Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide"

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  # cfdisk /dev/sda
 
  # cfdisk /dev/sda
  
The example system will contain a 15GB root ({{ic|/}}) partition, a 1GB {{ic|swap}} partition, and a {{ic|/home}} partition for the remaining space.
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The example system will contain a 15 GB root ({{ic|/}}) partition, a 1 GB {{ic|swap}} partition, and a {{ic|/home}} partition for the remaining space.
  
 
It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See [[Partitioning]].
 
It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See [[Partitioning]].

Revision as of 20:12, 10 September 2012

Tip: This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. Click here if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.

Installation

You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root.

Change the language

Tip: These are optional for the majority of users. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the Wi-Fi password, or if you would like to receive system messages (e.g. possible errors) in your own language.

By default, the keyboard layout is set to us. If you have a non-US keyboard layout, run:

# loadkeys layout

...where layout can be fr, uk, be-latin1, etc. See here for a comprehensive list.

The font should also be changed, because most languages use more glyphs than the 26 letter English alphabet. Otherwise some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. Note that the name is case-sensitive, so please type it exactly as you see it:

# setfont Lat2-Terminus16

By default, the language is set to English (US). If you would like to change the language for the install process (German, in this example), remove the # in front of the locale you want from /etc/locale.gen, along with English (US). Please choose the UTF-8 entry.

Use Template:Keypress to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press Template:Keypress and Template:Keypress to use the same filename.

# nano /etc/locale.gen
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8
# locale-gen
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8

Remember, Template:Keypress activates and deactivates the keymap.

Establish an internet connection

The dhcpcd network daemon is started automatically at boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection, if available. Try pinging a website to see if it was successful. And since Google is always on...

# ping -c 3 www.google.com
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=18.2 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=16.6 ms

--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms

If you get a ping: unknown host error, you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below.

Otherwise, move on to Prepare the storage drive.

Wired

Follow this procedure if you need wired connectivity (Ethernet) during the installation process.

If your computer is connected to an Ethernet network, in most cases, you will have one interface, called eth0. If you have additional network cards (apart from the one integrated on the motherboard, for example), their name will follow the sequence eth1, eth2, etc.

You need to know these settings:

  • Static IP address.
  • Subnet mask.
  • Gateway's IP address.
  • Name servers' (DNS) IP addresses.
  • Domain name (unless you're on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).

Activate the connected Ethernet interface, e.g. for eth0:

# ip link set eth0 up

Add the address:

# ip addr add <ip address>/<subnetmask> dev <interface>

For example:

# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev eth0

For more options, run man ip.

Add your gateway like this, substituting your own gateway's IP address:

# ip route add default via <ip address>

For example:

# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1

Edit resolv.conf, substituting your name servers' IP addresses and your local domain name:

# nano /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 61.23.173.5
nameserver 61.95.849.8
search example.com
Note: Currently, you may include a maximum of 3 nameserver lines.

You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed Configuring Network page.

Wireless

Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (Wi-Fi) during the installation process.

The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quick-start procedure executed at this point in the installation will initialize your wireless hardware for use in the live environment of the installation media. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it.

Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.

Note: The following examples use wlan0 for the interface and linksys for the ESSID. Remember to change these values according to your setup.

The basic procedure will be:

  • (optional) Identify the wireless interface:
# lspci | grep -i net

Or, if using a USB adapter:

# lsusb
  • Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with iwconfig:
Note: If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see Wireless Setup for more detailed information.
# iwconfig
lo no wireless extensions.
eth0 no wireless extensions.
wlan0    unassociated  ESSID:""
         Mode:Managed  Channel=0  Access Point: Not-Associated
         Bit Rate:0 kb/s   Tx-Power=20 dBm   Sensitivity=8/0
         Retry limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
         Power Management:off
         Link Quality:0  Signal level:0  Noise level:0
         Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
         Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0

In this example, wlan0 is the available wireless interface.

  • Bring the interface up with:
# ip link set wlan0 up

A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:

# ip link set wlan0 up
SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory

If unsure, invoke dmesg to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset.

Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:

# dmesg | grep firmware
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode

If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.

Warning: Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under /usr/lib/firmware in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it! Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See Wireless Setup if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset.

Next, use netcfg's wifi-menu to connect to a network:

# wifi-menu wlan0

You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed Wireless Setup page.

xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN

If you have a router in bridge mode, run:

# pppoe-setup

To use these settings and connect to your ISP, run:

# pppoe-start

For an analog modem (dial-up) and ISDN, see Direct Modem Connection.

Behind a proxy server

If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the http_proxy and ftp_proxy environment variables. Click here for more information.

Prepare the storage drive

Warning: Partitioning can destroy data. You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.

Absolute beginners are encouraged to use a graphical partitioning tool. GParted is a good example, ran from a "live" Linux distribution such as Parted Magic, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, etc. See Partitioning for some general tips and make sure to format the partitions with a filesystem (e.g. ext4, btrfs, etc) before rebooting.

If you have already done so, proceed to Mount the partitions.

Otherwise, see the following example.

Example

The Arch Linux install media includes the following partitioning tools:

  • cfdisk – supports only MBR partition tables.
  • gdisk – supports only GPT partition tables.

This example uses cfdisk, but it can be easily followed using gdisk, which will allow for GPT partitioning.

Note: If you have a UEFI motherboard you will need to create an extra partition called UEFI System partition. Read this article.
Note: If you want to setup GRUB in BIOS-GPT mode, then you need to create a 2 MiB "BIOS Boot Partition". See GRUB#GPT_specific_instructions for more info.
Note: If you are installing to a USB flash key, see Installing Arch Linux on a USB key.
Note: If you are not dual booting with Windows, then it is advisable to use GPT instead of MBR. GPT partitioning can only be done with gdisk or parted. Read GPT for the list of advantages.
# cfdisk /dev/sda

The example system will contain a 15 GB root (/) partition, a 1 GB swap partition, and a /home partition for the remaining space.

It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See Partitioning.

Root:

Swap:

Home:

Here's how it should look like:

Name    Flags     Part Type    FS Type          [Label]       Size (MB)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
sda1    Boot       Primary     Linux                             15440
sda2               Primary     Linux swap / Solaris              1024
sda3               Primary     Linux                             133000*

Double check and make sure that you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing.

If you would like to start over, you can simply select Quit (or press Template:Keypress) to exit without saving changes and then restart cfdisk.

If you are satisfied, choose Write (or press Template:Keypress) to finalize and to write the partition table to the drive. Type "yes" and choose Quit (or press Template:Keypress) to exit cfdisk without making any more changes.

Simply partitioning is not enough; the partitions also need a filesystem. To format the partitions with an ext4 filesystem:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

Format and activate the swap partition:

# mkswap /dev/sda2
# swapon /dev/sda2

Mount the partitions

Each partition is identified with a number suffix. For example, sda1 specifies the first partition of the first drive, while sda designates the entire drive.

To see the current partition layout:

# lsblk /dev/sda

Pay attention, because the mounting order is important.

First, mount the root partition on /mnt. Following the example above (yours may be different), it would be:

# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

Then mount any other separate partition (/home, /boot, /var, etc), if you have any:

# mkdir /mnt/home
# mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/home
# mkdir /mnt/boot
# mount /dev/sdax /mnt/boot
# mkdir /mnt/boot/efi
# mount /dev/sdax /mnt/boot/efi   #The UEFI partition, in case you have a UEFI motherboard.

Select a mirror

Before installing, you may want to edit the mirrorlist file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by pacstrap as well, so it's worth getting it right.

# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
##
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
##

Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch
...

If you want, you can make it the only mirror available by getting rid of everything else (using Template:Keypress), but it's usually a good idea to have a few more, in case the first one goes offline.

Tip: Use the Mirrorlist Generator to get an updated list for your country. HTTP mirrors are faster than FTP, because of something called keepalive. With FTP, pacman has to send out a signal each time it downloads a package, resulting in a brief pause.

Install the base system

The base system is installed using the pacstrap script.

# pacstrap /mnt base base-devel
  • base: Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment.
  • base-devel: Extra tools from [core] such as make, and automake. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand the system. The base-devel group will be required to install software from the Arch User Repository.

This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using pacman.

Note: If pacman fails to verify your packages, check your system time. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually or with the ntp client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to Time page for more information on correcting system time.

Generate an fstab

Generate an fstab file with the following command. If you prefer to use UUIDs or labels, add the -U or -L option, respectively. It's also a good idea to check it before continuing:

# genfstab -p /mnt > /mnt/etc/fstab
# nano /mnt/etc/fstab

Only the root (/) partition needs 1 for the last field. Everything else should have either 2 or 0 (see Field definitions).

Also, data=ordered should be removed because it will be automatically used whether you specify it or not.

Chroot and configure the base system

Next, we chroot into our newly installed system:

# arch-chroot /mnt

At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. These can either be created if they do not exist, or edited if you wish to change the defaults.

Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.

Locale

Locales are used by glibc and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.

There are two files that need editing: locale.gen and locale.conf.

  • The locale.gen file is empty by default (everything is commented out) and you need to remove the # in front of the line(s) you want. You may uncomment more lines than just English (US), as long as you choose their UTF-8 encoding:
# nano /etc/locale.gen
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8
# locale-gen

This will run on every glibc upgrade, generating all the locales specified in /etc/locale.gen.

  • The locale.conf file doesn't exist by default. Setting only LANG should be enough. It will act as the default value for all other variables.
# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
Note: If you set some other language than English at the beginning of the install, the above commands would be something like:
# echo LANG=de_DE.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8

To use other LC_* variables, first run locale to see the available options. An advanced example can be found here.

Warning: Using the LC_ALL variable is strongly discouraged because it overrides everything.

Console font and keymap

If you set a keymap at the beginning of the install process, load it now, as well, because the environment has changed. For example:

# loadkeys de-latin1
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16

To make them available after reboot, edit vconsole.conf:

# nano /etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1
FONT=Lat2-Terminus16
FONT_MAP=
  • KEYMAP – Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or Xorg.
  • FONT – Available alternate console fonts reside in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/. The default (blank) is safe, but some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. It's recommended that you change it to Lat2-Terminus16, because according to /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/README.Lat2-Terminus16, it claims to support "about 110 language sets".
  • FONT_MAP – Defines the console map to load at boot. Read man setfont. The default (blank) is safe.

See Console fonts and man vconsole.conf for more information.

Timezone

Available time zones and subzones can be found in the /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> directories.

To view the available <Zone>, check the directory /usr/share/zoneinfo/:

# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/

Similarly, you can check the contents of directories belonging to a <SubZone>:

# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe

Create a symbolic link /etc/localtime to your zone file /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> using this command:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime

Example:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime

If you are using systemd's timedated, you might wish to also edit the file /etc/timezone and write your Zone/Subzone.

Example:

# nano /etc/timezone
Europe/Minsk

Read man tzset for more options.

The need for /etc/timezone might go away in the future [1].

Hardware clock

Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems. Otherwise, they may overwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts.

You can generate /etc/adjtime automatically by using one of the following commands:

  • UTC (recommended)
Note: Using UTC for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in UTC.
# hwclock --systohc --utc
  • localtime (discouraged; used by default in Windows)
Warning: Using localtime may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for localtime.
# hwclock --systohc --localtime

If you have (or planning on having) a dual boot setup with Windows:

  • Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC. A quick registry fix is needed. Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time on-line, because the hardware clock will default back to localtime. If you want such functionality (NTP sync), you should use ntpd on your Arch Linux installation instead.
  • Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to localtime and remove any time-related daemons from /etc/rc.conf. This will let Windows take care of hardware clock corrections and you will need to remember to boot into Windows at least two times a year (in Spring and Autumn) when DTS kicks in. So please don't ask on the forums why the clock is one hour behind or ahead if you usually go for days or weeks without booting into Windows.

Kernel modules

Tip: This is just an example, you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.

For kernel modules to load during boot, place a *.conf file in /etc/modules-load.d/, with a name based on the program that uses them.

# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.

virtio-net

If there are more modules to load per *.conf, the module names can be separated by newlines. A good example can be found here.

Empty lines and lines starting with # or ; are ignored.

Daemons

Tip: The DAEMONS line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide.

Daemons are programs that run in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A few good examples are: a web server that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g. httpd), an SSH server waiting for a user to log in (e.g. sshd), a daemon which writes system messages to a log file (e.g. syslog-ng), a BitTorrent client (e.g. rtorrent, deluged), a music player (e.g. mpd), a login manager (e.g. gdm, slim), a firewall (e.g. iptables), etc. While these are full-featured applications, their work is usually not that visible. Their main advantage is that even if Xorg crashes (or is absent from the system), they will continue to work.

Daemons can be added to the DAEMONS line in /etc/rc.conf and they will start when the system boots, in the order that they are placed. Their names are the equivalent scripts from /etc/rc.d/.

# nano /etc/rc.conf
DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)
  • If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not run.
  • If a script is prefixed with an "at" symbol (@), it is run in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of this daemon before continuing to the next (this may shorten system boot time). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example, mpd depends on network, so backgrounding network may cause mpd to break.

A list of available services (and their running status) can be found using the command:

# rc.d list

Hostname

Add your hostname in /etc/hostname:

# echo myhostname > /etc/hostname

Set it to your liking (e.g. arch). This is the name of your computer. And add it to /etc/hosts, as well:

Warning: This format, including localhost and your actual hostname, is required for program compatibility. Errors in these entries may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all.
# nano /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1   myhostname localhost
::1         myhostname localhost
 
#192.168.1.100 myhostname.domain.org myhostname   #Uncomment if you use a static IP and remove this comment.
Note: ::1 is the IPv6 equivalent of 127.0.0.1 and should be added.
Tip: For convenience, you may also use /etc/hosts aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web.
192.168.1.90 media
192.168.1.88 data
The above example would allow you access to a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.

Configure the network

You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described above, except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.

Note: For more in-depth information on network configration, visit Configuring Network and Wireless Setup.

Wired

If you only use a single fixed wired network connection, you can use the network daemon, a simple solution for both dynamic and static IP addressing.

First, ensure that the daemon is listed in the DAEMONS array:

# nano /etc/rc.conf
DAEMONS=(... network ...)

Then configure the NETWORKING section of /etc/rc.conf as follows, depending on your IP addressing type:

Dynamic IP

Assuming the network interface to activate at start is eth0, use this configuration:

interface=eth0
address=
netmask=
gateway=

Your DNS server addresses will be automatically filled in by the dhcpcd daemon.

Static IP

If you have a static IP address, use this configuration:

interface=eth0
address=192.168.0.2
netmask=255.255.255.0
broadcast=192.168.0.255
gateway=192.168.0.1

You will also need to add your name servers' (DNS) IP addresses and your local domain name to your /etc/resolv.conf like this:

nameserver 61.23.173.5
nameserver 61.95.849.8
search example.com
Tip: The network daemon is suitable for systems connecting wired to a single network. For multiple network configurations (e.g. using a laptop), it is recommended to use a network manager program, such as netcfg, which has been designed to manage both wired and wireless connections.

Wireless

The network daemon is not sufficient to handle wireless networking. You will need to install other programs to configure and manage wireless network profiles, such as netcfg.

NetworkManager and Wicd are other popular alternatives.

  • Install the required packages:
# pacman -S wireless_tools netcfg

If you use WPA/WPA2 encryption, install:

# pacman -S wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond

If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in the above Establish an internet connection section and also here), install the package containing your firmware. For example:

# pacman -S zd1211-firmware
  • Connect to the network with wifi-menu (optionally checking the interface name with ip link, but usually it's wlan0), which will generate a profile file in /etc/network.d named after the SSID. There are also templates available in /etc/network.d/examples/ for manual configuration.
# wifi-menu
  • Add net-auto-wireless to the DAEMONS array in /etc/rc.conf, daemon which will connect to known networks and gracefully handle roaming and disconnects:
Note: Netcfg also provides net-auto-wired, which can be used in conjunction with net-auto-wireless.
# nano /etc/rc.conf
DAEMONS=(... net-auto-wireless ...)
  • Make sure that the correct wireless interface (usually wlan0) is set in /etc/conf.d/netcfg:
# nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg
WIRELESS_INTERFACE="wlan0"

It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected, using the AUTO_PROFILES variable in /etc/conf.d/netcfg. If AUTO_PROFILES is not set, all known wireless networks will be tried.

xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN

For xDSL, analog modem (dial-up) and ISDN, see Direct Modem Connection.

Create an initial ramdisk environment

Tip: Most users can skip this step and use the defaults provided in mkinitcpio.conf. The initramfs image (from the /boot folder) has already been generated based on this file when the linux package (the Linux kernel) was installed earlier with pacstrap.

Here you need to set the right hooks if the root is on a USB drive, if you use RAID, LVM, or if /usr is on a separate partition.

Edit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf as needed and re-generate the initramfs image with:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Install and configure a bootloader

Install either Syslinux or GRUB. There is no need to install both. Syslinux is considered to be easier to understand and to configure because it has only one configuration file. In spite of GRUB's many configuration files (for which the recommended method is to re-generate the grub.cfg file each time you change anything in one of those files), using GRUB could make it more comfortable to transition to BURG in the future, a much more customizable GRUB fork. Of course, Syslinux can also be customized. (*)

For BIOS motherboards

Syslinux

Install the syslinux package. If you have partitioned the drive as GPT, install gptfdisk package, as well, because it contains sgdisk, which will be used to set the legacy_boot flag. Then use the syslinux-install_update script to automatically install the files (-i), mark the partition active by setting the boot flag (-a), and install the MBR boot code (-m):

# pacman -S syslinux gptfdisk   #Install gptfdisk as well, if you have a GPT-partitioned drive.
# syslinux-install_update -iam

Configure syslinux.cfg to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot. Change /dev/sda3 to reflect your root partition (if you partitioned your drive as we did in the example, your root partition is sda1). Do the same for the fallback entry.

# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg
...
LABEL arch
        ...
        APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro
        ...

For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see Syslinux.

GRUB
Note: For GPT-partitioned drives on BIOS motherboards, GRUB needs a 2 MiB "BIOS Boot Partition".
Note: Please do not use something like sda1. You want to install to the MBR, not to a partition (which is discouraged).
# pacman -S grub-bios
# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck /dev/sda

While using a manually created grub.cfg is absolutely fine, automatically generating one is recommended:

Tip: To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install os-prober before generating it:
# pacman -S os-prober
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see GRUB.

For UEFI motherboards

For UEFI boot, the drive needs to be GPT-partitioned, and a UEFI System Partition (512 MiB or higher, FAT32, type EF00) must be present and mounted on /boot/efi.

To check whether you have booted into UEFI mode, load the efivars kernel module and then check whether there are files in /sys/firmware/efi/vars/:

# modprobe efivars
# ls -1 /sys/firmware/efi/vars/
Note: The kernel module efivars detects and populates the UEFI Runtime Variables at /sys/firmware/efi/vars. This module is NOT loaded automatically during the boot process, and until this module is loaded, and the kernel booted in UEFI mode, WITHOUT noefi parameter, no files will exist in /sys/firmware/efi/vars. These variables are modified by efibootmgr to add bootloader entry to UEFI boot menu.

While there are other UEFI bootloaders, bellow you will find instructions for GRUB.

GRUB
Note: In rare cases you may need to use grub-efi-i386 instead; on older macs for instance, where Apple hardware uses 32-bit EFI 1.x firmware. In such cases, GRUB would only work with 32 bit modules, even though the CPU may be 64 bit.
Obviously, adjust the below commands and use --target=i386-efi.
# pacman -S grub-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck

After the grub-install step, run efibootmgr to create a menu entry for GRUB in the UEFI boot menu. See UEFI#efibootmgr for more info.

Warning: Using efibootmgr on Apple Macs will brick the firmware and may need reflash of the motherboard ROM.
# efibootmgr

While using a manually created grub.cfg is absolutely fine, automatically generating one is recommended:

Tip: To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install os-prober before generating it:
# pacman -S os-prober
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see GRUB.

Set the root password

You can set the root password with:

# passwd

Unmount the partitions and reboot

Exit from the chroot environment:

# exit

Since the partitions are mounted under /mnt, we use the following command to unmount them:

# umount /mnt/{boot,home,}

Reboot the computer:

# reboot
Tip: Be sure to remove the installation media, otherwise you will boot back into it.

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