Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide"

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[[hu:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[hu:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[it:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[it:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 +
[[ja:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[ko:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[ko:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[nl:Beginners' Guide/Installatie]]
 
[[nl:Beginners' Guide/Installatie]]
 +
[[pl:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[pt:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[pt:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 +
[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor/Instalare]]
 
[[ru:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[ru:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[sr:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[sr:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[zh-CN:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
[[zh-CN:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 +
[[zh-TW:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
 
{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. '''[[Beginners' Guide|Click here]]''' if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
 
{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. '''[[Beginners' Guide|Click here]]''' if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
 
</noinclude>
 
</noinclude>
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You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root.
 
You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root.
  
=== Changing the keymap ===
+
=== Change the language ===
  
{{Tip|This step is optional for the vast majority of users and it can be used at any point during the instalation. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the wifi password, etc.}}
+
{{Tip|These are optional for the majority of users. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the Wi-Fi password, or if you would like to receive system messages (e.g. possible errors) in your own language.}}
  
By default, the keyboard layout is set to {{ic|us}}. If you have a non-[[Wikipedia:File:KB_United_States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard layout, run:
+
By default, the keyboard layout is set to {{ic|us}}. If you have a non-[[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard layout, run:
  
 
  # loadkeys ''layout''
 
  # loadkeys ''layout''
  
...where ''layout'' can be {{ic|fr}}, {{ic|uk}}, {{ic|be-latin1}}, etc. See [[KEYMAP#Keyboard_layouts|here]] for a comprehensive list.
+
...where ''layout'' can be {{ic|fr}}, {{ic|uk}}, {{ic|be-latin1}}, etc. See [[KEYMAP#Keyboard layouts|here]] for a comprehensive list.
  
{{Keypress|Alt + Shift}} activates it.
+
The font should also be changed, because most languages use more glyphs than the 26 letter [[Wikipedia:English alphabet|English alphabet]]. Otherwise some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. Note that the name is case-sensitive, so please type it ''exactly'' as you see it:
  
Don't worry if some of the letters show up as white squares or as other symbols. It's probably just the console font missing those glyphs. The glyph codes are correct and if you press the correct keys they will show up fine when ''(or if)'' you set up a graphical environment later.
+
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
  
=== Network setup ===
+
By default, the language is set to English (US). If you would like to change the language for the install process ''(German, in this example)'', remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the [http://www.greendesktiny.com/support/knowledgebase_detail.php?ref=EUH-483 locale] you want from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, along with English (US). Please choose the {{ic|UTF-8}} entry.
 +
 
 +
Use {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
 +
 
 +
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
 +
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
 +
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
 +
 
 +
# locale-gen
 +
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8
 +
 
 +
Remember, {{Keypress|LAlt+LShift}} activates and deactivates the keymap.
 +
 
 +
=== Establish an internet connection ===
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|udev no longer assigns network interface names according to the wlanX and ethX naming scheme. If you're coming from a different distribution or are reinstalling Arch and not aware of the new interface naming style, please do not assume that your wireless interface is named wlan0, or that your wired interface is named eth0. You can use the "ip" utility to discover the names of your interfaces.}}
 +
 
 +
From systemd-197's release and onward, udev now assigns predictable, stable network interface names that deviate from the legacy incremental naming scheme (wlan0, wlan1, etc.).  These interface names are guaranteed to be persistent across reboots, which solves the problem of the lack of predictability of network interface name assignment. For more information about why this was necessary, read http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames .
  
 
The {{ic|dhcpcd}} network daemon is started automatically at boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection, if available. Try pinging a website to see if it was successful. And since Google is always on...
 
The {{ic|dhcpcd}} network daemon is started automatically at boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection, if available. Try pinging a website to see if it was successful. And since Google is always on...
Line 44: Line 65:
  
 
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
 
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
5 packets transmitted, 5 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
+
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
 
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms}}
 
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms}}
  
If you get a {{ic|ping: unknown host}} error, you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below.
+
If you get a {{ic|ping: unknown host}} error, first check if there is any problem with your cable (or if you have enough wireless signal), otherwise you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below.
  
Otherwise, move on to [[#Prepare_hard_drive|Prepare hard drive]].
+
Otherwise, move on to [[#Prepare the storage drive|Prepare the storage drive]].
  
 
==== Wired ====
 
==== Wired ====
  
Follow this procedure if you need wired connectivity (Ethernet) during the installation process.  
+
Follow this procedure if you need to set up a wired connection via a static IP address.
 +
 
 +
First, identify the name of your ethernet interface.
 +
 
 +
{{hc|# ip link|
 +
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
 +
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
 +
2: enp2s0f0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
 +
    link/ether 00:11:25:31:69:20 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
 +
3: wlp3s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP mode DORMANT qlen 1000
 +
    link/ether 01:02:03:04:05:06 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff}}
 +
 
 +
In this case, the ethernet interface is enp2s0f0. If you're unsure, your ethernet interface is likely to start with the letter "e", and unlikely to be "lo" or start with the letter "w".  You can also use iwconfig and see which interfaces are not wireless:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|# iwconfig|2=
 +
enp2s0f0  no wireless extensions.
 +
wlp3s0    IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"NETGEAR97" 
 +
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.427 GHz  Access Point: 2C:B0:5D:9C:72:BF 
 +
          Bit Rate=65 Mb/s  Tx-Power=16 dBm 
 +
          Retry  long limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
 +
          Power Management:on
 +
          Link Quality=61/70  Signal level=-49 dBm 
 +
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
 +
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:430  Missed beacon:0
 +
lo        no wireless extensions.}}
  
If your computer is connected to an Ethernet network, in most cases, you will have one interface, called {{ic|eth0}}. If you have additional network cards (apart from the one integrated on the motherboard, for example), their name will follow the sequence {{ic|eth1}}, {{ic|eth2}}, etc.
+
In this example, neither enp2s0f0 nor the loopback device have wireless extensions, meaning enp2s0f0 is our ethernet interface.
  
You need to know these settings:
+
You also need to know these settings:
  
 
* Static IP address.
 
* Static IP address.
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* Domain name (unless you're on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).
 
* Domain name (unless you're on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).
  
Activate the connected Ethernet interface, e.g. for {{ic|eth0}}:
+
Activate the connected Ethernet interface (e.g. {{ic|enp2s0f0}}):
  
  # ip link set eth0 up
+
  # ip link set enp2s0f0 up
  
 
Add the address:
 
Add the address:
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For example:
 
For example:
  
  # ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev eth0
+
  # ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev enp2s0f0
  
 
For more options, run {{ic|man ip}}.
 
For more options, run {{ic|man ip}}.
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{{Note|Currently, you may include a maximum of 3 {{ic|nameserver}} lines.}}
 
{{Note|Currently, you may include a maximum of 3 {{ic|nameserver}} lines.}}
  
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Configuring Network]] page.
+
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Network Configuration]] page.
  
 
==== Wireless ====
 
==== Wireless ====
  
Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (WiFi) during the installation process.
+
Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (Wi-Fi) during the installation process.
 +
 
 +
If you're coming from another distribution, or if this is your first time installing Arch Linux since the deprecation of the old interface naming scheme, you might be surprised to learn that the first wireless interface is not named "wlan0". In fact, none of the interfaces are automatically prefixed with "wlan" any longer. Don't panic; simply execute {{ic|iwconfig}} to discover the name of your wireless interface.
  
 
The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quick-start procedure ''executed at this point in the installation'' will initialize your wireless hardware for use ''in the live environment of the installation media''. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) '''must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it'''.
 
The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quick-start procedure ''executed at this point in the installation'' will initialize your wireless hardware for use ''in the live environment of the installation media''. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) '''must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it'''.
Line 106: Line 153:
 
Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.
 
Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.
  
{{Note|The following examples use {{ic|wlan0}} for the interface and {{ic|linksys}} for the ESSID. Remember to change these values according to your setup.}}
+
{{Note|The following examples use {{ic|wlp3s0}} for the interface and {{ic|linksys}} for the ESSID. Remember to change these values according to your setup.}}
  
 
The basic procedure will be:
 
The basic procedure will be:
  
* (optional) Identify the wireless interface:
+
* Identify the wireless interface:
  
 
  # lspci | grep -i net
 
  # lspci | grep -i net
  
or, if using a USB adapter:
+
Or, if using a USB adapter:
  
 
  # lsusb
 
  # lsusb
  
* Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with {{ic|/usr/sbin/iwconfig}}:
+
* Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with {{ic|iwconfig}}:
  
{{hc|# iwconfig|<nowiki>
+
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless Setup]] for more detailed information.}}
lo no wireless extensions.
+
eth0 no wireless extensions.
+
wlan0    unassociated  ESSID:""
+
        Mode:Managed  Channel=0  Access Point: Not-Associated
+
        Bit Rate:0 kb/s  Tx-Power=20 dBm  Sensitivity=8/0
+
        Retry limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
+
        Power Management:off
+
        Link Quality:0  Signal level:0  Noise level:0
+
        Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
+
        Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0  Missed beacon:0</nowiki>}}
+
  
{{ic|wlan0}} is the available wireless interface in this example.  
+
{{hc|# iwconfig|2=
 +
enp2s0f0  no wireless extensions.
 +
wlp3s0    IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"NETGEAR97" 
 +
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.427 GHz  Access Point: 2C:B0:5D:9C:72:BF 
 +
          Bit Rate=65 Mb/s  Tx-Power=16 dBm 
 +
          Retry  long limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
 +
          Power Management:on
 +
          Link Quality=61/70  Signal level=-49 dBm 
 +
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
 +
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:430  Missed beacon:0
 +
lo        no wireless extensions.}}
  
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless Setup]] for more detailed information.}}
+
In this example, {{ic|wlp3s0}} is the available wireless interface.
  
 
* Bring the interface up with:
 
* Bring the interface up with:
  
  # ip link set wlan0 up
+
  # ip link set wlp3s0 up
  
 
A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:
 
A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:
  
{{hc|# ip link set wlan0 up|
+
{{hc|# ip link set wlp3s0 up|
 
SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}
 
SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}
  
If unsure, invoke {{ic|/usr/bin/dmesg}} to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset.
+
If unsure, invoke {{ic|dmesg}} to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset.
  
 
Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
 
Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
  
{{hc|$ dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep firmware|
+
{{hc|# dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep firmware|
 
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
 
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
  
 
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
 
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
  
{{Warning|Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}} in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) '''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!''' Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See [[Wireless Setup]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset. This is a very common error.}}
+
{{Warning|Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}} in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) '''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!''' Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See [[Wireless Setup]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset.}}
 
+
* If the ESSID has been forgotten or is unknown, use {{ic|iwlist <interface> scan}} to scan for nearby networks:
+
 
+
{{hc|# iwlist wlan0 scan|<nowiki>
+
Cell 01 - Address: 04:25:10:6B:7F:9D
+
                    Channel:2
+
                    Frequency:2.417 GHz (Channel 2)
+
                    Quality=31/70  Signal level=-79 dBm
+
                    Encryption key:off
+
                    ESSID:"dlink"
+
                    Bit Rates:1 Mb/s; 2 Mb/s; 5.5 Mb/s; 11 Mb/s
+
                    Bit Rates:6 Mb/s; 9 Mb/s; 12 Mb/s; 18 Mb/s; 24 Mb/s
+
                              36 Mb/s; 48 Mb/s; 54 Mb/s</nowiki>}}
+
 
+
* If using WPA encryption:
+
 
+
Using WPA encryption requires that the key be encrypted and stored in a file, along with the ESSID, to be used later for connection via {{ic|wpa_supplicant}}. Thus, a few extra steps are required:
+
 
+
For the purpose of simplifying and backup, rename the default {{ic|wpa_supplicant.conf}} file:
+
 
+
# mv /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf.original
+
 
+
Using {{ic|wpa_passphrase}}, provide your wireless network name and WPA key to be encrypted and written to {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf}}.
+
 
+
The following example encrypts the key "my_secret_passkey" of the "linksys" wireless network, generates a new configuration file ({{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf}}), and subsequently redirects the encrypted key, writing it to the file:
+
 
+
# wpa_passphrase linksys "my_secret_passkey" > /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
+
 
+
{{Note|If the above fails with a {{ic|bash: event not found}} error, it may be due to special characters (e.g. {{ic|!}}) used in your wireless network name. In that case try the following:
+
  
  # tee /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf < <(wpa_passphrase linksys "passphrase")
+
Next, use {{Pkg|netcfg}}'s {{ic|wifi-menu}} to connect to a network. Replace ''wlp3s0" with the name of your interface:
  
And if you are still having problems because of special characters in your network name or passphrase, you may try the following, where {{ic|~/mykey}} is a temporary text file containing only your passphrase:
+
# wifi-menu wlp3s0
  
# cat ~/mykey <nowiki>|</nowiki> wpa_passphrase linksys > /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
+
{{Warning|At the moment, netcfg's wifi-menu, when executed without arguments, will look for "wlan0". Execute wifi-menu with your interface as the argument in order to use it. See [[Network Configuration#Get_current_device_names]]
 
+
Also, for security reasons, you may want to remove this file ({{ic|~/mykey}}) after you configure {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}.}}
+
 
+
Check [[WPA Supplicant]] for more information and troubleshooting.
+
 
+
{{Note|{{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf}} is stored in plain text format. This is not risky in the installation environment, but when you reboot into your new system and reconfigure WPA, remember to change the permissions on {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf}} (e.g. {{ic|chmod 0600 /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf}} to make it readable by root only).}}
+
 
+
* Associate your wireless device with the access point you want to use. Depending on the encryption (none, WEP, or WPA), the procedure may differ. You need to know the name of the chosen wireless network (ESSID).
+
 
+
{| border="1"
+
! Encryption || Command
+
|-
+
| No Encryption || {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys"}}
+
|-
+
| WEP w/ Hex Key || {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "0241baf34c"}}
+
|-
+
| WEP w/ ASCII passphrase || {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "s:pass1"}}
+
|-
+
| WPA || {{ic|wpa_supplicant -B -Dwext -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf}}
+
|}
+
 
+
{{Note|The network connection process may be automated later by using the default Arch network daemon, [[netcfg]], [[wicd]], or another network manager of your choice.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|If connection to a wireless network is required, remember to select and install the {{Pkg|wireless_tools}} package. Some wireless interfaces also need [[Wireless Setup#ndiswrapper|'''ndiswrapper''']] and/or a specific [[Wireless Setup#Drivers and firmware|'''firmware''']]. If you plan to use WPA encryption, you will need [[WPA Supplicant|'''wpa_supplicant''']]. The [[Wireless Setup]] page will help you choose the correct packages for your wireless device. Also strongly consider installing '''[[netcfg]]''', which will help you set up your network connection and profiles after you reboot into your new system.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|If you are booting from a live environment and have chrooted into your regular installation, you can start networkmanager from the commandline with {{ic|/etc/rc.d/dbus start}} and {{ic|/etc/rc.d/networkmanager start}}, list available connections with {{ic|nmcli con list}} and use a connection with {{ic|nmcli con up id NAME}} where NAME is the name of the connection.}}
+
 
+
* After utilizing the appropriate association method outlined above, wait a few moments and confirm you have successfully associated to the access point before continuing, e.g.:
+
 
+
# iwconfig wlan0
+
 
+
Output should indicate the wireless network is associated with the interface.
+
 
+
* Request an IP address with {{ic|/sbin/dhcpcd <interface>}}, e.g.:
+
 
+
# dhcpcd wlan0
+
  
 
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
 
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
Line 231: Line 213:
 
==== xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN ====
 
==== xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN ====
  
If you have a modem or a router in bridge mode, run:
+
If you have a router in bridge mode, run:
  
 
  # pppoe-setup
 
  # pppoe-setup
Line 241: Line 223:
 
* Press {{Keypress|1}} for a firewall.
 
* Press {{Keypress|1}} for a firewall.
 
* Type in the password that the ISP provided you with.
 
* Type in the password that the ISP provided you with.
* Press {{Keypress|y}} at the end.
+
* Press {{Keypress|Y}} at the end.
  
 
To use these settings and connect to your ISP, run:
 
To use these settings and connect to your ISP, run:
Line 247: Line 229:
 
  # pppoe-start
 
  # pppoe-start
  
For an ''analog'' modem, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
+
You may also need to adjust your {{ic|resolv.conf}}:
  
==== Proxy Server ====
+
# echo nameserver 8.8.8.8 > /etc/resolv.conf
  
If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the {{ic|http_proxy}} and {{ic|ftp_proxy}} environment variables. '''[[Proxy|Click here]]''' for more information.
+
If you have a dial-up or ISDN connection, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
  
=== Prepare hard drive ===
+
==== Behind a proxy server ====
  
{{Warning|Partitioning hard drives can destroy data. You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
+
If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the {{ic|http_proxy}} and {{ic|ftp_proxy}} environment variables. See [[Proxy settings]] for more information.
  
{{Note|Use any partitioning tool you prefer, such as [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] or other available tools. The current install media includes the disk partitioning tools '''cfdisk''', '''gdisk''', and '''parted'''.}}
+
=== Prepare the storage drive ===
  
If you have already partitioned your hard disk, verify current disk identities and layout by invoking {{ic|/sbin/fdisk}} with the {{ic|-l}} (lower-case L) switch.
+
{{Warning|Partitioning can destroy data. You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
  
At the root prompt enter:
+
Absolute beginners are encouraged to use a graphical partitioning tool. [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] is a good example, and is [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php provided as a "live" CD]. It is also included on live CDs of most Linux distributions such as [[Wikipedia:Ubuntu (operating system)|Ubuntu]] and [[Wikipedia:Linux Mint|Linux Mint]]. A drive should first be [[partitioning|partitioned]] and the partitions should be formatted with a [[File Systems|file system]] before rebooting.
  
# fdisk -l
+
See [[Swap]] for details if you wish to set up a swap partition or file now. A swap file is easier to resize than a partition and can be created at any point after installation, but cannot be used with a BTRFS filesystem.
  
Take note of the disk(s) and/or partition(s) to utilize for the Arch installation. Each partition is identified with a number suffix. Example: {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of a drive while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive. You may now proceed to [[#Configure_block_devices.2C_filesystems.2C_and_mountpoints|Configure block devices, filesystems, and mountpoints]].
+
If you have already done so, proceed to [[#Mount the partitions|Mount the partitions]].
  
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
+
Otherwise, see the following example.
  
{{Note|If you are not dual booting with windows then it is advisable to use [[GPT]] instead of [[MBR]]. GPT partitioning can only be done with '''gdisk''' or '''parted'''. Read [[GPT]] for list of advantages.}}
+
==== Example ====
  
The remainder of this section shows an example configuration for a beginner's Arch installation and uses the '''fdisk''' partitioning tool. You are not required to use this configuration or this tool; it is presented here only as an example.
+
The Arch Linux install media includes the following partitioning tools: {{ic|fdisk}}, {{ic|gdisk}}, {{ic|cfdisk}}, {{ic|cgdisk}}, {{ic|parted}}.
  
For more information on partitioning your hard disk, see [[Partitioning]].
+
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[UEFI]] boot:|
 +
* If you have a UEFI motherboard, you will need to create an extra [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#Create an UEFI System Partition in Linux|UEFI System Partition]].
 +
* It is recommended to always use GPT for UEFI boot, as some UEFI firmwares do not allow UEFI-MBR boot.}}
  
For more information on possible file system types, see [[File Systems]].
+
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[GPT]] partitioning:|
 +
* If you are not dual booting with Windows, then it is advisable to use GPT instead of MBR. Read [[GPT]] for a list of advantages.
 +
* If you have a BIOS motherboard (or plan on booting in BIOS compatibility mode) and you want to setup GRUB on a GPT-partitioned drive, you will need to create an extra [[GRUB2#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]. Syslinux doesn't need one.
 +
* Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.}}
  
==== Manually partition hard drives ====
+
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
  
{{Note| The current install media includes the disk partitioning tools [[Wikipedia:cfdisk|cfdisk]], [[Wikipedia:gdisk|gdisk]], and [[Wikipedia:parted|parted]]. {{ic|gdisk}} supports only [[GPT]] partition tables, {{ic|cfdisk}} supports only [[Master_Boot_Record|MBR]] partition tables and {{ic|parted}} supports both. This example uses '''cfdisk''', but can also easily be followed substituting in '''gdisk''' for cfdisk to allow use of the newer [[GPT]] partitioning.}}
+
The example system will contain a 15 GB root partition, and a [[Partitioning#/home|home]] partition for the remaining space. Choose either [[MBR]] or [[GPT]]. Do not choose both!
  
Use '''cfdisk''' to open the selected target disk for manual partitioning (if you have an [[SSD]] drive other choices like [[GUID_Partition_Table|gdisk]] or [http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/manual/html_mono/parted.html GNU Parted] will be needed). This example uses the first hard disk, designated '''sda''':
+
It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See [[Partitioning]].
  
# cfdisk /dev/sda
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | '''MBR'''
 +
| rowspan="2"| {{ic|cfdisk&nbsp;/dev/sda}}
 +
| '''Root:'''
  
The example system will contain a 15GB root ({{ic|/}}) partition, a 1GB {{ic|swap}} partition, and a {{ic|/home}} partition for the remaining disk space. It is emphasized again that partitioning is a personal choice and this example is only for illustration.
+
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – type in "15360" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Beginning – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Bootable.
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''Home:'''
  
Choose '''N'''ew -> 'Primary' and enter the desired size (15.44 GB in this example) for the '''root''' ({{ic|/}}) filesystem. The partition will be put at the beginning of the disk. Select the '''T'''ype and designate it as {{ic|83 Linux}}. The created {{ic|/}} partition will appear as {{ic|sda1}}. Thereafter select "Bootable" to flag root as bootable.
+
* Press the down arrow to move to the free space area.
 +
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size).
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | '''GPT'''
 +
| rowspan="2"| {{ic|cgdisk&nbsp;/dev/sda}}
 +
| '''Root:'''
  
Next, create a second partition for ''swap''. Select an appropriate size (~1 GB here) and specify the '''T'''ype as {{ic|82 (Linux swap / Solaris)}}. The created swap partition will appear as {{ic|sda2}}.
+
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) {{Keypress|Enter}} for the first sector (2048) – type in "15G" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
 +
|-
 +
| '''Home:'''
  
The remaining space is used to create a third partition for the {{ic|/home}} directory. Identify it as a primary partition and set the size. Select the '''T'''ype as {{ic|83 Linux}}. The created {{ic|/home}} partition will appear as {{ic|sda3}}.
+
* Press the down arrow a couple of times to move to the larger free space area.
 +
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the first sector – {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size; for example "30G") – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
 +
|}
  
This is how the example will look:
+
If you chose MBR, here's how it should look like:
  
  Name    Flags    Part Type    FS Type           [Label]         Size (MB)
+
  Name    Flags    Part Type    FS Type         [Label]       Size (MB)
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
  sda1    Boot      Primary    Linux                            15440      #root
+
  sda1    Boot      Primary    Linux                            15360
  sda2               Primary    Linux swap / Solaris              1024        #swap
+
  sda2              Primary    Linux                            133000*
sda3               Primary    Linux                            133000     #/home
+
  
Be aware that this operation will destroy data on your disk so double check all of your work and make sure you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing. If you would like to start over, you can simply select '''Q'''uit to quit without saving changes and then restart cfdisk.
+
If you chose GPT, here's how it should look like:
  
Once satisfied choose '''W'''rite to finalize and write the partition table to the disk. After the partition table is written it will automatically exit cfdisk.
+
Part. #    Size        Partition Type            Partition Name
 +
----------------------------------------------------------------
 +
            1007.0 KiB  free space
 +
    1        15.0 GiB    Linux filesystem
 +
    2        123.45 GiB  Linux filesystem
  
For more information on partitioning your hard disk, see [[Partitioning]].
+
Double check and make sure that you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing.
  
{{Note|Since the latest developments of the Linux kernel which include the libata and PATA modules, all IDE, SATA and SCSI drives have adopted the sd''x'' naming scheme. This is perfectly normal and should not be a concern.}}
+
If you would like to start over, you can simply select Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit without saving changes and then restart cfdisk (or cgdisk).
  
{{Note|If you are using (U)EFI you will most probably need another partition to host the UEFI System partition. Read [[Unified_Extensible_Firmware_Interface#Create_an_UEFI_System_Partition_in_Linux|this article]].}}
+
If you are satisfied, choose Write (or press {{Keypress|Shift+W}}) to finalize and to write the partition table to the drive. Type "yes" and choose Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit without making any more changes.
  
=== Configure block devices, filesystems, and mountpoints ===
+
Simply partitioning is not enough; the partitions also need a [[File Systems|filesystem]]. To format the partitions with an ext4 filesystem:
  
Use the {{ic|mkfs}} utility to format the partitions into filesystems. In this example configuration, we are using the ext4 filesystem for both root and home partitions.
+
{{Warning|Double check and triple check that it's actually {{ic|/dev/sda1}} and {{ic|/dev/sda2}} that you want to format.}}
  
 
  # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
 
  # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
  # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
+
  # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2
  
Format and activate the swap partition:
+
If you have made a partition dedicated to swap (code 82), don't forget to format and activate it with:
  
  # mkswap /dev/sda2 && swapon /dev/sda2
+
  # mkswap /dev/sda''X''
 
+
# swapon /dev/sda''X''
For more information on possible file system types, see [[File Systems]].
+
  
 
=== Mount the partitions ===
 
=== Mount the partitions ===
  
Mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}.
+
Each partition is identified with a number suffix. For example, {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of the first drive, while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive.
 +
 
 +
To display the current partition layout:
 +
 
 +
# lsblk /dev/sda
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Do not mount more than one partition to the same directory. And pay attention, because the mounting order is important.}}
 +
 
 +
First, mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}. Following the example when using {{ic|cfdisk}} above (yours may be different), it would be:
  
 
  # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
 
  # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
  
Create a directory for the /home partition and mount it:
+
Then mount the home partition and any other separate partition ({{ic|/boot}}, {{ic|/var}}, etc), if you have any:
+
# mkdir /mnt/home && mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/home
+
  
=== Select installation mirror ===
+
# mkdir /mnt/home
 +
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/home
  
Before installing, you may want to edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} such that your preferred mirror is first. This copy of the mirrorlist will be installed on your new system by {{ic|pacstrap}} as well, so it's worth getting it right.
+
In case you have a UEFI motherboard, mount the UEFI partition:
  
{{Note|ftp.archlinux.org is throttled at 50KB/s.}}
+
# mkdir -p /mnt/boot/efi
 +
# mount /dev/sda''X'' /mnt/boot/efi
  
=== Install the base system ===
+
=== Select a mirror ===
  
The base system is installed using the [https://github.com/falconindy/arch-install-scripts/blob/master/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script. A minimal system requires the '''base''' package group; also installing the '''base-devel''' package group at this time is highly recommended. If you require other packages at this time, simply add them to the pacstrap command.
+
Before installing, you may want to edit the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by {{ic|pacstrap}} as well, so it's worth getting it right.
  
# pacstrap /mnt base base-devel
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|
 +
##
 +
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
 +
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
 +
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
 +
##
  
* {{Grp|base}}: Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment.
+
<nowiki>Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch</nowiki>
 +
...}}
  
* {{Grp|base-devel}}: Extra tools from [core] such as {{ic|make}}, and {{ic|automake}}. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand your new system. The ''base-devel'' group will be required to install software from the [[Arch User Repository]].
+
* {{Keypress|Alt+6}} to copy a {{ic|Server}} line.
 +
* {{Keypress|PageUp}} key to scroll up.
 +
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+U}} to paste it at the top of the list.
 +
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
  
This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using [[pacman]].
+
If you want, you can make it the ''only'' mirror available by getting rid of everything else (using {{Keypress|Ctrl+K}}), but it's usually a good idea to have a few more, in case the first one goes offline.
  
{{Note|If pacman fails to verify your packages, check your system time. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually, or with ntp client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to [[Time|Time]] page for more information on correcting system time.}}
+
{{Tip|
 +
* Use the [https://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist/ Mirrorlist Generator] to get an updated list for your country. HTTP mirrors are faster than FTP, because of something called [[Wikipedia:Keepalive|keepalive]]. With FTP, pacman has to send out a signal each time it downloads a package, resulting in a brief pause. For other ways to generate a mirror list, see [[Mirrors#Sorting mirrors|Sorting mirrors]] and [[Reflector]].
 +
* [https://archlinux.org/mirrors/status/ Arch Linux MirrorStatus] reports various aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors, data collection problems, the last time mirrors have been synced, etc.}}
  
=== Generate fstab ===
+
{{Note|
 +
* Whenever in the future you change your list of mirrors, always remember to force pacman to refresh all package lists with {{ic|pacman -Syy}}. This is considered to be good practice and will avoid possible headaches. See [[Mirrors]] for more information.
 +
* If you're using an older installation medium, your mirrorlist might be outdated, which might lead to problems when updating Arch Linux (see {{Bug|22510}}). Therefore it is advised to obtain the latest mirror information as described above.
 +
* Some issues have been reported in the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ Arch Linux forums] regarding network problems that prevent pacman from updating/synchronizing repositories (see [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;68944] and [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;65728]). When installing Arch Linux natively, these issues have been resolved by replacing the default pacman file downloader with an alternative (see [[Improve Pacman Performance]] for more details). When installing Arch Linux as a guest OS in [[VirtualBox]], this issue has also been addressed by using "Host interface" instead of "NAT" in the machine properties.}}
  
Generate an [[fstab]] file with the following command. (If you prefer to use UUIDs or labels, add the {{ic|-U}} or {{ic|-L}} option, respectively.)
+
=== Install the base system ===
  
# genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
+
The base system is installed using the [https://github.com/falconindy/arch-install-scripts/blob/master/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script.
  
{{Note|It is a good idea to check the auto-generated fstab file ({{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}}) before continuing. If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do '''not''' run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file. Also, only the "/" partition needs "1" for the last field. Everything else should have "2" or "0" (see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Fstab#Field_definitions #Field definitions]).}}
+
The {{ic|-i}} switch can be omitted if you wish to install every package from the ''base'' and ''base-devel'' groups without prompting.
  
=== Chroot into system ===
+
# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel
  
Next we [[chroot]] into our newly installed system.
+
{{Note|If pacman fails to verify your packages, check the system time with {{ic|cal}}. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually or with the {{Pkg|ntp}} client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to [[Time]] page for more information on correcting system time.}}
  
  # arch-chroot /mnt
+
{{Note| If pacman complains about invalid signatures during the pacstrap phase (''error: failed to commit transaction (invalid or corrupted package)'') run the following command below.}}
 +
  # pacman-key --init && pacman-key --populate archlinux
  
{{Tip|If you forgot to install packages with the pacstrap script, you may install them after the chroot with:
+
* {{Grp|base}}: Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment.
# pacman -S <package>
+
}}
+
  
=== Configure the system ===
+
* {{Grp|base-devel}}: Extra tools from [core] such as {{ic|make}}, and {{ic|automake}}. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand the system. The ''base-devel'' group will be required to install software from the [[Arch User Repository]].
  
{{Tip|Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.}}
+
This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using [[pacman]].
  
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system.
+
=== Generate an fstab ===
  
==== Configuration files ====
+
Generate an [[fstab]] file with the following command. UUIDs will be used because they have certain advantages (see [[fstab#Identifying filesystems]]). If you would prefer to use labels instead, replace the {{ic|-U}} option with {{ic|-L}}.
  
{{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} is the configuration file for Arch's initscripts, and in the past used to also contain configurations for other parts of the system. Unless you are using an alternate init system like [[systemd]], {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} configures which daemons to start during boot-up and some networking and storage information.
+
{{Note|If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do '''not''' run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file.}}
  
{{Note|Using the legacy configuration options in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} for system configuring still works (for now) with the default init system, but the new configuration files take precedence and using them is recommended. The new files will also work for configuring [[systemd]].}}
+
# genfstab -U -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
 +
# nano /mnt/etc/fstab
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
{{Warning|The fstab file should always be checked after generating it. If you made an EFI system partition earlier, then {{ic|genfstab}} has incorrectly added options to your EFI system partition. This will in fact ''prevent'' your computer from booting from that drive, so you need to remove all options for the EFI partition except for {{ic|noatime}}. For the other partitions that use it, be sure to replace {{ic|1="codepage=cp437"}} with {{ic|1="codepage=437"}} or else when you next reboot, any mounts with this option will fail and systemd will halt and drop into recovery mode. This should be fixed by linux 3.8}}
|-
+
! scope="col"| Configuration
+
! scope="col"| Configuration file(s)
+
! scope="col"| Legacy {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} section
+
|-
+
| align="center"|Hostname
+
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/hostname}}
+
{{ic|/etc/hosts}}
+
| align="center"|{{ic|NETWORKING}}
+
|-
+
| align="center"|Console fonts and Keymap
+
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}}
+
| align="center"|{{ic|LOCALIZATION}}
+
|-
+
| align="center"|Locale
+
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/locale.conf}}
+
{{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}
+
| align="center"|{{ic|LOCALIZATION}}
+
|-
+
| align="center"|Timezone
+
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/timezone}}
+
{{ic|/etc/localtime}}
+
| align="center"|{{ic|LOCALIZATION}}
+
|-
+
| align="center"|Hardware clock
+
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/adjtime}}
+
| align="center"|{{ic|LOCALIZATION}}
+
|-
+
| align="center"|Kernel modules
+
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}}
+
| align="center"|{{ic|HARDWARE}}
+
|-
+
| align="center"|Daemons
+
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}
+
| align="center"|{{ic|DAEMONS}}
+
|-
+
| align="center"|Wired Network
+
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}
+
| align="center"|{{ic|NETWORKING}}
+
|}
+
  
Configuration files can simply be created if they do not exist already and you wish to change the defaults. During this procedure you use the editor [[nano]]. For example to edit your hostname file in {{ic|/etc/hostname}} you'll type:
+
A few considerations:
  
# nano /etc/hostname
+
* Only the root ({{ic|/}}) partition needs {{ic|1}} for the last field. Everything else should have either {{ic|2}} or {{ic|0}} (see [[fstab#Field definitions]]).
  
you press {{keypress|F2}} to either save changes or close the file. When prompted to save changes, press {{keypress|y}} or {{keypress|n}}, and {{keypress|enter}} to write the file
+
=== Chroot and configure the base system ===
  
==== Hostname ====
+
Next, we [[chroot]] into our newly installed system:
  
Add your ''hostname'' in {{ic|/etc/hostname}}. '''Example:'''
+
# arch-chroot /mnt
  
myhostname
+
{{Note|Use {{ic|arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash}} to chroot into a bash shell.}}
 +
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. These can either be created if they do not exist, or edited if you wish to change the defaults.
  
Set it to your liking. This is the name of your computer.
+
Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.
  
Add also your ''hostname'' in {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, coinciding with the one specified in {{ic|/etc/hostname}} as an alias, so that it looks like this:
+
==== Locale ====
  
127.0.0.1  localhost.localdomain  localhost '''myhostname'''
+
Locales are used by '''glibc''' and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
::1        localhost.localdomain  localhost '''myhostname'''
+
  
{{Note|::1 is the IPv6 equivalent of 127.0.0.1}}
+
There are two files that need editing: {{ic|locale.gen}} and {{ic|locale.conf}}.
  
{{Warning |This format, '''including the "localhost" and your actual host name''', is required for program compatibility. Errors in this entry may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all.}}
+
* The {{ic|locale.gen}} file is empty by default (everything is commented out) and you need to remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the line(s) you want. You may uncomment more lines than just English (US), as long as you choose their {{ic|UTF-8}} encoding:
  
If you use a static IP, add another line using the syntax: <static-IP> <hostname.domainname.org> <hostname> e.g.:
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
 +
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
 +
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
  
  192.168.1.100 '''myhostname'''.domain.org '''myhostname'''
+
  # locale-gen
  
{{Tip|For convenience, you may also use {{ic|/etc/hosts}} aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web, e.g.:
+
This will run on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
  
192.168.1.90 media
+
* The {{ic|locale.conf}} file doesn't exist by default. Setting only {{ic|LANG}} should be enough. It will act as the default value for all other variables.
192.168.1.88 data
+
  
The above example would allow you access a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.}}
+
# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
 +
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
  
==== Console fonts and keymap ====
+
{{Note|If you set some other language than English at the beginning of the install, the above commands would be something like:
 +
# echo LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
 +
# export LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8
 +
}}
  
To edit {{ic|vconsole.conf}}:
+
To use other {{ic|LC_*}} variables, first run {{ic|locale}} to see the available options. An advanced example can be found [[Locale#Setting_system-wide_locale|here]].
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|Using the {{ic|LC_ALL}} variable is strongly discouraged because it overrides everything.}}
 +
 
 +
==== Console font and keymap ====
 +
 
 +
If you set a keymap at [[#Change_the_language|the beginning]] of the install process, load it now, as well, because the environment has changed. For example:
 +
 
 +
# loadkeys ''de-latin1''
 +
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
 +
 
 +
To make them available after reboot, edit {{ic|vconsole.conf}}:
  
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/vconsole.conf|2=
 
{{hc|# nano /etc/vconsole.conf|2=
KEYMAP=us
+
KEYMAP=de-latin1
FONT=
+
FONT=Lat2-Terminus16
FONT_MAP=}}
+
}}
  
* {{ic|KEYMAP}} – If you want, you can use the one from the beginning of the install process: [[#Changing_the_keymap|Changing the keymap]], but the default ({{ic|us}}) is fine for the vast majority of keyboards. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or '''Xorg'''.
+
* {{ic|KEYMAP}} – Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or Xorg.
  
* {{ic|FONT}} – Available alternate console fonts reside in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. The default (blank) is safe.
+
* {{ic|FONT}} – Available alternate console fonts reside in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. The default (blank) is safe, but some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. It's recommended that you change it to {{ic|Lat2-Terminus16}}, because according to {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/README.Lat2-Terminus16}}, it claims to support "about 110 language sets".
  
* {{ic|FONT_MAP}} – Defines the console map to load with the setfont program at boot. Possible maps are found in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consoletrans}}, if needed. The default (blank) is safe.
+
* Possible option {{ic|FONT_MAP}} – Defines the console map to load at boot. Read {{ic|man setfont}}. Removing it or leaving it blank is safe.
  
 
See [[Fonts#Console_fonts|Console fonts]] and {{ic|man vconsole.conf}} for more information.
 
See [[Fonts#Console_fonts|Console fonts]] and {{ic|man vconsole.conf}} for more information.
  
==== Timezone ====
+
==== Time zone ====
  
 
Available time zones and subzones can be found in the {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} directories.
 
Available time zones and subzones can be found in the {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} directories.
Line 491: Line 494:
 
Create a symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}} to your zone file {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} using this command:
 
Create a symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}} to your zone file {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} using this command:
  
  # ln -s {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} /etc/localtime
+
  # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime
  
 
'''Example:'''
 
'''Example:'''
Line 497: Line 500:
 
  # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime
 
  # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime
  
If you are using systemd's timedated, you might wish to also edit the file {{ic|/etc/timezone}} and write your {{ic|Zone}}/{{ic|Subzone}}.
+
==== Hardware clock ====
  
'''Example:'''
+
Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems. Otherwise, they may overwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts.
  
Europe/Minsk
+
You can generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}} automatically by using one of the following commands:
  
Read {{ic|man 5 timezone}} for more options.
+
* '''UTC''' (recommended)
  
The need for {{ic|/etc/timezone}} might go away in the future [http://cgit.freedesktop.org/systemd/systemd/commit/?id=9cb48731b29f508178731b45b0643c816800c05e].
+
: {{Note|Using [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in UTC.}}
  
==== Locale ====
+
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --utc}}
  
===== Enable locales =====
+
To synchronize your "UTC" time over the internet, see [[Network Time Protocol daemon|NTPd]].
  
The {{ic|/usr/sbin/locale-gen}} command reads from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}} to generate specific locales. They can then be used by '''glibc''' and any other locale-aware program or library for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards:
+
* '''localtime''' (discouraged; used by default in Windows)
  
# nano /etc/locale.gen
+
: {{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}}
  
By default {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}} is an empty file with commented documentation. Once edited, the file remains untouched. {{ic|locale-gen}} runs on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
+
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --localtime}}
  
Choose the locale(s) you need by removing the # in front of the lines you want, e.g.:
+
If you have (or planning on having) a dual boot setup with Windows:
  
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
+
* Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC. A quick [[Time#UTC in Windows|registry fix]] is needed. Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time on-line, because the hardware clock will default back to ''localtime''.
  
{{Note|1=see the list of the locales and what they stand for here [http://www.greendesktiny.com/support/knowledgebase_detail.php?ref=EUH-483].}}
+
* Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to ''localtime'' and disable any time-related services, like [[Network Time Protocol daemon|NTPd]] . This will let Windows take care of hardware clock corrections and you will need to remember to boot into Windows at least two times a year (in Spring and Autumn) when [[Wikipedia:Daylight saving time|DST]] kicks in. So please don't ask on the forums why the clock is one hour behind or ahead if you usually go for days or weeks without booting into Windows.
  
Then run:
+
==== Kernel modules ====
  
# locale-gen
+
{{Tip|This is just an example, you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.}}
  
===== Setting up system-wide locale =====
+
For kernel modules to load during boot, place a {{ic|*.conf}} file in {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}}, with a name based on the program that uses them.
  
Set [[Locale#Setting_system-wide_locale | locale]] preferences in {{ic|/etc/locale.conf}}.
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf|
 +
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.
  
'''Example:'''
+
virtio-net}}
  
{{hc|/etc/locale.conf|2=
+
If there are more modules to load per {{ic|*.conf}}, the module names can be separated by newlines. A good example are the [[VirtualBox#Arch Linux guests|VirtualBox Guest Additions]].
LANG=en_US.UTF-8
+
LC_TIME=en_GB.UTF-8}}
+
  
Setting only {{ic|LANG}} should be enough. It acts as the default value for all other locale settings.
+
Empty lines and lines starting with {{ic|#}} or {{ic|;}} are ignored.
  
You can override parts of a locale using {{ic|LC_*}} variables – for example, setting {{ic|LC_COLLATE&#61;C}} disables locale-aware sorting, but keeps all other features. You can see all {{ic|LC_*}} variables by running {{ic|locale}}.
+
==== Hostname ====
  
{{ic|LC_ALL}} overrides ''all'' other settings. Because of that, you cannot set it from {{ic|locale.conf}}. It is recommended that you use {{ic|LC_ALL}} only when needed – do not put it in your default environment.
+
Set the [[Wikipedia:hostname|hostname]] to your liking (e.g. ''arch''):
  
For the ramdisk creation that will follow later, you should now set the {{ic|LANG}} variable. '''Example:'''
+
# echo ''myhostname'' > /etc/hostname
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
+
  
==== Hardware clock time ====
+
{{Note|There is no need to edit {{ic|/etc/hosts}}.}}
  
This is set in {{ic|/etc/adjtime}}. Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems on the same machine. Otherwise, they will overwrite the time and cause clock shifts (which can cause time drift correction to be miscalibrated).
+
=== Configure the network ===
  
You can generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}} automatically by using one of the following commands.
+
You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described [[#Establish an internet connection|above]], except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.
  
{{Note|Make sure HARDWARECLOCK in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} is not set when using this method.}}
+
{{Note|For more in-depth information on network configration, visit [[Network Configuration]] and [[Wireless Setup]].}}
  
* [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] (recommended)
+
==== Wired ====
  
# hwclock --systohc --utc
+
; Dynamic IP
  
{{Note|Using UTC for the hardware clock does not mean time will be displayed in UTC in software.}}
+
{{Warning|A bug has been noted in the install ISO, in which the name your interface has during installation differs from the one it will have upon reboot. See [https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/33923 Bug #33923] for more details.
 +
Until this bug is fixed, you can use the following script to find the name your interface will have after boot:
 +
  for i in /sys/class/net/*; do
 +
    echo "&#61;&#61;$i"
 +
    udevadm test-builtin net_id "$i";
 +
    echo
 +
  done 2>/dev/null
 +
}}
  
* '''localtime''' (discouraged) - Used by default in Windows
+
If you only use a single fixed wired network connection, you do not need a network management service and can simply enable the {{ic|dhcpcd}} service. Where <interface> is your wired interface:
 +
# systemctl enable dhcpcd@<interface>.service
  
# hwclock --systohc --localtime
+
Alternatively, you can use {{Pkg|netcfg}}'s {{ic|net-auto-wired}}, which gracefully handles dynamic connections to new networks:
  
{{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}}
+
Install {{Pkg|ifplugd}}, which is required for {{ic|net-auto-wired}}:
 +
# pacman -S ifplugd
  
===== Setting time in a Windows dual boot setup =====
+
Edit {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}} and modify the network interface name, most likely it is not eth0. You can find out more about the naming in the warning above.
 +
{{hc|nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg|2=
 +
WIRED_INTERFACE="<interface>"}}
  
If you are setting up a dual-boot with Windows on your system, you have two options:
+
Enable the {{ic|net-auto-wired}} service.
 +
# systemctl enable net-auto-wired.service
  
* Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC (a quick registry fix is needed, see [https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UbuntuTime#Make_Windows_use_UTC this page] for instructions). Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time with the Internet, as it will make the hardware clock use ''localtime'' again. If you want such functionality (NTP sync), you should use [[ntpd]] on your Arch Linux installation instead.
+
; Static IP
  
* Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to ''localtime'' and later (in [[#Configure the system|Configure the system]]) remove {{ic|hwclock}} from the {{ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} (Windows will take care of hardware clock corrections).
+
Copy a sample profile from {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/network.d}}:
 +
# cd /etc/network.d
 +
# cp examples/ethernet-static .
  
==== Kernel modules ====
+
Edit the profile as needed (modify {{ic|INTERFACE}}, {{ic|ADDR}}, {{ic|GATEWAY}} and {{ic|DNS}}):
 +
# nano ethernet-static
  
{{Tip|Normally all needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.}}
+
Edit {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}} and add the new network profile to the {{ic|NETWORKS}} array:
 +
{{hc|nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg|
 +
2=NETWORKS=(ethernet-static)}}
  
Edit {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}} to configure kernel modules to load during boot in a static list. Each configuration file is named in the style of {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/<program>.conf}}. The configuration files should simply contain a list of kernel module names to load, separated by newlines. Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is {{ic|#}} or {{ic|;}} are ignored. Example:
+
Enable the {{ic|netcfg}} service:
 +
# systemctl enable netcfg.service
  
{{hc|/etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf|<nowiki>
+
==== Wireless ====
# Load virtio-net.ko at boot
+
virtio-net</nowiki>}}
+
  
==== Daemons ====
+
You will need to install additional programs to be able to configure and manage wireless network profiles for [[netcfg]].
  
{{Tip| The daemons line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide. }}
+
[[NetworkManager]] and [[Wicd]] are other popular alternatives.
  
[[Wikipedia:Daemon (computing)|Daemons]] are programs that run in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A good example is a web server that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g.: {{ic|httpd}}) or an SSH server waiting for a user login (e.g.: {{ic|sshd}}). While these are full-featured applications, there are also daemons whose work is not that visible. Examples are a daemon which writes messages into a log file (e.g. {{ic|syslog}}, {{ic|metalog}}), and a daemon which provides a graphical login (e.g.: {{ic|gdm}}, {{ic|kdm}}).
+
* Install the required packages:
  
These programs can be added to the DAEMONS line in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} and will be started when the system boots. The DAEMONS array simply list the names of those scripts contained in {{ic|/etc/rc.d/}} which are to be started during the boot process, and the order in which they start.
+
# pacman -S wireless_tools wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond dialog
  
DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)
+
If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in the above [[#Wireless|Establish an internet connection]] section and also [[Wireless Setup#Drivers and firmware|here]]), install the package containing your firmware. For example:
  
* If a script name is prefixed with a bang ({{ic|!}}), it is not run.
+
# pacman -S zd1211-firmware
* If a script is prefixed with an &quot;at&quot; symbol ({{ic|@}}), it is run in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of this daemon before continuing to the next (this may shorten system boot time). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example {{ic|mpd}} depends on {{ic|network}}, so backgrounding {{ic|network}} may cause {{ic|mpd}} to break.
+
* Edit this array whenever new system services are installed, if starting them automatically during boot is desired.
+
{{Tip|A list of available services (and their running status) can be found using this command: {{ic|rc.d list}}.}}
+
  
=== Configure the network ===
+
* After finishing the rest of this installation and rebooting, you can connect to the network with {{ic|wifi-menu <interface>}} (where {{ic|<interface>}} is the interface of your wireless chipset), which will generate a profile file in {{ic|/etc/network.d}} named after the SSID. There are also templates available in {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples/}} for manual configuration.
  
You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described [[#Setup_network_in_the_live_installation_environment|above]], except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.
+
# wifi-menu <interface>
{{Note|For more in-depth information on network configration, visit [[configuring network]] and [[Wireless_Setup|Wireless setup]].}}
+
  
==== Wired Network ====
+
{{Warning|If you're using {{ic|wifi-menu}}, this must be done *after* your reboot when you're no longer chrooted. The process spawned by this command will conflict with the one you have running outside of the chroot. Alternatively, you could just configure a network profile manually using the templates previously mentioned so that you don't have to worry about using {{ic|wifi-menu}} at all.}}
  
If you only use a single wired network connection, you can use the '''network''' daemon, a simple solution for both dynamic and static IP addressing. First, insure that the daemon is listed in the '''DAEMONS''' array:
+
* Enable the {{ic|net-auto-wireless}} service, which will connect to known networks and gracefully handle roaming and disconnects:
  
{{hc|/etc/rc.conf|2=
+
# systemctl enable net-auto-wireless.service
DAEMONS=(... network ...)}}
+
  
Then configure the '''NETWORKING''' section of {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} as follows, depending on your IP addressing type.
+
{{Note|[[Netcfg]] also provides {{ic|net-auto-wired}}, which can be used in conjunction with {{ic|net-auto-wireless}}.}}
  
===== Dynamic IP (DHCP) =====
+
* Make sure that the correct wireless interface (e.g. {{ic|wlp3s0}}) is set in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}:
  
Assuming the network interface to activate at start is eth0, use this configuration:
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg|2=
 +
WIRELESS_INTERFACE="wlp3s0"}}
  
interface=eth0
+
It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected, using the {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} variable in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}. If {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} is not set, all known wireless networks will be tried.
address=
+
netmask=
+
gateway=
+
  
Your DNS server addresses will be automatically filled in by the dhcpcd daemon.
+
==== xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN ====
  
===== Static IP =====
+
For xDSL, dial-up and ISDN connections, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
  
If you need to use a static IP address, use this configuration:
+
=== Configure pacman ===
  
interface=eth0
+
Pacman is the Arch Linux '''pac'''kage '''man'''ager. It is highly recommended to study and learn how to use it. Read {{ic|man pacman}}, have a look at the [[pacman]] and [[Pacman - An Introduction]] articles, or check out the [[Pacman Rosetta]] article for a comparison to other popular package managers.
address=192.168.0.2
+
netmask=255.255.255.0
+
broadcast=192.168.0.255
+
gateway=192.168.0.1
+
  
You will also need to add your name servers' (DNS) IP addresses and your local domain name to your {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} like this:
+
For repository selections and pacman options, edit {{ic|pacman.conf}}:
 +
# nano /etc/pacman.conf
  
nameserver 61.23.173.5
+
Most people will want to use {{ic|[core]}}, {{ic|[extra]}} and {{ic|[community]}}.
nameserver 61.95.849.8
+
search example.com
+
  
{{Tip|The '''network''' daemon is suitable for systems connecting wired to a single network. For multiple network configurations (e.g. using a laptop), it is recommended to use a network manager program, such as [[netcfg]], which has been designed to manage both wired and wireless connections.}}
+
If you installed Arch Linux x86_64, it's recommended that you enable the {{ic|[multilib]}} repository, as well (to be able to run both 32 bit and 64 bit applications):
  
==== Wireless network ====
+
{{Note|When choosing repos, be sure to uncomment both the {{ic|[''repo_name'']}} header lines, as well as the lines below. Failure to do so will result in the selected repository being omitted! This is a very common error. A correct example for the multilib repository is found below.}}
  
The '''network''' daemon is not sufficient to handle [[Wireless_Setup|Wireless]] networking, which requires additional configuration. You will need to install other programs to configure and manage wireless network profiles, such as [[netcfg]]. [[NetworkManager]] and [[Wicd]] are popular alternatives.
+
[multilib]
 +
SigLevel = PackageRequired
 +
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
  
* Exit the chroot environment:
+
You will then need to update the package list by running {{ic|pacman}} with the {{ic|-Sy}} switch. Failing to do so will generate "warning: database file for 'multilib' does not exist" error when next using pacman.
  
# exit
+
See [[Official Repositories]] for more information, including details about the purpose of each repository.
  
* Install the required packages:
+
For software unavailable directly through pacman, see [[Arch User Repository]].
  
# pacstrap /mnt wireless_tools netcfg
+
=== Create an initial ramdisk environment ===
  
* If you use WPA/WPA2 wireless encryption, install:
+
{{Tip|Most users can skip this step and use the defaults provided in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}}. The initramfs image (from the {{ic|/boot}} folder) has already been generated based on this file when the {{Pkg|linux}} package (the Linux kernel) was installed earlier with {{ic|pacstrap}}.}}
  
# pacstrap /mnt wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond
+
Here you need to set the right [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] if the root is on a USB drive, if you use RAID, LVM, or if {{ic|/usr}} is on a separate partition.
  
* If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in [[#Setup_wireless_network]] and [[Wireless_Setup#Drivers_and_firmware]]), install the package containg your firmware, ''e.g.'':
+
Edit {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} as needed and re-generate the initramfs image with:
  
  # pacstrap /mnt zd1211-firmware
+
  # mkinitcpio -p linux
  
* Chroot back:
+
{{Note|Arch VPS installations on QEMU (e.g. when using {{ic|virt-manager}}) may need {{ic|virtio}} modules in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}} to be able to boot.
  
# arch-chroot /mnt
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/mkinitcpio.conf|2=
 +
MODULES="virtio virtio_blk virtio_pci virtio_net"}}}}
  
* Create a network profile for your wireless connection in the {{ic|/etc/network.d}} directory:
+
=== Set the root password ===
** Copy and rename a configuration template from {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples/}} to {{ic|/etc/network.d/mynetwork}} (''mynetwork'' being an example; the name is not a network setting and does not need to match the wireless network name (SSID)). These templates are adapted to the type of your wireless connection, such as {{ic|wireless-wep}} or {{ic|wireless-wpa}}. See [[Netcfg#Configuration]] for a list of available templates and their usage.
+
** Set {{ic|INTERFACE}} to the correct wireless interface. This can be checked with {{ic|iwconfig}}.
+
** Ensure the {{ic|ESSID}} and {{ic|KEY}} (passkey) are set correctly for wireless connections. Typos in these fields are common errors.
+
*** Note that WEP ''string'' keys (not ''hex'' keys) must be specified with a leading {{ic|s:}} (e.g. {{ic|<nowiki>KEY="s:somepasskey"</nowiki>}}).
+
*** For WPA-Personal, it is possible to specify the passkey in plain text or as an encoded hex.
+
* Add {{ic|net-auto-wireless}} to the {{ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}:
+
  
{{hc|/etc/rc.conf|2=
+
Set the root password with:
DAEMONS=(... net-auto-wireless ...)}}
+
  
And specify the desired wireless interface with the {{ic|WIRELESS_INTERFACE}} variable in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}:
+
# passwd
  
{{hc|/etc/conf.d/netcfg|2=
+
=== Install and configure a bootloader ===
WIRELESS_INTERFACE="wlan0"}}
+
  
It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected with the {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} variable in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}. If {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} is not set, all wireless networks will be tried.
+
==== For BIOS motherboards ====
  
{{Note|[[netcfg|Netcfg]] also provides other daemons to connect automatically, including both wireless and wired networking. Refer to the [[netcfg]] article for more information.}}
+
For BIOS systems, there are three bootloaders - Syslinux, GRUB, and [[LILO]]. Choose the bootloader as per your convenience. Below only Syslinux and GRUB are explained.
  
==== Direct Modem Connection ====
+
* Syslinux is (currently) limited to loading only files from the partition where it was installed. Its configuration file is considered to be easier to understand. An example configuration can be found [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1109328#p1109328 here].
  
For xDSL, analog modem (dial-up) and ISDN, see [[Direct Modem Connection]] for detailed instructions.
+
* GRUB is more feature-rich and supports more complex scenarios. Its configuration file(s) is more similar to a scripting language, which may be difficult for beginners to manually write. It is recommended that they automatically generate one.
  
=== Create an initial ramdisk environment ===
+
{{Note|Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.}}
  
Configure {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} as needed (see [[mkinitcpio]]) and create an initial ramdisk with
+
===== Syslinux =====
+
# mkinitcpio -p linux
+
  
{{Tip|Most users can simply accept the defaults provided in the {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} file.}}
+
Install the {{Pkg|syslinux}} package and then use the {{ic|syslinux-install_update}} script to automatically ''install'' the files ({{ic|-i}}), mark the partition ''active'' by setting the boot flag ({{ic|-a}}), and install the ''MBR'' boot code ({{ic|-m}}):
  
=== Install and configure a bootloader ===
+
{{Note|If you have partitioned the drive as GPT, install {{Pkg|gptfdisk}} package, as well ({{ic|pacman -S gptfdisk}}), because it contains {{ic|sgdisk}}, which will be used to set the GPT-specific boot flag.}}
  
Install either Syslinux or GRUB. There is no need to install both. Syslinux is considered to be easier to understand and to configure because it has only one configuration file. In spite of GRUB's many configuration files ''(for which the recommended method is to re-generate the {{ic|grub.cfg}} file each time you change anything in one of those files)'', using GRUB could make it more comfortable to transition to BURG in the future, a much more [http://code.google.com/p/burg/wiki/Screenshots customizable] GRUB fork. Of course, Syslinux can also be customized. [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1109328#p1109328 (*)]
+
# pacman -S syslinux
 +
# syslinux-install_update -i -a -m
  
{{Note|If you have a separate boot partition, first check with {{ic|lsblk /dev/sda}} to make sure it is mounted. If you don't see a {{ic|/boot}} mountpoint for your designated boot partition, then you should reboot the computer and from the Arch LiveCD:
+
Configure {{ic|syslinux.cfg}} to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot. Change {{ic|/dev/sda3}} to reflect your root partition ''(if you partitioned your drive as in [[#Prepare the storage drive|the example]], your root partition is sda1)''. Do the same for the fallback entry.
* mount the root partition to {{ic|/mnt}}
+
* mount the boot partition to {{ic|/mnt/boot}}
+
* run {{ic|arch-chroot /mnt}}
+
and then proceed with the instructions bellow.}}
+
  
{{Note|For UEFI motherboards read the [[UEFI Bootloaders]] article.}}
+
{{hc|# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg|2=
 
+
==== Syslinux ====
+
 
+
{{Note|Syslinux does not yet support [[UEFI]].}}
+
 
+
Install the {{Pkg|syslinux}} package and edit {{ic|syslinux.cfg}} to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot.
+
 
+
{{hc|# pacman -S syslinux
+
# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg|<nowiki>
+
 
...
 
...
 
LABEL arch
 
LABEL arch
 
         ...
 
         ...
 
         APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro
 
         APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro
         ...</nowiki>}}
+
         ...}}
  
Change {{ic|/dev/sda3}} to reflect your root partition (if you partitioned your disk as we did in the example, your root partition is sda1). Do the same for {{ic|LABEL archfallback}}.
+
For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see [[Syslinux]].
  
Then type the following command to ''install'' the files ({{ic|-i}}), mark the partition ''active'' with the ''boot'' flag ({{ic|-a}}), and install the ''MBR'' boot code ({{ic|-m}}):
+
===== GRUB =====
  
# syslinux-install_update -iam
+
Install the {{Pkg|grub-bios}} package and then run {{ic|grub-install /dev/sda}}:
  
For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see [[Syslinux]].
+
{{Note|Change {{ic|/dev/sda}} to reflect the drive you installed Arch on. Do not append a partition number (do not use {{ic|sda''X''}}).}}
  
==== GRUB ====
+
{{Note|For GPT-partitioned drives on BIOS motherboards, GRUB needs a "[[GRUB2#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]".}}
 
+
For BIOS motherboards:
+
  
 
  # pacman -S grub-bios
 
  # pacman -S grub-bios
 
  # grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck /dev/sda
 
  # grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck /dev/sda
 +
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
  
For UEFI motherboards:
+
While using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
  
# pacman -S grub-efi-x86_64
+
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
+
  
{{Note|In rare cases you may need to use {{ic|grub-efi-i386}} instead; on older macs for instance, where Apple hardware uses some kind of mixture between UEFI v1.x and v2.x. In such cases, GRUB would only work with 32 bit modules, even though the CPU may be 64 bit.}}
+
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
  
{{Note|GRUB is not the only UEFI bootloader available. See [[UEFI Bootloaders]].}}
+
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB2]].
  
To prevent a (harmless) error message at boot time:
+
==== For UEFI motherboards ====
  
# mkdir -p /boot/grub/locale
+
For UEFI boot, the drive needs to be GPT-partitioned, and a UEFI System Partition (512 MiB or higher, FAT32, type {{ic|EF00}}) must be present and mounted on {{ic|/boot/efi}}. If you have followed this guide from the beginning, you've already done all of these.
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
+
  
Create the {{ic|grub.cfg}} file:
+
While there are other [[UEFI Bootloaders|UEFI bootloaders]] available, using EFISTUB is recommended. Below are instructions for setting up EFISTUB and GRUB.
  
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} before running the next command:
+
{{Note|Syslinux does not yet support UEFI.}}
# pacman -S os-prober
+
}}
+
  
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
+
===== EFISTUB =====
  
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
+
The Linux kernel can act as its own bootloader using EFISTUB. This is the UEFI boot method recommended by developers and simpler compared to {{ic|grub-efi-x86_64}}. The below steps set up rEFInd (a fork of rEFIt) to provide a menu for EFISTUB kernels, as well as for booting other UEFI bootloaders. You can also use [[UEFI Bootloaders#Using gummiboot|gummiboot]] instead of rEFInd. Both rEFInd and gummiboot can detect Windows UEFI bootloader in case of dual-boot.
  
=== Root password ===
+
1. Boot in UEFI mode and load {{ic|efivars}} kernel module before chrooting:
  
Set the root password with:
+
# modprobe efivars      # before chrooting
  
  # passwd
+
2. Mount the UEFISYS partition at {{ic|/mnt/boot/efi}}, chroot and [[UEFI_Bootloaders#Setting_up_EFISTUB|copy the kernel and initramfs files]] as described below.
 +
 
 +
* Create {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/}} directory.
 +
 
 +
* Copy {{ic|/boot/vmlinuz-linux}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi}}. The {{ic|.efi}} file extension is very important as some UEFI firmwares refuse to launch a file without this extension. '''Important:''' Remember that the file is called vmlinu'''z''', but not vmlinu'''x'''.
 +
 
 +
* Copy {{ic|/boot/initramfs-linux.img}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img}}.
 +
 
 +
* Copy {{ic|/boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch-fallback.img}}.
 +
 
 +
Every time the kernel and initramfs files are updated in {{ic|/boot}}, they need to be updated in {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch}}. This can be automated either [[UEFI Bootloaders#Sync EFISTUB Kernel in UEFISYS partition using Systemd|using systemd]] or [[UEFI Bootloaders#Sync EFISTUB Kernel in UEFISYS partition using Incron|using incron]] (for non-systemd setups).
 +
 
 +
3. In this guide you set up a bootloader GUI called rEFInd. Alternative bootloaders can be found on the page [[UEFI Bootloaders#Booting EFISTUB]].
 +
For the recommended rEFInd bootloader install the following packages:
 +
# pacman -S refind-efi efibootmgr
 +
 
 +
4. Install rEFInd to the UEFISYS partition (summarized from [[UEFI Bootloaders#Using rEFInd]]):
 +
 
 +
# mkdir -p /boot/efi/EFI/refind
 +
# cp /usr/lib/refind/refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind_x64.efi
 +
# cp /usr/lib/refind/config/refind.conf /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind.conf
 +
# cp -r /usr/share/refind/icons /boot/efi/EFI/refind/icons
 +
 
 +
5. Create a {{ic|refind_linux.conf}} file with the kernel parameters to be used by rEFInd:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|# nano /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind_linux.conf|2=
 +
"Boot to X"          "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=graphical.target"
 +
"Boot to console"    "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=multi-user.target"}}
 +
 
 +
{{Note|{{ic|refind_linux.conf}} is copied in the directory {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/}} where the initramfs and the kernel have been copied to in step 2. }}
 +
{{Note|In {{ic|refind_linux.conf}}, sdaX refers to your root file system, not your boot partition, if you created them separately. }}
 +
 
 +
6. Add rEFInd to UEFI boot menu using [[UEFI#efibootmgr|efibootmgr]].
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|Using {{ic|efibootmgr}} on Apple Macs may brick the firmware and may need reflash of the motherboard ROM. For Macs, use {{AUR|mactel-boot}}, or "bless" from within Mac OS X.}}
 +
 
 +
# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "rEFInd" -l '\EFI\refind\refind_x64.efi'
 +
 
 +
{{Note|In the above command, X and Y denote the drive and partition of the UEFISYS partition. For example, in {{ic|/dev/sdc5}}, X is "c" and Y is "5".}}
 +
 
 +
7. (Optional) As a fallback, in case {{ic|efibootmgr}} created boot entry does not work, copy {{ic|refind_x64.efi}} to {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi}} as follows:
 +
 
 +
# cp -r /boot/efi/EFI/refind/* /boot/efi/EFI/boot/
 +
# mv /boot/efi/EFI/boot/refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi
 +
 
 +
===== GRUB =====
 +
 
 +
{{Note|In case you have a system with 32-bit EFI, like pre-2008 Macs, install {{ic|grub-efi-i386}} instead, and use {{ic|1=--target=i386-efi}}.}}
 +
 
 +
# pacman -S grub-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
 +
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
 +
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
 +
 
 +
The next command creates a menu entry for GRUB in the UEFI boot menu. However, as of {{Pkg|grub-efi-x86_64}} version 2.00, {{ic|grub-install}} tries to create a menu entry, so running {{ic|efibootmgr}} may not be necessary. See [[UEFI#efibootmgr]] for more info.
 +
 
 +
# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Arch Linux (GRUB)" -l '\EFI\arch_grub\grubx64.efi'
 +
 
 +
Next, while using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
 +
 
 +
  # grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
 +
 
 +
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
  
 
=== Unmount the partitions and reboot ===
 
=== Unmount the partitions and reboot ===
Line 775: Line 819:
 
  # exit
 
  # exit
  
Since the partitions are mounted under {{ic|/mnt}}, we use the following command to unmount them.
+
Since the partitions are mounted under {{ic|/mnt}}, we use the following command to unmount them:
  
 
  # umount /mnt/{boot,home,}
 
  # umount /mnt/{boot,home,}
  
Exit the install, and reboot:
+
Reboot the computer:
  
 
  # reboot
 
  # reboot
  
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media and change the boot preference in your BIOS (if you changed it to install); otherwise you may boot back into the installation media!}}<noinclude>{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>
+
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media, otherwise you will boot back into it.}}<noinclude>
 +
{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>

Revision as of 00:38, 6 March 2013

Tip: This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. Click here if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.

Installation

You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root.

Change the language

Tip: These are optional for the majority of users. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the Wi-Fi password, or if you would like to receive system messages (e.g. possible errors) in your own language.

By default, the keyboard layout is set to us. If you have a non-US keyboard layout, run:

# loadkeys layout

...where layout can be fr, uk, be-latin1, etc. See here for a comprehensive list.

The font should also be changed, because most languages use more glyphs than the 26 letter English alphabet. Otherwise some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. Note that the name is case-sensitive, so please type it exactly as you see it:

# setfont Lat2-Terminus16

By default, the language is set to English (US). If you would like to change the language for the install process (German, in this example), remove the # in front of the locale you want from /etc/locale.gen, along with English (US). Please choose the UTF-8 entry.

Use Template:Keypress to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press Template:Keypress and Template:Keypress to use the same filename.

# nano /etc/locale.gen
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8
# locale-gen
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8

Remember, Template:Keypress activates and deactivates the keymap.

Establish an internet connection

Warning: udev no longer assigns network interface names according to the wlanX and ethX naming scheme. If you're coming from a different distribution or are reinstalling Arch and not aware of the new interface naming style, please do not assume that your wireless interface is named wlan0, or that your wired interface is named eth0. You can use the "ip" utility to discover the names of your interfaces.

From systemd-197's release and onward, udev now assigns predictable, stable network interface names that deviate from the legacy incremental naming scheme (wlan0, wlan1, etc.). These interface names are guaranteed to be persistent across reboots, which solves the problem of the lack of predictability of network interface name assignment. For more information about why this was necessary, read http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames .

The dhcpcd network daemon is started automatically at boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection, if available. Try pinging a website to see if it was successful. And since Google is always on...

# ping -c 3 www.google.com
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=18.2 ms
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=16.6 ms

--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms

If you get a ping: unknown host error, first check if there is any problem with your cable (or if you have enough wireless signal), otherwise you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below.

Otherwise, move on to Prepare the storage drive.

Wired

Follow this procedure if you need to set up a wired connection via a static IP address.

First, identify the name of your ethernet interface.

# ip link
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT 
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
2: enp2s0f0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:11:25:31:69:20 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
3: wlp3s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP mode DORMANT qlen 1000
    link/ether 01:02:03:04:05:06 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff

In this case, the ethernet interface is enp2s0f0. If you're unsure, your ethernet interface is likely to start with the letter "e", and unlikely to be "lo" or start with the letter "w". You can also use iwconfig and see which interfaces are not wireless:

# iwconfig
enp2s0f0  no wireless extensions.
wlp3s0    IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"NETGEAR97"  
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.427 GHz  Access Point: 2C:B0:5D:9C:72:BF   
          Bit Rate=65 Mb/s   Tx-Power=16 dBm   
          Retry  long limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on
          Link Quality=61/70  Signal level=-49 dBm  
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:430   Missed beacon:0
lo        no wireless extensions.

In this example, neither enp2s0f0 nor the loopback device have wireless extensions, meaning enp2s0f0 is our ethernet interface.

You also need to know these settings:

  • Static IP address.
  • Subnet mask.
  • Gateway's IP address.
  • Name servers' (DNS) IP addresses.
  • Domain name (unless you're on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).

Activate the connected Ethernet interface (e.g. enp2s0f0):

# ip link set enp2s0f0 up

Add the address:

# ip addr add <ip address>/<subnetmask> dev <interface>

For example:

# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev enp2s0f0

For more options, run man ip.

Add your gateway like this, substituting your own gateway's IP address:

# ip route add default via <ip address>

For example:

# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1

Edit resolv.conf, substituting your name servers' IP addresses and your local domain name:

# nano /etc/resolv.conf
nameserver 61.23.173.5
nameserver 61.95.849.8
search example.com
Note: Currently, you may include a maximum of 3 nameserver lines.

You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed Network Configuration page.

Wireless

Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (Wi-Fi) during the installation process.

If you're coming from another distribution, or if this is your first time installing Arch Linux since the deprecation of the old interface naming scheme, you might be surprised to learn that the first wireless interface is not named "wlan0". In fact, none of the interfaces are automatically prefixed with "wlan" any longer. Don't panic; simply execute iwconfig to discover the name of your wireless interface.

The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quick-start procedure executed at this point in the installation will initialize your wireless hardware for use in the live environment of the installation media. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it.

Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.

Note: The following examples use wlp3s0 for the interface and linksys for the ESSID. Remember to change these values according to your setup.

The basic procedure will be:

  • Identify the wireless interface:
# lspci | grep -i net

Or, if using a USB adapter:

# lsusb
  • Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with iwconfig:
Note: If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see Wireless Setup for more detailed information.
# iwconfig
enp2s0f0  no wireless extensions.
wlp3s0    IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"NETGEAR97"  
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.427 GHz  Access Point: 2C:B0:5D:9C:72:BF   
          Bit Rate=65 Mb/s   Tx-Power=16 dBm   
          Retry  long limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:on
          Link Quality=61/70  Signal level=-49 dBm  
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:430   Missed beacon:0
lo        no wireless extensions.

In this example, wlp3s0 is the available wireless interface.

  • Bring the interface up with:
# ip link set wlp3s0 up

A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:

# ip link set wlp3s0 up
SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory

If unsure, invoke dmesg to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset.

Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:

# dmesg | grep firmware
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode

If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.

Warning: Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under /usr/lib/firmware in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it! Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See Wireless Setup if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset.

Next, use netcfg's wifi-menu to connect to a network. Replace wlp3s0" with the name of your interface:

# wifi-menu wlp3s0

{{Warning|At the moment, netcfg's wifi-menu, when executed without arguments, will look for "wlan0". Execute wifi-menu with your interface as the argument in order to use it. See Network Configuration#Get_current_device_names

You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed Wireless Setup page.

xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN

If you have a router in bridge mode, run:

# pppoe-setup

To use these settings and connect to your ISP, run:

# pppoe-start

You may also need to adjust your resolv.conf:

# echo nameserver 8.8.8.8 > /etc/resolv.conf

If you have a dial-up or ISDN connection, see Direct Modem Connection.

Behind a proxy server

If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the http_proxy and ftp_proxy environment variables. See Proxy settings for more information.

Prepare the storage drive

Warning: Partitioning can destroy data. You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.

Absolute beginners are encouraged to use a graphical partitioning tool. GParted is a good example, and is provided as a "live" CD. It is also included on live CDs of most Linux distributions such as Ubuntu and Linux Mint. A drive should first be partitioned and the partitions should be formatted with a file system before rebooting.

See Swap for details if you wish to set up a swap partition or file now. A swap file is easier to resize than a partition and can be created at any point after installation, but cannot be used with a BTRFS filesystem.

If you have already done so, proceed to Mount the partitions.

Otherwise, see the following example.

Example

The Arch Linux install media includes the following partitioning tools: fdisk, gdisk, cfdisk, cgdisk, parted.

Notes regarding UEFI boot:
  • If you have a UEFI motherboard, you will need to create an extra UEFI System Partition.
  • It is recommended to always use GPT for UEFI boot, as some UEFI firmwares do not allow UEFI-MBR boot.
Notes regarding GPT partitioning:
  • If you are not dual booting with Windows, then it is advisable to use GPT instead of MBR. Read GPT for a list of advantages.
  • If you have a BIOS motherboard (or plan on booting in BIOS compatibility mode) and you want to setup GRUB on a GPT-partitioned drive, you will need to create an extra BIOS Boot Partition. Syslinux doesn't need one.
  • Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.
Note: If you are installing to a USB flash key, see Installing Arch Linux on a USB key.

The example system will contain a 15 GB root partition, and a home partition for the remaining space. Choose either MBR or GPT. Do not choose both!

It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See Partitioning.

MBR cfdisk /dev/sda Root:

Home:

GPT cgdisk /dev/sda Root:
Home:

If you chose MBR, here's how it should look like:

Name    Flags     Part Type    FS Type          [Label]       Size (MB)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
sda1    Boot       Primary     Linux                             15360
sda2               Primary     Linux                             133000*

If you chose GPT, here's how it should look like:

Part. #     Size        Partition Type            Partition Name
----------------------------------------------------------------
            1007.0 KiB  free space
   1        15.0 GiB    Linux filesystem
   2        123.45 GiB  Linux filesystem

Double check and make sure that you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing.

If you would like to start over, you can simply select Quit (or press Template:Keypress) to exit without saving changes and then restart cfdisk (or cgdisk).

If you are satisfied, choose Write (or press Template:Keypress) to finalize and to write the partition table to the drive. Type "yes" and choose Quit (or press Template:Keypress) to exit without making any more changes.

Simply partitioning is not enough; the partitions also need a filesystem. To format the partitions with an ext4 filesystem:

Warning: Double check and triple check that it's actually /dev/sda1 and /dev/sda2 that you want to format.
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2

If you have made a partition dedicated to swap (code 82), don't forget to format and activate it with:

# mkswap /dev/sdaX
# swapon /dev/sdaX

Mount the partitions

Each partition is identified with a number suffix. For example, sda1 specifies the first partition of the first drive, while sda designates the entire drive.

To display the current partition layout:

# lsblk /dev/sda
Note: Do not mount more than one partition to the same directory. And pay attention, because the mounting order is important.

First, mount the root partition on /mnt. Following the example when using cfdisk above (yours may be different), it would be:

# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

Then mount the home partition and any other separate partition (/boot, /var, etc), if you have any:

# mkdir /mnt/home
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/home

In case you have a UEFI motherboard, mount the UEFI partition:

# mkdir -p /mnt/boot/efi
# mount /dev/sdaX /mnt/boot/efi

Select a mirror

Before installing, you may want to edit the mirrorlist file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by pacstrap as well, so it's worth getting it right.

# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
##
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
##

Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch
...

If you want, you can make it the only mirror available by getting rid of everything else (using Template:Keypress), but it's usually a good idea to have a few more, in case the first one goes offline.

Tip:
  • Use the Mirrorlist Generator to get an updated list for your country. HTTP mirrors are faster than FTP, because of something called keepalive. With FTP, pacman has to send out a signal each time it downloads a package, resulting in a brief pause. For other ways to generate a mirror list, see Sorting mirrors and Reflector.
  • Arch Linux MirrorStatus reports various aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors, data collection problems, the last time mirrors have been synced, etc.
Note:
  • Whenever in the future you change your list of mirrors, always remember to force pacman to refresh all package lists with pacman -Syy. This is considered to be good practice and will avoid possible headaches. See Mirrors for more information.
  • If you're using an older installation medium, your mirrorlist might be outdated, which might lead to problems when updating Arch Linux (see FS#22510). Therefore it is advised to obtain the latest mirror information as described above.
  • Some issues have been reported in the Arch Linux forums regarding network problems that prevent pacman from updating/synchronizing repositories (see [1] and [2]). When installing Arch Linux natively, these issues have been resolved by replacing the default pacman file downloader with an alternative (see Improve Pacman Performance for more details). When installing Arch Linux as a guest OS in VirtualBox, this issue has also been addressed by using "Host interface" instead of "NAT" in the machine properties.

Install the base system

The base system is installed using the pacstrap script.

The -i switch can be omitted if you wish to install every package from the base and base-devel groups without prompting.

# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel
Note: If pacman fails to verify your packages, check the system time with cal. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually or with the ntp client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to Time page for more information on correcting system time.
Note: If pacman complains about invalid signatures during the pacstrap phase (error: failed to commit transaction (invalid or corrupted package)) run the following command below.
# pacman-key --init && pacman-key --populate archlinux 
  • base: Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment.
  • base-devel: Extra tools from [core] such as make, and automake. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand the system. The base-devel group will be required to install software from the Arch User Repository.

This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using pacman.

Generate an fstab

Generate an fstab file with the following command. UUIDs will be used because they have certain advantages (see fstab#Identifying filesystems). If you would prefer to use labels instead, replace the -U option with -L.

Note: If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do not run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file.
# genfstab -U -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
# nano /mnt/etc/fstab
Warning: The fstab file should always be checked after generating it. If you made an EFI system partition earlier, then genfstab has incorrectly added options to your EFI system partition. This will in fact prevent your computer from booting from that drive, so you need to remove all options for the EFI partition except for noatime. For the other partitions that use it, be sure to replace "codepage=cp437" with "codepage=437" or else when you next reboot, any mounts with this option will fail and systemd will halt and drop into recovery mode. This should be fixed by linux 3.8

A few considerations:

  • Only the root (/) partition needs 1 for the last field. Everything else should have either 2 or 0 (see fstab#Field definitions).

Chroot and configure the base system

Next, we chroot into our newly installed system:

# arch-chroot /mnt
Note: Use arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash to chroot into a bash shell.

At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. These can either be created if they do not exist, or edited if you wish to change the defaults.

Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.

Locale

Locales are used by glibc and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.

There are two files that need editing: locale.gen and locale.conf.

  • The locale.gen file is empty by default (everything is commented out) and you need to remove the # in front of the line(s) you want. You may uncomment more lines than just English (US), as long as you choose their UTF-8 encoding:
# nano /etc/locale.gen
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8
# locale-gen

This will run on every glibc upgrade, generating all the locales specified in /etc/locale.gen.

  • The locale.conf file doesn't exist by default. Setting only LANG should be enough. It will act as the default value for all other variables.
# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
Note: If you set some other language than English at the beginning of the install, the above commands would be something like:
# echo LANG=de_DE.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8

To use other LC_* variables, first run locale to see the available options. An advanced example can be found here.

Warning: Using the LC_ALL variable is strongly discouraged because it overrides everything.

Console font and keymap

If you set a keymap at the beginning of the install process, load it now, as well, because the environment has changed. For example:

# loadkeys de-latin1
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16

To make them available after reboot, edit vconsole.conf:

# nano /etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1
FONT=Lat2-Terminus16
  • KEYMAP – Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or Xorg.
  • FONT – Available alternate console fonts reside in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/. The default (blank) is safe, but some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. It's recommended that you change it to Lat2-Terminus16, because according to /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/README.Lat2-Terminus16, it claims to support "about 110 language sets".
  • Possible option FONT_MAP – Defines the console map to load at boot. Read man setfont. Removing it or leaving it blank is safe.

See Console fonts and man vconsole.conf for more information.

Time zone

Available time zones and subzones can be found in the /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> directories.

To view the available <Zone>, check the directory /usr/share/zoneinfo/:

# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/

Similarly, you can check the contents of directories belonging to a <SubZone>:

# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe

Create a symbolic link /etc/localtime to your zone file /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> using this command:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime

Example:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime

Hardware clock

Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems. Otherwise, they may overwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts.

You can generate /etc/adjtime automatically by using one of the following commands:

  • UTC (recommended)
Note: Using UTC for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in UTC.
# hwclock --systohc --utc

To synchronize your "UTC" time over the internet, see NTPd.

  • localtime (discouraged; used by default in Windows)
Warning: Using localtime may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for localtime.
# hwclock --systohc --localtime

If you have (or planning on having) a dual boot setup with Windows:

  • Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC. A quick registry fix is needed. Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time on-line, because the hardware clock will default back to localtime.
  • Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to localtime and disable any time-related services, like NTPd . This will let Windows take care of hardware clock corrections and you will need to remember to boot into Windows at least two times a year (in Spring and Autumn) when DST kicks in. So please don't ask on the forums why the clock is one hour behind or ahead if you usually go for days or weeks without booting into Windows.

Kernel modules

Tip: This is just an example, you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.

For kernel modules to load during boot, place a *.conf file in /etc/modules-load.d/, with a name based on the program that uses them.

# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.

virtio-net

If there are more modules to load per *.conf, the module names can be separated by newlines. A good example are the VirtualBox Guest Additions.

Empty lines and lines starting with # or ; are ignored.

Hostname

Set the hostname to your liking (e.g. arch):

# echo myhostname > /etc/hostname
Note: There is no need to edit /etc/hosts.

Configure the network

You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described above, except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.

Note: For more in-depth information on network configration, visit Network Configuration and Wireless Setup.

Wired

Dynamic IP
Warning: A bug has been noted in the install ISO, in which the name your interface has during installation differs from the one it will have upon reboot. See Bug #33923 for more details.

Until this bug is fixed, you can use the following script to find the name your interface will have after boot:

 for i in /sys/class/net/*; do
   echo "==$i"
   udevadm test-builtin net_id "$i";
   echo
 done 2>/dev/null

If you only use a single fixed wired network connection, you do not need a network management service and can simply enable the dhcpcd service. Where <interface> is your wired interface:

# systemctl enable dhcpcd@<interface>.service

Alternatively, you can use netcfg's net-auto-wired, which gracefully handles dynamic connections to new networks:

Install ifplugd, which is required for net-auto-wired:

# pacman -S ifplugd

Edit /etc/conf.d/netcfg and modify the network interface name, most likely it is not eth0. You can find out more about the naming in the warning above.

nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg
WIRED_INTERFACE="<interface>"

Enable the net-auto-wired service.

# systemctl enable net-auto-wired.service
Static IP

Copy a sample profile from /etc/network.d/examples to /etc/network.d:

# cd /etc/network.d
# cp examples/ethernet-static .

Edit the profile as needed (modify INTERFACE, ADDR, GATEWAY and DNS):

# nano ethernet-static

Edit /etc/conf.d/netcfg and add the new network profile to the NETWORKS array:

nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg
NETWORKS=(ethernet-static)

Enable the netcfg service:

# systemctl enable netcfg.service

Wireless

You will need to install additional programs to be able to configure and manage wireless network profiles for netcfg.

NetworkManager and Wicd are other popular alternatives.

  • Install the required packages:
# pacman -S wireless_tools wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond dialog

If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in the above Establish an internet connection section and also here), install the package containing your firmware. For example:

# pacman -S zd1211-firmware
  • After finishing the rest of this installation and rebooting, you can connect to the network with wifi-menu <interface> (where <interface> is the interface of your wireless chipset), which will generate a profile file in /etc/network.d named after the SSID. There are also templates available in /etc/network.d/examples/ for manual configuration.
# wifi-menu <interface>
Warning: If you're using wifi-menu, this must be done *after* your reboot when you're no longer chrooted. The process spawned by this command will conflict with the one you have running outside of the chroot. Alternatively, you could just configure a network profile manually using the templates previously mentioned so that you don't have to worry about using wifi-menu at all.
  • Enable the net-auto-wireless service, which will connect to known networks and gracefully handle roaming and disconnects:
# systemctl enable net-auto-wireless.service
Note: Netcfg also provides net-auto-wired, which can be used in conjunction with net-auto-wireless.
  • Make sure that the correct wireless interface (e.g. wlp3s0) is set in /etc/conf.d/netcfg:
# nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg
WIRELESS_INTERFACE="wlp3s0"

It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected, using the AUTO_PROFILES variable in /etc/conf.d/netcfg. If AUTO_PROFILES is not set, all known wireless networks will be tried.

xDSL (PPPoE), analog modem or ISDN

For xDSL, dial-up and ISDN connections, see Direct Modem Connection.

Configure pacman

Pacman is the Arch Linux package manager. It is highly recommended to study and learn how to use it. Read man pacman, have a look at the pacman and Pacman - An Introduction articles, or check out the Pacman Rosetta article for a comparison to other popular package managers.

For repository selections and pacman options, edit pacman.conf:

# nano /etc/pacman.conf

Most people will want to use [core], [extra] and [community].

If you installed Arch Linux x86_64, it's recommended that you enable the [multilib] repository, as well (to be able to run both 32 bit and 64 bit applications):

Note: When choosing repos, be sure to uncomment both the [repo_name] header lines, as well as the lines below. Failure to do so will result in the selected repository being omitted! This is a very common error. A correct example for the multilib repository is found below.
[multilib]
SigLevel = PackageRequired
Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist

You will then need to update the package list by running pacman with the -Sy switch. Failing to do so will generate "warning: database file for 'multilib' does not exist" error when next using pacman.

See Official Repositories for more information, including details about the purpose of each repository.

For software unavailable directly through pacman, see Arch User Repository.

Create an initial ramdisk environment

Tip: Most users can skip this step and use the defaults provided in mkinitcpio.conf. The initramfs image (from the /boot folder) has already been generated based on this file when the linux package (the Linux kernel) was installed earlier with pacstrap.

Here you need to set the right hooks if the root is on a USB drive, if you use RAID, LVM, or if /usr is on a separate partition.

Edit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf as needed and re-generate the initramfs image with:

# mkinitcpio -p linux
Note: Arch VPS installations on QEMU (e.g. when using virt-manager) may need virtio modules in mkinitcpio.conf to be able to boot.
# nano /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
MODULES="virtio virtio_blk virtio_pci virtio_net"

Set the root password

Set the root password with:

# passwd

Install and configure a bootloader

For BIOS motherboards

For BIOS systems, there are three bootloaders - Syslinux, GRUB, and LILO. Choose the bootloader as per your convenience. Below only Syslinux and GRUB are explained.

  • Syslinux is (currently) limited to loading only files from the partition where it was installed. Its configuration file is considered to be easier to understand. An example configuration can be found here.
  • GRUB is more feature-rich and supports more complex scenarios. Its configuration file(s) is more similar to a scripting language, which may be difficult for beginners to manually write. It is recommended that they automatically generate one.
Note: Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.
Syslinux

Install the syslinux package and then use the syslinux-install_update script to automatically install the files (-i), mark the partition active by setting the boot flag (-a), and install the MBR boot code (-m):

Note: If you have partitioned the drive as GPT, install gptfdisk package, as well (pacman -S gptfdisk), because it contains sgdisk, which will be used to set the GPT-specific boot flag.
# pacman -S syslinux
# syslinux-install_update -i -a -m

Configure syslinux.cfg to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot. Change /dev/sda3 to reflect your root partition (if you partitioned your drive as in the example, your root partition is sda1). Do the same for the fallback entry.

# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg
...
LABEL arch
        ...
        APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro
        ...

For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see Syslinux.

GRUB

Install the grub-bios package and then run grub-install /dev/sda:

Note: Change /dev/sda to reflect the drive you installed Arch on. Do not append a partition number (do not use sdaX).
Note: For GPT-partitioned drives on BIOS motherboards, GRUB needs a "BIOS Boot Partition".
# pacman -S grub-bios
# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck /dev/sda
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo

While using a manually created grub.cfg is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:

Tip: To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install os-prober (pacman -S os-prober) before running the next command.
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see GRUB2.

For UEFI motherboards

For UEFI boot, the drive needs to be GPT-partitioned, and a UEFI System Partition (512 MiB or higher, FAT32, type EF00) must be present and mounted on /boot/efi. If you have followed this guide from the beginning, you've already done all of these.

While there are other UEFI bootloaders available, using EFISTUB is recommended. Below are instructions for setting up EFISTUB and GRUB.

Note: Syslinux does not yet support UEFI.
EFISTUB

The Linux kernel can act as its own bootloader using EFISTUB. This is the UEFI boot method recommended by developers and simpler compared to grub-efi-x86_64. The below steps set up rEFInd (a fork of rEFIt) to provide a menu for EFISTUB kernels, as well as for booting other UEFI bootloaders. You can also use gummiboot instead of rEFInd. Both rEFInd and gummiboot can detect Windows UEFI bootloader in case of dual-boot.

1. Boot in UEFI mode and load efivars kernel module before chrooting:

# modprobe efivars      # before chrooting

2. Mount the UEFISYS partition at /mnt/boot/efi, chroot and copy the kernel and initramfs files as described below.

  • Create /boot/efi/EFI/arch/ directory.
  • Copy /boot/vmlinuz-linux to /boot/efi/EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch.efi. The .efi file extension is very important as some UEFI firmwares refuse to launch a file without this extension. Important: Remember that the file is called vmlinuz, but not vmlinux.
  • Copy /boot/initramfs-linux.img to /boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img.
  • Copy /boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img to /boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch-fallback.img.

Every time the kernel and initramfs files are updated in /boot, they need to be updated in /boot/efi/EFI/arch. This can be automated either using systemd or using incron (for non-systemd setups).

3. In this guide you set up a bootloader GUI called rEFInd. Alternative bootloaders can be found on the page UEFI Bootloaders#Booting EFISTUB. For the recommended rEFInd bootloader install the following packages:

# pacman -S refind-efi efibootmgr

4. Install rEFInd to the UEFISYS partition (summarized from UEFI Bootloaders#Using rEFInd):

# mkdir -p /boot/efi/EFI/refind
# cp /usr/lib/refind/refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind_x64.efi
# cp /usr/lib/refind/config/refind.conf /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind.conf
# cp -r /usr/share/refind/icons /boot/efi/EFI/refind/icons

5. Create a refind_linux.conf file with the kernel parameters to be used by rEFInd:

# nano /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind_linux.conf
"Boot to X"          "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=graphical.target"
"Boot to console"    "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=multi-user.target"
Note: refind_linux.conf is copied in the directory /boot/efi/EFI/arch/ where the initramfs and the kernel have been copied to in step 2.
Note: In refind_linux.conf, sdaX refers to your root file system, not your boot partition, if you created them separately.

6. Add rEFInd to UEFI boot menu using efibootmgr.

Warning: Using efibootmgr on Apple Macs may brick the firmware and may need reflash of the motherboard ROM. For Macs, use mactel-bootAUR, or "bless" from within Mac OS X.
# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "rEFInd" -l '\EFI\refind\refind_x64.efi'
Note: In the above command, X and Y denote the drive and partition of the UEFISYS partition. For example, in /dev/sdc5, X is "c" and Y is "5".

7. (Optional) As a fallback, in case efibootmgr created boot entry does not work, copy refind_x64.efi to /boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi as follows:

# cp -r /boot/efi/EFI/refind/* /boot/efi/EFI/boot/
# mv /boot/efi/EFI/boot/refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/boot/bootx64.efi
GRUB
Note: In case you have a system with 32-bit EFI, like pre-2008 Macs, install grub-efi-i386 instead, and use --target=i386-efi.
# pacman -S grub-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo

The next command creates a menu entry for GRUB in the UEFI boot menu. However, as of grub-efi-x86_64 version 2.00, grub-install tries to create a menu entry, so running efibootmgr may not be necessary. See UEFI#efibootmgr for more info.

# efibootmgr -c -g -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "Arch Linux (GRUB)" -l '\EFI\arch_grub\grubx64.efi'

Next, while using a manually created grub.cfg is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:

Tip: To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install os-prober (pacman -S os-prober) before running the next command.
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see GRUB.

Unmount the partitions and reboot

Exit from the chroot environment:

# exit

Since the partitions are mounted under /mnt, we use the following command to unmount them:

# umount /mnt/{boot,home,}

Reboot the computer:

# reboot
Tip: Be sure to remove the installation media, otherwise you will boot back into it.

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