT=lat9w-16

Time

Select a time zone:

# tzselect

Create the symbolic link /etc/localtime, where Zone/Subzone is the TZ value from tzselect:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Zone/SubZone /etc/localtime

It is recommended to adjust the time skew, and set the time standard to UTC:

# hwclock --systohc --utc

If other operating systems are installed on the machine, they must be configured accordingly. See Time for details.

Initramfs

Because mkinitcpio was run on installation of linux with pacstrap, most users do not need to regenerate the intramfs image so this step can be skipped.

For special configurations, set the correct hooks in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf and re-generate the initramfs image:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Boot loader

See Category:Boot loaders for available choices and configurations. Choices include GRUB (BIOS/UEFI), systemd-boot (UEFI) and syslinux (BIOS).

If you have an Intel CPU, in addition to installing a boot loader, install the intel-ucode package and enable microcode updates.

Network configuration

The procedure is similar to #Connect to the Internet for the live installation environment, except made persistent for subsequent boots.

Hostname

Set the hostname by adding an entry to /etc/hostname, where myhostname is the desired host name:

/etc/hostname
myhostname

It is recommended to append the same host name to /etc/hosts, for example:

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1	localhost.localdomain	localhost	 myhostname
::1		localhost.localdomain	localhost	 myhostname

Wired

When only requiring a single wired connection, enable the dhcpcd service:

# systemctl enable dhcpcd@interface.service

Where interface is an ethernet device name.

See Network configuration#Configure the IP address for other available methods.

Wireless

Install the iw, wpa_supplicant, and (for wifi-menu) dialog packages:

# pacman -S iw wpa_supplicant dialog

Additional firmware packages may also be required. When using wifi-menu, do so after #Unmount the partitions and reboot.

See Wireless#Wireless management for other available methods.

Root password

Set the root password with:

# passwd

Unmount the partitions and reboot

Exit from the chroot environment by running exit or pressing Ctrl+D.

Partitions will be unmounted automatically by systemd on shutdown. You may however unmount manually as a safety measure:

# umount -R /mnt

If the partition is "busy", you can find the cause with fuser. Reboot the computer.

# reboot

Remove the installation media, or you may boot back into it. You can log into your new installation as root, using the password you specified with passwd.

Post-installation

Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready to be built into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. You are now strongly advised to read the General recommendations article, especially the first two sections. Its other sections provide links to post-installation tutorials like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad.

For particular areas of interest, see the List of applications.