Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide"

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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
 
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
[[Category:About Arch]]
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[[de:Anleitung für Einsteiger]]
[[it:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[nl:Beginners' Guide/Installatie]]
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[[pl:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor/Instalare]]
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[[ja:ビギナーズガイド]]
[[zh-TW:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[ko:Beginners' guide]]
{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. '''[[Beginners' Guide|Click here]]''' if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
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[[lt:Beginners' guide]]
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[[nl:Beginners' guide]]
== Installation ==
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[[pl:Beginners' guide]]
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[[pt:Beginners' guide]]
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[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor]]
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[[ru:Beginners' guide]]
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[[sk:Beginners' guide]]
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[[sv:Nybörjarguiden]]
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{{Related articles start}}
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{{Related|:Category:Accessibility}}
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{{Related|Help:Reading}}
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{{Related|Installation guide}}
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{{Related|General recommendations}}
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{{Related|General troubleshooting}}
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{{Related articles end}}
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This document will guide you through the process of installing [[Arch Linux]] using the [https://projects.archlinux.org/arch-install-scripts.git/ Arch Install Scripts]. Before installing, you are advised to skim over the [[FAQ]].
  
You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root.
+
The community-maintained [[Main page|ArchWiki]] is the primary resource that should be consulted if issues arise. The [[IRC channel]] (irc://irc.freenode.net/#archlinux) and the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are also excellent resources if an answer cannot be found elsewhere. In accordance with [[the Arch Way]], you are encouraged to type {{ic|man ''command''}} to read the [[man page]] of any command you are unfamiliar with.
  
=== Change the language ===
+
== Preparation ==
  
{{Tip|These are optional for the majority of users. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the Wi-Fi password, or if you would like to receive system messages (e.g. possible errors) in your own language.}}
+
Arch Linux should run on any [[Wikipedia:P6 (microarchitecture)|i686]] compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the {{Grp|base}} group should take less than 800 MB of disk space.
  
By default, the keyboard layout is set to {{ic|us}}. If you have a non-[[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard layout, run:
+
See [[:Category:Getting and installing Arch]] for instructions on downloading the installation medium, and methods for booting it to the target machine(s). This guide assumes you use the latest available version.
  
# loadkeys ''layout''
+
== Boot the installation medium ==
  
...where ''layout'' can be {{ic|fr}}, {{ic|uk}}, {{ic|be-latin1}}, etc. See [[KEYMAP#Keyboard layouts|here]] for a comprehensive list.
+
Point the current boot device to the drive containing the Arch installation media. This is typically achieved by pressing a key during the [[Wikipedia:Power-on self test|POST]] phase, as indicated on the splash screen. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.
  
The font should also be changed, because most languages use more glyphs than the 26 letter [[Wikipedia:English alphabet|English alphabet]]. Otherwise some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. Note that the name is case-sensitive, so please type it ''exactly'' as you see it:
+
When the Arch menu appears, select ''Boot Arch Linux'' and press {{ic|Enter}} to enter the installation environment. See [https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/docs/README.bootparams README.bootparams] for a list of [[Kernel parameters#Configuration|boot parameters]].
  
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
+
You will be logged in as the root user and presented with a [[Zsh]] shell prompt. ''Zsh'' provides advanced [http://zsh.sourceforge.net/Guide/zshguide06.html tab completion] and other features as part of the [http://grml.org/zsh/ grml config]. For [[create|modifying or creating]] configuration files, typically in {{ic|/etc}}, [[nano#Usage|nano]] and [[vim#Usage|vim]] are suggested.
  
By default, the language is set to English (US). If you would like to change the language for the install process ''(German, in this example)'', remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the [http://www.greendesktiny.com/support/knowledgebase_detail.php?ref=EUH-483 locale] you want from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, along with English (US). Please choose the {{ic|UTF-8}} entry.
+
=== UEFI mode ===
  
Use {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
+
In case you have a [[UEFI]] motherboard with UEFI mode enabled, the CD/USB will automatically launch Arch Linux via [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/systemd-boot/ systemd-boot].
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
+
To verify you are booted in UEFI mode, check that the following directory is populated:
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
+
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
+
  
  # locale-gen
+
  # ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8
+
  
Remember, {{Keypress|LAlt+LShift}} activates and deactivates the keymap.
+
See [[UEFI#UEFI Variables]] for details.
  
=== Establish an internet connection ===
+
=== Set the keyboard layout ===
  
{{Warning|udev no longer assigns network interface names according to the wlanX and ethX naming scheme. If you're coming from a different distribution or are reinstalling Arch and not aware of the new interface naming style, please do not assume that your wireless interface is named wlan0, or that your wired interface is named eth0. You can use the command {{ic|ip addr show}} to discover the names of your interfaces.}}
+
The default [[Keyboard_configuration_in_console|console keymap]] is set to [[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|us]]. Available choices can be listed with {{ic|ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz}}.  
  
From systemd-197's release and onward, udev now assigns predictable, stable network interface names that deviate from the legacy incremental naming scheme (wlan0, wlan1, etc.). These interface names are guaranteed to be persistent across reboots, which solves the problem of the lack of predictability of network interface name assignment. For more information about why this was necessary, read http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/PredictableNetworkInterfaceNames .
+
{{Note|{{ic|localectl list-keymaps}} does not work due to bug {{Bug|46725}}.}}
  
The {{ic|dhcpcd}} network daemon is started automatically at boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection, if available. Try pinging a website to see if it was successful. And since Google is always on...
+
For example, to change the layout to {{ic|de-latin1}}, run:
  
{{hc|# ping -c 3 www.google.com|2=
+
# loadkeys ''de-latin1''
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
+
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
+
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=18.2 ms
+
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=16.6 ms
+
  
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
+
If certain characters appear as white squares or other symbols, change the [[Console fonts|console font]]. For example:
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
+
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms}}
+
  
If you get a {{ic|ping: unknown host}} error, first check if there is any problem with your cable (or if you have enough wireless signal), otherwise you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below.
+
# setfont ''lat9w-16''
  
Otherwise, move on to [[#Prepare the storage drive|Prepare the storage drive]].
+
=== Connect to the Internet ===
  
==== Wired ====
+
; Wired
  
Follow this procedure if you need to set up a wired connection via a static IP address.
+
The [[dhcpcd]] daemon is enabled on boot for wired devices, and will attempt to start a connection. To access captive portal login forms, use the [[ELinks]] browser.  
  
First, disable the dhcpcd service which was started automatically at boot:
+
Verify a connection was established, for example with ''ping''. If none is available, proceed to [[Network configuration|configure the network]]; the examples below use [[netctl]] to this purpose. To prevent conflicts, [[stop]] the ''dhcpcd'' service (replacing {{ic|enp0s25}} with the correct wired interface):
  
  # systemctl stop dhcpcd.service
+
  # systemctl stop dhcpcd@''enp0s25''.service
  
Identify the name of your Ethernet interface.
+
[[Network configuration#Device names|Interfaces]] can be listed using {{ic|ip link}}, or {{ic|iw dev}} for wireless devices. They are prefixed with {{ic|en}} (ethernet), {{ic|wl}} (WLAN), or {{ic|ww}} (WWAN).
  
{{hc|# ip link|
+
; Wireless
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
+
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
+
2: enp2s0f0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
+
    link/ether 00:11:25:31:69:20 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
+
3: wlp3s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP mode DORMANT qlen 1000
+
    link/ether 01:02:03:04:05:06 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff}}
+
  
In this example, the Ethernet interface is {{ic|enp2s0f0}}. If you're unsure, your Ethernet interface is likely to start with the letter "e", and unlikely to be "lo" or start with the letter "w". You can also use {{ic|iwconfig}} and see which interfaces are not wireless:
+
List [[Wireless_network_configuration#Getting_some_useful_information|available networks]], and make a connection for a specified interface:
  
{{hc|# iwconfig|2=
+
# wifi-menu -o ''wlp2s0''
enp2s0f0  no wireless extensions.
+
wlp3s0    IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"NETGEAR97"
+
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.427 GHz  Access Point: 2C:B0:5D:9C:72:BF
+
          Bit Rate=65 Mb/s  Tx-Power=16 dBm
+
          Retry  long limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
+
          Power Management:on
+
          Link Quality=61/70  Signal level=-49 dBm
+
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
+
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:430  Missed beacon:0
+
lo        no wireless extensions.}}
+
  
In this example, neither {{ic|enp2s0f0}} nor the loopback device have wireless extensions, meaning {{ic|enp2s0f0}} is our Ethernet interface.
+
The resulting configuration file is stored in {{ic|/etc/netctl}}. For networks which require both a username and password, see [[WPA2 Enterprise#netctl]].
  
You also need to know these settings:
+
; Other
  
* Static IP address.
+
Several example profiles, such as for configuring a [[Network configuration#Static IP address|static IP address]], are available. Copy the required one to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}, for example {{ic|ethernet-static}}:
* Subnet mask.
+
* Gateway's IP address.
+
* Name servers' (DNS) IP addresses.
+
* Domain name (unless you're on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).
+
  
Activate the connected Ethernet interface (e.g. {{ic|enp2s0f0}}):
+
# cp /etc/netctl/examples/''ethernet-static'' /etc/netctl
  
# ip link set enp2s0f0 up
+
Adjust the copy as needed, and enable it:
  
Add the address:
+
# netctl start ''ethernet-static''
  
# ip addr add ''ip_address''/''subnetmask'' dev ''interface_name''
+
=== Update the system clock ===
  
For example:
+
Use [[systemd-timesyncd]] to ensure that your system clock is accurate. To start it:
  
  # ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev enp2s0f0
+
  # timedatectl set-ntp true
  
For more options, run {{ic|man ip}}.
+
To check the service status, use {{ic|timedatectl status}}.
  
Add your gateway like this, substituting your own gateway's IP address:
+
== Prepare the storage devices ==
  
# ip route add default via ''ip_address''
+
{{Warning|
 +
* In general, partitioning or formatting will make existing data inaccessible and subject to being overwritten, i.e. destroyed, by subsequent operations. For this reason, all data that needs to be preserved must be backed up before proceeding.
 +
* If dual-booting with an existing installation of Windows on a UEFI/GPT system, avoid reformatting the UEFI partition, as this includes the Windows ''.efi'' file required to boot it. Furthermore, Arch must follow the same firmware boot mode and partitioning combination as Windows. See [[Dual boot with Windows#Important information]].}}
  
For example:
+
In this step, the storage devices that will be used by the new system will be prepared. Read [[Partitioning]] for a more general overview.
  
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
+
Users intending to create stacked block devices for [[LVM]], [[disk encryption]] or [[RAID]], should keep those instructions in mind when preparing the partitions. If intending to install to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].
  
Edit {{ic|resolv.conf}}, substituting your name servers' IP addresses and your local domain name:
+
=== Identify the devices ===
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/resolv.conf|
+
The first step is to identify the devices where the new system will be installed. The following command will show all the available devices:
nameserver 61.23.173.5
+
nameserver 61.95.849.8
+
search example.com}}
+
  
{{Note|Currently, you may include a maximum of three {{ic|nameserver}} lines.}}
+
# lsblk
  
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Network Configuration]] page.
+
This will list all devices connected to your system along with their partition schemes, including that used to host and boot live Arch installation media (e.g. a USB drive). Not all devices listed will therefore be viable or appropriate mediums for installation. Results ending in {{ic|rom}}, {{ic|loop}} or {{ic|airoot}} can be ignored.
  
==== Wireless ====
+
Devices (e.g. hard disks) will be listed as {{ic|sd''x''}}, where {{ic|''x''}} is a lower-case letter starting from {{ic|a}} for the first device ({{ic|sda}}), {{ic|b}} for the second device ({{ic|sdb}}), and so on. Existing partitions on those devices will be listed as {{ic|sd''xY''}}, where {{ic|''Y''}} is a number starting from {{ic|1}} for the first partition, {{ic|2}} for the second, and so on. In the example below, only one device is available ({{ic|sda}}), and that device has only one partition ({{ic|sda1}}):
  
Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (Wi-Fi) during the installation process.
+
NAME            MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
 +
sda              8:0    0    80G  0 disk
 +
└─sda1            8:1    0    80G  0 part
  
First, identify the name of your wireless interface.
+
The {{ic|sd''xY''}} convention will be used in the examples provided below for partition tables, partitions, and file systems. As they are just examples, it is important to ensure that any necessary changes to device names, partition numbers, and/or partition sizes (etc.) are made. Do not just blindly copy and paste the commands.
  
{{hc|# iwconfig|2=
+
If the existing partition scheme does not need to be changed, skip to [[#Format the file systems and enable swap]], otherwise continue reading the following section.
enp2s0f0  no wireless extensions.
+
wlp3s0    IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"NETGEAR97"
+
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.427 GHz  Access Point: 2C:B0:5D:9C:72:BF
+
          Bit Rate=65 Mb/s  Tx-Power=16 dBm
+
          Retry  long limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
+
          Power Management:on
+
          Link Quality=61/70  Signal level=-49 dBm
+
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
+
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:430  Missed beacon:0
+
lo        no wireless extensions.}}
+
  
In this example, {{ic|wlp3s0}} is the available wireless interface. If you're unsure, your wireless interface is likely to start with the letter "w", and unlikely to be "lo" or start with the letter "e".
+
=== Partition table types ===
  
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless Setup]] for more detailed information.}}
+
If you are installing alongside an existing installation (i.e. dual-booting), a partition table will already be in use. If the devices are not partitioned, or the current partitions table or scheme needs to be changed, you will first have to determine the partition tables (one for each device) in use or to be used.
  
Bring the interface up with:
+
There are two types of partition table:
  
# ip link set wlp3s0 up
+
* [[GPT]]
 +
* [[MBR]]
  
A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:
+
Any existing partition table can be identified with the following command for each device:
  
{{hc|# ip link set wlp3s0 up|
+
# parted /dev/sd''x'' print
SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}
+
  
If unsure, invoke {{ic|dmesg}} to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset.
+
=== Partitioning tools ===
  
Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
+
{{Warning|Using a partitioning tool that is incompatible with your partition table type will likely result in the destruction of that table, along with any existing partitions/data.}}
  
{{hc|# dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep firmware|
+
For each device to be partitioned, a proper tool must be chosen according to the partition table to be used. Several partitioning tools are provided by the Arch installation medium, including:
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
+
  
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
+
* [[parted]]: GPT and MBR
 +
* [[fdisk#Usage|fdisk]], '''cfdisk''', '''sfdisk''': GPT and MBR
 +
* [[gdisk|gdisk]], '''cgdisk''', '''sgdisk''': GPT
  
{{Warning|Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}} in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) '''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!''' Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See [[Wireless Setup]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset.}}
+
Devices may also be partitioned before booting the installation media, for example through tools such as [[GParted]] (also provided as a [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php live CD]).
  
Next, use {{Pkg|netcfg}}'s {{ic|wifi-menu}} to connect to a network:
+
==== Using parted in interactive mode ====
  
# wifi-menu wlp3s0
+
All the examples provided below make use of ''parted'', as it can be used for both UEFI/GPT and BIOS/MBR. It will be launched in ''interactive mode'', which simplifies the partitioning process and reduces unnecessary repetition by automatically applying all partitioning commands to the specified device.
  
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
+
In order to start operating on a device, execute:
  
==== Analog modem, ISDN or PPoE DSL ====
+
# parted /dev/sd''x''
  
For xDSL, dial-up and ISDN connections, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
+
You will notice that the command-line prompt changes from a hash ({{ic|#}}) to {{ic|(parted)}}: this also means that the new prompt is not a command to be manually entered when running the commands in the examples.
  
==== Behind a proxy server ====
+
To see a list of the available commands, enter:
  
If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the {{ic|http_proxy}} and {{ic|ftp_proxy}} environment variables. See [[Proxy settings]] for more information.
+
(parted) help
  
=== Prepare the storage drive ===
+
When finished, or if wishing to implement a partition table or scheme for another device, exit from parted with:
  
{{Warning|Partitioning can destroy data. You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
+
(parted) quit
  
Absolute beginners are encouraged to use a graphical partitioning tool. [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] is a good example, and is [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php provided as a "live" CD]. It is also included on live CDs of most Linux distributions such as [[Wikipedia:Ubuntu (operating system)|Ubuntu]] and [[Wikipedia:Linux Mint|Linux Mint]]. A drive should first be [[partitioning|partitioned]] and the partitions should be formatted with a [[File Systems|file system]] before rebooting.
+
After exiting, the command-line prompt will change back to {{ic|#}}.
  
The recommendation for a system that will boot via UEFI rather than MBR legacy boot is to format the drive using a GPT partition table. This means that if the drive was previously already partitioned with an MBR (MSDOS) partition table it will now have a new partition table created which will destroy all other data on the drive. Once the new partition table has been created on a drive, only then can individual partitions be created with any chosen format type. When using Gparted, selecting the option to create a new partition table gives an "msdos" partition table by default. If you are intending to follow the advice to create a GPT partition table then you need to choose "Advanced" and then select "gpt" from the drop-down menu. This can't be done if you have a pre-existing Windows installation on the drive which you wish not to destroy. It is therefore extremely important to not change the partition table to GPT if you intend on having a dual boot system. Leave the Windows install untouched and try to get the Linux install working with UEFI on a drive that contains an MBR (legacy) partition table. 
+
=== Create new partition table ===
  
In addition, some newer computers come pre-installed with Windows 8 which will be using Secure Boot. Arch Linux currently does not support Secure Boot, but some Windows 8 installations have been seen not to boot if Secure Boot is turned off in the BIOS. In some cases it is necessary to turn off both Secure Boot as well as Fastboot in the BIOS options in order to allow Windows 8 to boot without Secure Boot. However there are potential security risks in turning off Secure Boot for booting up Windows 8. Therefore, it may be a better option to keep the Windows 8 install intact and have an independent hard drive for the Linux install - which can then be partitioned from scratch using a GPT partition table. Once that is done, creating several ext4/FAT32/swap partitions on the second drive may be a better way forward if the computer has two drives available. This is often not easy or possible on a small laptop. Currently, Secure Boot is still not in a fully stable state for reliable operation, even for Linux distributions that support it.
+
You need to (re)create the partition table of a device when it has never been partitioned before, or when you want to change the type of its partition table. Recreating the partition table of a device is also useful when the partition scheme needs to be restructured from scratch.
  
See [[Swap]] for details if you wish to set up a swap partition or swap file. A swap file is easier to resize than a partition and can be created at any point after installation, but cannot be used with a Btrfs filesystem.
+
Open each device whose partition table must be (re)created with:
  
If you have already done so, proceed to [[#Mount the partitions|Mount the partitions]].
+
# parted /dev/sd''x''
  
Otherwise, see the following example.
+
To then create a new GPT partition table for UEFI systems, use the following command:
  
==== Example ====
+
(parted) mklabel gpt
  
The Arch Linux install media includes the following partitioning tools: {{ic|fdisk}}, {{ic|gdisk}}, {{ic|cfdisk}}, {{ic|cgdisk}}, {{ic|parted}}.
+
To create a new MBR/msdos partition table for BIOS systems instead, use:
  
{{Tip|Use the {{ic|lsblk}} command to list the hard disks attached to your system, along with the sizes of their existing partitions. This will help you to be confident you are partitioning the right disk.}}
+
(parted) mklabel msdos
  
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[UEFI]] boot:|
+
=== Partition schemes ===
* If you have a UEFI motherboard, you will need to create an extra [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#EFI_System_Partition|UEFI System Partition]].
+
* It is recommended to always use GPT for UEFI boot, as some UEFI firmwares do not allow UEFI-MBR boot.}}
+
  
{{Box BLUE|Notes regarding [[GPT]] partitioning:|
+
You can decide the number and size of the partitions the devices should be split into, and which directories will be used to mount the partitions in the installed system (also known as ''mount points''). The mapping from partitions to directories is the [[Partitioning#Partition scheme|partition scheme]], which must comply with the following requirements:
* If you are not dual booting with Windows, then it is advisable to use GPT instead of MBR. Read [[GPT]] for a list of advantages.
+
* If you have a BIOS motherboard (or plan on booting in BIOS compatibility mode) and you want to setup GRUB on a GPT-partitioned drive, you will need to create an extra [[GRUB#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]. Syslinux doesn't need one.
+
* Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.}}
+
  
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
+
* At least a partition for the {{ic|/}} (''root'') directory '''must''' be created.
 +
* When using a UEFI motherboard, one [[EFI System Partition]] '''must''' be created.
  
The example system will contain a 15 GB root partition, and a [[Partitioning#/home|home]] partition for the remaining space. Choose either [[MBR]] or [[GPT]]. Do not choose both!
+
In the examples below it is assumed that a new and contiguous partitioning scheme is applied to a single device. Some optional partitions will also be created for the {{ic|/boot}} and {{ic|/home}} directories which otherwise would simply be contained in the {{ic|/}} partition. See the [[Arch filesystem hierarchy]] for an explanation of the purpose of the various directories. Also the creation of an optional partiton for [[swap space]] will be illustrated.
  
It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See [[Partitioning]].
+
If not already open in a ''parted'' interactive session, open each device to be partitioned with:
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
# parted /dev/sd''x''
|-
+
| rowspan="2" | '''MBR'''
+
| rowspan="2"| {{ic|cfdisk&nbsp;/dev/sda}}
+
| '''Root:'''
+
  
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – type in "15360" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Beginning – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Bootable.
+
The following command will be used to create partitions:
|-
+
|
+
'''Home:'''
+
  
* Press the down arrow to move to the free space area.
+
(parted) mkpart ''part-type'' ''fs-type'' ''start'' ''end''
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for Primary – {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size).
+
|-
+
| rowspan="2" | '''GPT'''
+
| rowspan="2"| {{ic|cgdisk&nbsp;/dev/sda}}
+
| '''Root:'''
+
  
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the first sector (2048) – type in "15G" – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) {{Keypress|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
+
* {{ic|''part-type''}} is one of {{ic|primary}}, {{ic|extended}} or {{ic|logical}}, and is meaningful only for MBR partition tables.
|-
+
* {{ic|''fs-type''}} is an identifier chosen among those listed by entering {{ic|help mkpart}} as the closest match to the file system that you will use in [[#Format the file systems and enable swap]]. The ''mkpart'' command does not actually create the file system: the {{ic|''fs-type''}} parameter will simply be used by ''parted'' to set a 1-byte code that is used by boot loaders to "preview" what kind of data is found in the partition, and act accordingly if necessary. See also [[Wikipedia:Disk partitioning#PC partition types]].
| '''Home:'''
+
: {{Tip|Most [[Wikipedia:File_system#Linux|Linux native file systems]] map to the same partition code ([[Wikipedia:Partition type#PID_83h|0x83]]), so it is perfectly safe to e.g. use {{ic|ext2}} for an ''ext4''-formatted partition.}}
 +
* {{ic|''start''}} is the beginning of the partition from the start of the device. It consists of a number followed by a [http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/manual/parted.html#unit unit], for example {{ic|1M}} means start at 1MiB.
 +
* {{ic|''end''}} is the end of the partition from the start of the device (''not'' from the {{ic|''start''}} value). It has the same syntax as {{ic|''start''}}, for example {{ic|100%}} means end at the end of the device (use all the remaining space).
  
* Press the down arrow a couple of times to move to the larger free space area.
+
{{Warning|It is important that the partitions do not overlap each other: if you do not want to leave unused space in the device, make sure that each partition starts where the previous one ends.}}
* Choose New (or press {{Keypress|N}}) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the first sector – {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size; for example "30G") – {{Keypress|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) – {{Keypress|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
+
|}
+
  
If you chose MBR, here's what it should look like:
+
{{Note|''parted'' may issue a warning like:
  
  Name    Flags    Part Type    FS Type          [Label]      Size (MB)
+
  Warning: The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best performance.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
  Ignore/Cancel?
sda1    Boot      Primary    Linux                            15360
+
sda2              Primary    Linux                            133000*
+
  
If you chose GPT, here's what it should look like:
+
In this case, read [[Partitioning#Partition alignment]] and follow [[GNU Parted#Alignment]] to fix it.}}
  
Part. #    Size        Partition Type            Partition Name
+
The following command will be used to flag the partition that contains the {{ic|/boot}} directory as bootable:
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
            1007.0 KiB  free space
+
    1        15.0 GiB    Linux filesystem
+
    2        123.45 GiB  Linux filesystem
+
  
Double check and make sure that you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing.
+
(parted) set ''partition'' boot on
  
If you would like to start over, you can simply select Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit without saving changes and then restart cfdisk (or cgdisk).
+
* {{ic|''partition''}} is the number of the partition to be flagged (see the output of the {{ic|print}} command).
  
If you are satisfied, choose Write (or press {{Keypress|Shift+W}}) to finalize and to write the partition table to the drive. Type "yes" and choose Quit (or press {{Keypress|Q}}) to exit without making any more changes.
+
==== UEFI/GPT examples ====
  
Simply partitioning is not enough; the partitions also need a [[File Systems|filesystem]]. To format the partitions with an ext4 filesystem:
+
In every instance, a special bootable [[EFI System Partition]] is required.
  
{{Warning|Double check and triple check that it's actually {{ic|/dev/sda1}} and {{ic|/dev/sda2}} that you want to format. You can use {{ic|lsblk}} to help with this.}}
+
If creating a new EFI System Partition, use the following commands (a size of 512MiB is suggested):
  
  # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
+
  (parted) mkpart ESP fat32 1MiB 513MiB
  # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2
+
  (parted) set 1 boot on
  
If you have made a partition dedicated to swap (code 82), don't forget to format and activate it with:
+
The remaining partition scheme is entirely up to you. For one other partition using 100% of remaining space:
  
  # mkswap /dev/sda''X''
+
  (parted) mkpart primary ext4 513MiB 100%
# swapon /dev/sda''X''
+
  
=== Mount the partitions ===
+
For separate {{ic|/}} (20GiB) and {{ic|/home}} (all remaining space) partitions:
  
Each partition is identified with a number suffix. For example, {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of the first drive, while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive.
+
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 513MiB 20.5GiB
 +
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 20.5GiB 100%
  
To display the current partition layout:
+
And for separate {{ic|/}} (20GiB), swap (4GiB), and {{ic|/home}} (all remaining space) partitions:
  
  # lsblk /dev/sda
+
  (parted) mkpart primary ext4 513MiB 20.5GiB
 +
(parted) mkpart primary linux-swap 20.5GiB 24.5GiB
 +
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 24.5GiB 100%
  
{{Note|Do not mount more than one partition to the same directory. And pay attention, because the mounting order is important.}}
+
==== BIOS/MBR examples ====
  
First, mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}. Following the example when using {{ic|cfdisk}} above (yours may be different), it would be:
+
For a minimum single primary partition using all available disk space, the following command would be used:
  
  # mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
+
  (parted) mkpart primary ext4 1MiB 100%
 +
(parted) set 1 boot on
  
Then mount the home partition and any other separate partition ({{ic|/boot}}, {{ic|/var}}, etc), if you have any:
+
In the following instance, a 20GiB {{ic|/}} partition will be created, followed by a {{ic|/home}} partition using all the remaining space:
  
  # mkdir /mnt/home
+
  (parted) mkpart primary ext4 1MiB 20GiB
  # mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/home
+
  (parted) set 1 boot on
 +
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 20GiB 100%
  
In case you have a UEFI motherboard, mount the UEFI partition:
+
In the final example below, separate {{ic|/boot}} (100MiB), {{ic|/}} (20GiB), swap (4GiB), and {{ic|/home}} (all remaining space) partitions will be created:
  
  # mkdir -p /mnt/boot/efi
+
  (parted) mkpart primary ext4 1MiB 100MiB
  # mount /dev/sda''X'' /mnt/boot/efi
+
  (parted) set 1 boot on
 +
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 100MiB 20GiB
 +
(parted) mkpart primary linux-swap 20GiB 24GiB
 +
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 24GiB 100%
  
=== Select a mirror ===
+
=== Format the file systems and enable swap ===
  
Before installing, you may want to edit the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by {{ic|pacstrap}} as well, so it's worth getting it right.
+
Once the partitions have been created, each '''must''' be formatted with an appropriate [[file system]], ''except'' for swap partitions. All available partitions on the intended installation device can be listed with the following command:
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|
+
# lsblk /dev/sd''x''
##
+
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
+
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
+
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
+
##
+
  
<nowiki>Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch</nowiki>
+
With the exceptions noted below, it is recommended to use the {{ic|ext4}} file system:
...}}
+
  
* {{Keypress|Alt+6}} to copy a {{ic|Server}} line.
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sd''xY''
* {{Keypress|PageUp}} key to scroll up.
+
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+U}} to paste it at the top of the list.
+
* {{Keypress|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{Keypress|Y}} and {{Keypress|Enter}} to use the same filename.
+
  
If you want, you can make it the ''only'' mirror available by getting rid of everything else (using {{Keypress|Ctrl+K}}), but it's usually a good idea to have a few more, in case the first one goes offline.
+
''If'' a swap partition has been created, it must be set up and activated with:
  
{{Tip|
+
# mkswap /dev/sd''xY''
* Use the [https://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist/ Mirrorlist Generator] to get an updated list for your country. HTTP mirrors are faster than FTP, because of something called [[Wikipedia:Keepalive|keepalive]]. With FTP, pacman has to send out a signal each time it downloads a package, resulting in a brief pause. For other ways to generate a mirror list, see [[Mirrors#Sorting mirrors|Sorting mirrors]] and [[Reflector]].
+
# swapon /dev/sd''xY''
* [https://archlinux.org/mirrors/status/ Arch Linux MirrorStatus] reports various aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors, data collection problems, the last time mirrors have been synced, etc.}}
+
  
{{Note|
+
Mount the root partition to the {{ic|/mnt}} directory of the live system:
* Whenever in the future you change your list of mirrors, always remember to force pacman to refresh all package lists with {{ic|pacman -Syy}}. This is considered to be good practice and will avoid possible headaches. See [[Mirrors]] for more information.
+
* If you're using an older installation medium, your mirrorlist might be outdated, which might lead to problems when updating Arch Linux (see {{Bug|22510}}). Therefore it is advised to obtain the latest mirror information as described above.
+
* Some issues have been reported in the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ Arch Linux forums] regarding network problems that prevent pacman from updating/synchronizing repositories (see [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;68944] and [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;65728]). When installing Arch Linux natively, these issues have been resolved by replacing the default pacman file downloader with an alternative (see [[Improve Pacman Performance]] for more details). When installing Arch Linux as a guest OS in [[VirtualBox]], this issue has also been addressed by using "Host interface" instead of "NAT" in the machine properties.}}
+
  
=== Install the base system ===
+
# mount /dev/sd''xY'' /mnt
  
The base system is installed using the [https://github.com/falconindy/arch-install-scripts/blob/master/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script.
+
Remaining [[Partitioning#Partition_scheme|partitions]] (except ''swap'') may be mounted in any order, after creating the respective mount points. For example, when using a {{ic|/boot}} partition:
  
The {{ic|-i}} switch can be omitted if you wish to install every package from the ''base'' group without prompting.
+
# mkdir -p /mnt/boot
 +
# mount /dev/sd''xZ'' /mnt/boot
  
# pacstrap -i /mnt base
+
''If'' a new UEFI system partition has been created on a UEFI/GPT system, it '''must''' be formatted with a {{ic|fat32}} file system:
  
{{Note|If pacman fails to verify your packages, check the system time with {{ic|cal}}. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows the year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually or with the {{Pkg|ntp}} client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to [[Time]] page for more information on correcting system time.}}
+
# mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sd''xY''
  
{{Note|If pacman complains that {{ic|error: failed to commit transaction (invalid or corrupted package)}}, run the following command:
+
{{ic|/mnt/boot}} is also recommended for mounting the (formatted or already existing) EFI System Partition on a UEFI/GPT system. See [[EFISTUB]] and related articles for alternatives.
# pacman-key --init && pacman-key --populate archlinux
+
}}
+
  
This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using [[pacman]].
+
== Installation ==
  
=== Generate an fstab ===
+
=== Select the mirrors ===
  
Generate an [[fstab]] file with the following command. UUIDs will be used because they have certain advantages (see [[fstab#Identifying filesystems]]). If you would prefer to use labels instead, replace the {{ic|-U}} option with {{ic|-L}}.
+
Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.
  
# genfstab -U -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
+
The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account. See [[Mirrors]] for details.
# nano /mnt/etc/fstab
+
  
{{Warning|The fstab file should always be checked after generating it. If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do '''not''' run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file.}}
+
''pacstrap'' will also install a copy of this file to the new system, so it is worth getting right.
  
A few considerations:
+
=== Install the base packages ===
  
* Only the root ({{ic|/}}) partition needs {{ic|1}} for the last field. Everything else should have either {{ic|2}} or {{ic|0}} (see [[fstab#Field definitions]]).
+
The ''pacstrap'' script installs the base system. To build packages from the [[AUR]] or with [[ABS]], the {{Grp|base-devel}} group is also required.
  
=== Chroot and configure the base system ===
+
Not all tools from the live installation (see [https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.both packages.both]) are part of the base group. Packages can later be [[install]]ed with ''pacman'', or by appending their names to the ''pacstrap'' command.
  
Next, we [[chroot]] into our newly installed system:
+
# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel
  
# arch-chroot /mnt
+
The {{ic|-i}} switch ensures prompting before package installation.
  
{{Note|Use {{ic|arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash}} to chroot into a bash shell.}}
+
== Configuration ==
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. These can either be created if they do not exist, or edited if you wish to change the defaults.
+
  
Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.
+
=== fstab ===
  
==== Locale ====
+
Generate an [[fstab]] file. The {{ic|-U}} option indicates UUIDs: see [[Persistent block device naming]]. Labels can be used instead through the {{ic|-L}} option.
  
Locales are used by '''glibc''' and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
+
# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
  
There are two files that need editing: {{ic|locale.gen}} and {{ic|locale.conf}}.
+
Check the resulting file in {{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}} afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.
  
* The {{ic|locale.gen}} file is empty by default (everything is commented out) and you need to remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the line(s) you want. You may uncomment more lines than just English (US), as long as you choose their {{ic|UTF-8}} encoding:
+
=== Change root ===
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
+
Copy netctl profiles in {{ic|/etc/netctl}} to the new system in {{ic|/mnt}} (when applicable), then [[chroot]] to it:
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
+
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
+
  
  # locale-gen
+
  # arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash
  
This will run on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
+
=== Locale ===
  
* The {{ic|locale.conf}} file doesn't exist by default. Setting only {{ic|LANG}} should be enough. It will act as the default value for all other variables.
+
The [[Locale]] defines which language the system uses, and other regional considerations such as currency denomination, numerology, and character sets.
  
# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
+
Possible values are listed in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}. Uncomment {{ic|en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8}}, as well as other needed localisations. Save the file, and generate the new locales:
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
+
  
{{Note|If you set some other language than English (US) at the beginning of the install, the above commands would be something like:
+
  # locale-gen
  # echo LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
+
# export LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8
+
}}
+
  
To use other locales for other {{ic|LC_*}} variables, run {{ic|locale}} to see the available options and add them to {{ic|locale.conf}}. It is not recommended to set the {{ic|LC_ALL}} variable. An advanced example can be found [[Locale#Setting_system-wide_locale|here]].
+
[[Create]] {{ic|/etc/locale.conf}}, where {{ic|LANG}} refers to the ''first column'' of an uncommented entry in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}:
  
==== Console font and keymap ====
+
{{hc|1=/etc/locale.conf|2=
 
+
LANG=''en_US.UTF-8''
If you set a keymap at [[#Change_the_language|the beginning]] of the install process, load it now, as well, because the environment has changed. For example:
+
}}
 
+
# loadkeys ''de-latin1''
+
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
+
  
To make them available after reboot, edit {{ic|vconsole.conf}}:
+
If you [[#Set the keyboard layout|set the keyboard layout]], make the changes persistent in {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}}. For example, if {{ic|de-latin1}} was set with ''loadkeys'', and {{ic|lat9w-16}} with ''setfont'', assign the {{ic|KEYMAP}} and {{ic|FONT}} variables accordingly:
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/vconsole.conf|2=
+
{{hc|1=/etc/vconsole.conf|2=
KEYMAP=de-latin1
+
KEYMAP=''de-latin1''
FONT=Lat2-Terminus16
+
FONT=''lat9w-16''
 
}}
 
}}
  
* {{ic|KEYMAP}} – Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or Xorg.
+
=== Time ===
  
* {{ic|FONT}} – Available alternate console fonts reside in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. The default (blank) is safe, but some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. It's recommended that you change it to {{ic|Lat2-Terminus16}}, because according to {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/README.Lat2-Terminus16}}, it claims to support "about 110 language sets".
+
Select a [[time zone]]:
  
* Possible option {{ic|FONT_MAP}} – Defines the console map to load at boot. Read {{ic|man setfont}}. Removing it or leaving it blank is safe.
+
# tzselect
  
See [[Fonts#Console_fonts|Console fonts]] and {{ic|man vconsole.conf}} for more information.
+
Create the symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}}, where {{ic|Zone/Subzone}} is the {{ic|TZ}} value from ''tzselect'':
  
==== Time zone ====
+
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/''Zone''/''SubZone'' /etc/localtime
  
Available time zones and subzones can be found in the {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} directories.
+
It is recommended to adjust the time skew, and set the time standard to UTC:
  
To view the available <Zone>, check the directory {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/}}:
+
# hwclock --systohc --utc
  
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/
+
If other operating systems are installed on the machine, they must be configured accordingly. See [[Time]] for details.
  
Similarly, you can check the contents of directories belonging to a <SubZone>:
+
=== Initramfs ===
  
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe
+
As [[mkinitcpio]] was run on installation of {{Pkg|linux}} with ''pacstrap'', most users can use the defaults provided in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}}.
  
Create a symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}} to your zone file {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} using this command:
+
For special configurations, set the correct [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} and [[Mkinitcpio#Image_creation_and_activation|re-generate]] the initramfs image:
  
  # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime
+
  # mkinitcpio -p linux
  
'''Example:'''
+
=== Install a boot loader ===
  
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime
+
See [[Boot loaders]] for available choices and configurations. If you have an Intel CPU, install the {{Pkg|intel-ucode}} package, and [[Microcode#Enabling_Intel_microcode_updates|enable microcode updates]].
  
==== Hardware clock ====
+
==== UEFI/GPT ====
  
Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems. Otherwise, they may overwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts.
+
Here, the installation drive is assumed to be GPT-partioned, and have the [[EFI System Partition|EFI System Partition]] (gdisk type {{ic|EF00}}, formatted with FAT32) mounted at {{ic|/boot}}.
  
You can generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}} automatically by using one of the following commands:
+
Install [[systemd-boot]] to the EFI system partition:
  
* '''UTC''' (recommended)
+
# bootctl install
  
: {{Note|Using [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in UTC.}}
+
When successful, create a boot entry as described in [[systemd-boot#Configuration]] (replacing {{ic|$esp}} with {{ic|/boot}}), or adapt the examples in {{ic|/usr/share/systemd/bootctl/}}.
  
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --utc}}
+
==== BIOS/MBR ====
  
To synchronize your "UTC" time over the internet, see [[Network Time Protocol daemon|NTPd]].
+
Install the {{Pkg|grub}} package. To search for other operating systems, also install {{Pkg|os-prober}}:
  
* '''localtime''' (discouraged; used by default in Windows)
+
# pacman -S grub os-prober
  
: {{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}}
+
Install the bootloader to the ''drive'' Arch was installed to:
  
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --localtime}}
+
# grub-install --target=i386-pc ''/dev/sda''
  
If you have (or planning on having) a dual boot setup with Windows:
+
Generate {{ic|grub.cfg}}:
  
* Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC. A quick [[Time#UTC in Windows|registry fix]] is needed. Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time on-line, because the hardware clock will default back to ''localtime''.
+
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
  
* Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to ''localtime'' and disable any time-related services, like [[Network Time Protocol daemon|NTPd]] . This will let Windows take care of hardware clock corrections and you will need to remember to boot into Windows at least two times a year (in Spring and Autumn) when [[Wikipedia:Daylight saving time|DST]] kicks in. So please don't ask on the forums why the clock is one hour behind or ahead if you usually go for days or weeks without booting into Windows.
+
See [[GRUB]] for more information.
  
==== Kernel modules ====
+
=== Configure the network ===
  
{{Tip|This is just an example, you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.}}
+
The procedure is similar to [[#Connect to the Internet]], except made persistent for subsequent boots. Select '''one''' daemon to handle the network.
 
+
For kernel modules to load during boot, place a {{ic|*.conf}} file in {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}}, with a name based on the program that uses them.
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf|
+
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.
+
 
+
virtio-net}}
+
 
+
If there are more modules to load per {{ic|*.conf}}, the module names can be separated by newlines. A good example are the [[VirtualBox#Arch Linux guests|VirtualBox Guest Additions]].
+
 
+
Empty lines and lines starting with {{ic|#}} or {{ic|;}} are ignored.
+
  
 
==== Hostname ====
 
==== Hostname ====
  
Set the [[Wikipedia:hostname|hostname]] to your liking (e.g. ''arch''):
+
Set the [[hostname]] to your liking by [[add]]ing ''myhostname'' to the following file, where ''myhostname'' is the hostname you wish to set:
  
# echo ''myhostname'' > /etc/hostname
+
{{hc|1=/etc/hostname|2=
 +
''myhostname''
 +
}}
  
{{Note|There is no need to edit {{ic|/etc/hosts}}.}}
+
It is recommended to [[append]] the same hostname to {{ic|localhost}} entries in {{ic|/etc/hosts}}. See [[Network configuration#Set the hostname]] for details.
 
+
=== Configure the network ===
+
 
+
You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described [[#Establish an internet connection|above]], except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.
+
 
+
{{Note|For more in-depth information on network configration, visit [[Network Configuration]] and [[Wireless Setup]].}}
+
  
 
==== Wired ====
 
==== Wired ====
  
{{Warning|A bug has been noted in the install ISO, in which the name your interface has during installation differs from the one it will have upon reboot. See [https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/33923 Bug #33923] for more details.<br/>
+
When only requiring a single wired connection, [[enable]] the [[dhcpcd]] service:
  
Use the command {{ic|ip link}} (shows interface names) after rebooting into your installed system to find out if you are affected by this. If so, you will have to redo the configuration described below with the correct interface name.}}
+
# systemctl enable dhcpcd@''interface''.service
  
===== Dynamic IP =====
+
Where {{ic|''interface''}} is an ethernet [[Network_configuration#Device_names|device name]].
  
; Using dhcpcd
+
See [[Network configuration#Configure the IP address]] for other available methods.
 
+
If you only use a single fixed wired network connection, you do not need a network management service and can simply enable the {{ic|dhcpcd}} service. Here, {{ic|''interface_name''}} is your wired interface:
+
 
+
# systemctl enable dhcpcd@''interface_name''.service
+
 
+
; Using netctl
+
 
+
Copy a sample profile from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl/}}:
+
 
+
# cd /etc/netctl
+
# cp examples/ethernet-dhcp .
+
 
+
Edit the profile as needed (modify {{ic|Interface}}):
+
 
+
# nano ethernet-dhcp
+
 
+
Enable the {{ic|ethernet-dhcp}} profile:
+
 
+
# netctl enable ethernet-dhcp
+
 
+
; Using netctl-ifplugd
+
 
+
Alternatively, you can use {{Pkg|netctl}}'s {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}, which gracefully handles dynamic connections to new networks:
+
 
+
Install {{Pkg|ifplugd}}, which is required for {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}:
+
 
+
# pacman -S ifplugd
+
 
+
Then enable for interface that you want:
+
 
+
# systemctl enable netctl-ifplugd@<interface>.service
+
 
+
===== Static IP =====
+
 
+
; Using netctl
+
 
+
Copy a sample profile from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl/}}:
+
 
+
# cd /etc/netctl
+
# cp examples/ethernet-static .
+
 
+
Edit the profile as needed (modify {{ic|Interface}}, {{ic|Address}}, {{ic|Gateway}} and {{ic|DNS}}):
+
 
+
# nano ethernet-static
+
 
+
Then enable above created profile:
+
 
+
# netctl enable ethernet-static
+
  
 
==== Wireless ====
 
==== Wireless ====
  
You will need to install additional programs to be able to configure and manage wireless network profiles for [[netcfg]].
+
Install {{Pkg|iw}}, {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}}, and (for ''wifi-menu'') {{Pkg|dialog}}:
  
[[NetworkManager]] and [[Wicd]] are other popular alternatives.
+
# pacman -S iw wpa_supplicant dialog
  
* Install the required packages:
+
Additional [[Wireless#Installing driver/firmware|firmware packages]] may also be required.
  
# pacman -S wireless_tools wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond dialog
+
If you used ''wifi-menu'' priorly, repeat the steps '''after''' finishing the rest of this installation and rebooting, to prevent conflicts with the existing processes.
  
If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in the above [[#Wireless|Establish an internet connection]] section and also [[Wireless Setup#Drivers and firmware|here]]), install the package containing your firmware. For example:
+
See [[Netctl]] and [[Wireless#Wireless management]] for more information.
  
# pacman -S zd1211-firmware
+
=== Root password ===
  
See [[Wireless Setup]] and [[WPA supplicant]] for more info.
+
Set the root [[password]] with:
 
+
* After finishing the rest of this installation and rebooting, you can connect to the network with {{ic|wifi-menu ''interface_name''}} (where {{ic|''interface_name''}} is the interface of your wireless chipset), which will generate a profile file in {{ic|/etc/network.d}} named after the SSID. There are also templates available in {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples/}} for manual configuration.
+
 
+
# wifi-menu ''interface_name''
+
 
+
{{Warning|If you're using {{ic|wifi-menu}}, this must be done *after* your reboot when you're no longer chrooted. The process spawned by this command will conflict with the one you have running outside of the chroot. Alternatively, you could just configure a network profile manually using the templates previously mentioned so that you don't have to worry about using {{ic|wifi-menu}} at all.}}
+
 
+
* Enable the {{ic|net-auto-wireless}} service, which will connect to known networks and gracefully handle roaming and disconnects:
+
 
+
# systemctl enable net-auto-wireless.service
+
 
+
{{Note|From [[Netcfg#Net-Auto-Wireless]]: {{ic|wireless-wpa-config}} profiles do not work with {{ic|net-auto-wireless}}. Convert them to {{ic|wireless-wpa-configsection}} or {{ic|wireless-wpa}} instead.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|[[Netcfg]] also provides {{ic|net-auto-wired}}, which can be used in conjunction with {{ic|net-auto-wireless}}.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|Wpasupplicant could be fail with message "WPA Authentication/Association Failed". In that case, see this [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;155273 link] for a solution.}}
+
 
+
* Make sure that the correct wireless interface (e.g. {{ic|wlp3s0}}) is set in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}:
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/conf.d/netcfg|2=
+
WIRELESS_INTERFACE="wlp3s0"}}
+
 
+
It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected, using the {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} variable in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}. If {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} is not set, all known wireless networks will be tried.
+
 
+
==== Analog modem, ISDN or PPoE DSL ====
+
 
+
For xDSL, dial-up and ISDN connections, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
+
 
+
=== Create an initial ramdisk environment ===
+
 
+
{{Tip|Most users can skip this step and use the defaults provided in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}}. The initramfs image (from the {{ic|/boot}} folder) has already been generated based on this file when the {{Pkg|linux}} package (the Linux kernel) was installed earlier with {{ic|pacstrap}}.}}
+
 
+
Here you need to set the right [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] if the root is on a USB drive, if you use RAID, LVM, or if {{ic|/usr}} is on a separate partition.
+
 
+
Edit {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} as needed and re-generate the initramfs image with:
+
 
+
# mkinitcpio -p linux
+
 
+
{{Note|Arch VPS installations on QEMU (e.g. when using {{ic|virt-manager}}) may need {{ic|virtio}} modules in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}} to be able to boot.
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/mkinitcpio.conf|2=
+
MODULES="virtio virtio_blk virtio_pci virtio_net"}}}}
+
 
+
=== Set the root password ===
+
 
+
Set the root password with:
+
  
 
  # passwd
 
  # passwd
  
=== Install and configure a bootloader ===
+
== Unmount the partitions and reboot ==
  
==== For BIOS motherboards ====
+
Exit from the chroot environment by running {{ic|exit}} or pressing {{ic|Ctrl+D}}.
  
For BIOS systems, there are three bootloaders - Syslinux, GRUB, and [[LILO]]. Choose the bootloader as per your convenience. Below only Syslinux and GRUB are explained.
+
Partitions will be unmounted automatically by ''systemd'' on shutdown. You may however unmount manually as a safety measure:
  
* Syslinux is (currently) limited to loading only files from the partition where it was installed. Its configuration file is considered to be easier to understand. An example configuration can be found [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1109328#p1109328 here].
+
# umount -R /mnt
  
* GRUB is more feature-rich and supports more complex scenarios. Its configuration file(s) is more similar to a scripting language, which may be difficult for beginners to manually write. It is recommended that they automatically generate one.
+
If the partition is "busy", you can find the cause with [[fuser]]. Reboot the computer.  
  
{{Note|Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.}}
+
# reboot
  
===== Syslinux =====
+
Remove the installation media, or you may boot back into it. You can log into your new installation as ''root'', using the password you specified with ''passwd''.
  
Install the {{Pkg|syslinux}} package and then use the {{ic|syslinux-install_update}} script to automatically ''install'' the files ({{ic|-i}}), mark the partition ''active'' by setting the boot flag ({{ic|-a}}), and install the ''MBR'' boot code ({{ic|-m}}):
+
== Post-installation ==
  
{{Note|If you have partitioned the drive as GPT, install {{Pkg|gptfdisk}} package, as well ({{ic|pacman -S gptfdisk}}), because it contains {{ic|sgdisk}}, which will be used to set the GPT-specific boot flag.}}
+
Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready to be built into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. You are now ''strongly'' advised to read the [[General recommendations]] article, especially the first two sections. Its other sections provide links to post-installation tutorials like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad.
 
+
# pacman -S syslinux
+
# syslinux-install_update -i -a -m
+
 
+
Configure {{ic|syslinux.cfg}} to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot. Change {{ic|/dev/sda3}} to reflect your root partition ''(if you partitioned your drive as in [[#Prepare the storage drive|the example]], your root partition is sda1)''. Do the same for the fallback entry.
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg|2=
+
...
+
LABEL arch
+
        ...
+
        APPEND root=/dev/sda3 ro
+
        ...}}
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see [[Syslinux]].
+
 
+
===== GRUB =====
+
 
+
Install the {{Pkg|grub-bios}} package and then run {{ic|grub-install /dev/sda}}:
+
 
+
{{Note|Change {{ic|/dev/sda}} to reflect the drive you installed Arch on. Do not append a partition number (do not use {{ic|sda''X''}}).}}
+
 
+
{{Note|For GPT-partitioned drives on BIOS motherboards, GRUB needs a "[[GRUB#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]]".}}
+
 
+
# pacman -S grub-bios
+
# grub-install --recheck /dev/sda
+
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
+
 
+
While using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
+
 
+
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
+
 
+
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
+
 
+
==== For UEFI motherboards ====
+
 
+
For UEFI boot, the drive needs to be GPT-partitioned, and a UEFI System Partition (512 MiB or larger, type {{ic|EF00}}, formatted with FAT32) must be present and mounted on {{ic|/boot/efi}}. If you have followed this guide from the beginning, you've already done all of these.
+
 
+
While there are other [[UEFI Bootloaders|UEFI bootloaders]] available, using EFISTUB is recommended. Below are instructions for setting up EFISTUB and GRUB (of course you choose only one of them).
+
 
+
{{Note|Syslinux does not yet support UEFI.}}
+
 
+
===== EFISTUB =====
+
 
+
The Linux kernel can act as its own bootloader using EFISTUB. This is the UEFI boot method recommended by developers and simpler compared to {{ic|grub-efi-x86_64}}. The steps below set up rEFInd to provide a menu for EFISTUB kernels, as well as for booting other UEFI bootloaders. Alternative EFISTUB boot managers can be found on the page [[UEFI Bootloaders#Booting EFISTUB]]. Both rEFInd and [[gummiboot]] can detect Windows UEFI bootloaders in case of dual-boot.
+
 
+
1. Mount the UEFI System Partition on {{ic|/mnt/boot/efi}} and chroot back into {{ic|/mnt}}.
+
 
+
2. [[UEFI Bootloaders#Setting up EFISTUB|Copy the kernel and initramfs files]] to {{ic|/mnt/boot/efi}}:
+
 
+
# mkdir -p /boot/efi/EFI/arch/
+
# cp /boot/vmlinu'''z'''-linux /boot/efi/EFI/arch/vmlinuz-arch'''.efi'''
+
# cp /boot/initramfs-linux.img /boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch.img
+
# cp /boot/initramfs-linux-fallback.img /boot/efi/EFI/arch/initramfs-arch-fallback.img
+
 
+
Every time the kernel and initramfs files are updated in {{ic|/boot}}, they need to be updated in {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch}}. This can be automated [[UEFI Bootloaders#Systemd|using systemd]].
+
 
+
3. For the rEFInd boot manager, install {{Pkg|refind-efi}} and {{Pkg|efibootmgr}}:
+
 
+
# pacman -S refind-efi efibootmgr
+
 
+
4. Install rEFInd to the UEFI System Partition (summarized from [[UEFI Bootloaders#Using rEFInd]]):
+
 
+
# mkdir -p /boot/efi/EFI/refind
+
# cp /usr/lib/refind/refind_x64.efi /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind_x64.efi
+
# cp /usr/lib/refind/config/refind.conf /boot/efi/EFI/refind/refind.conf
+
# cp -r /usr/share/refind/icons /boot/efi/EFI/refind/icons
+
 
+
5. Create a {{ic|refind_linux.conf}} file with the kernel parameters to be used by rEFInd:
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /boot/efi/EFI/arch/refind_linux.conf|2=
+
"Boot to X"          "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=graphical.target"
+
"Boot to console"    "root=/dev/sdaX ro rootfstype=ext4 systemd.unit=multi-user.target"}}
+
 
+
{{Note|{{ic|refind_linux.conf}} is copied in the directory {{ic|/boot/efi/EFI/arch/}} where the initramfs and the kernel have been copied to in step 2.}}
+
{{Note|In {{ic|refind_linux.conf}}, sdaX refers to your root file system, not your boot partition, if you created them separately.}}
+
 
+
6. Add rEFInd to UEFI boot menu using [[UEFI#efibootmgr|efibootmgr]]. Replace X and Y with the drive and partition of the UEFI System Partition. For example, in {{ic|/dev/sdc5}}, X is "c" and Y is "5".
+
 
+
{{Warning|Using {{ic|efibootmgr}} on Apple Macs may brick the firmware and may need reflash of the motherboard ROM. For Macs, use {{AUR|mactel-boot}}, or "bless" from within OS X.}}
+
 
+
# efibootmgr -c -d /dev/sdX -p Y -w -L "rEFInd" -l '\EFI\refind\refind_x64.efi'
+
 
+
{{Note|On some systems, the above command will not work properly. It will execute without any visible error, but the UEFI boot menu will not have been correctly updated with a new entry. To determine whether the command executed properly, run {{ic|efibootmgr}} without any arguments and see if a new entry has appeared in the list displayed. If there is no new entry, then it will not be possible to enter rEFInd upon reboot, as the UEFI boot menu has been left unchanged. In this case, you will instead have to enter the UEFI shell and manually add an entry to the UEFI boot menu with the {{ic|bcfg}} command, as described [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#bcfg|here]].}}
+
 
+
===== GRUB =====
+
 
+
{{Note|In case you have a system with 32-bit EFI, like pre-2008 Apple Macs, install {{ic|grub-efi-i386}} instead of {{ic|grub-efi-x86_64}}.}}
+
 
+
# pacman -S grub-efi-x86_64 efibootmgr
+
# grub-install --efi-directory=/boot/efi --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck
+
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
+
 
+
Next, while using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it's recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
+
 
+
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
+
 
+
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
+
 
+
{{Note|{{ic|grub-install}} should create a new entry in the UEFI boot menu. If it doesn't, you will instead have to enter the UEFI shell and manually add an entry to the UEFI boot menu with the {{ic|bcfg}} command, as described [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#bcfg|here]].}}
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
+
 
+
=== Unmount the partitions and reboot ===
+
 
+
Exit from the chroot environment:
+
 
+
# exit
+
 
+
Since the partitions are mounted under {{ic|/mnt}}, we use the following command to unmount them:
+
 
+
# umount /mnt/{boot,home,}
+
 
+
Reboot the computer:
+
 
+
# reboot
+
  
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media, otherwise you will boot back into it.}}<noinclude>
+
For a list of applications that may be of interest, see [[List of applications]].
{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>
+

Latest revision as of 20:09, 25 May 2016

This document will guide you through the process of installing Arch Linux using the Arch Install Scripts. Before installing, you are advised to skim over the FAQ.

The community-maintained ArchWiki is the primary resource that should be consulted if issues arise. The IRC channel (irc://irc.freenode.net/#archlinux) and the forums are also excellent resources if an answer cannot be found elsewhere. In accordance with the Arch Way, you are encouraged to type man command to read the man page of any command you are unfamiliar with.

Preparation

Arch Linux should run on any i686 compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the base group should take less than 800 MB of disk space.

See Category:Getting and installing Arch for instructions on downloading the installation medium, and methods for booting it to the target machine(s). This guide assumes you use the latest available version.

Boot the installation medium

Point the current boot device to the drive containing the Arch installation media. This is typically achieved by pressing a key during the POST phase, as indicated on the splash screen. Refer to your motherboard's manual for details.

When the Arch menu appears, select Boot Arch Linux and press Enter to enter the installation environment. See README.bootparams for a list of boot parameters.

You will be logged in as the root user and presented with a Zsh shell prompt. Zsh provides advanced tab completion and other features as part of the grml config. For modifying or creating configuration files, typically in /etc, nano and vim are suggested.

UEFI mode

In case you have a UEFI motherboard with UEFI mode enabled, the CD/USB will automatically launch Arch Linux via systemd-boot.

To verify you are booted in UEFI mode, check that the following directory is populated:

# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars

See UEFI#UEFI Variables for details.

Set the keyboard layout

The default console keymap is set to us. Available choices can be listed with ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz.

Note: localectl list-keymaps does not work due to bug FS#46725.

For example, to change the layout to de-latin1, run:

# loadkeys de-latin1

If certain characters appear as white squares or other symbols, change the console font. For example:

# setfont lat9w-16

Connect to the Internet

Wired

The dhcpcd daemon is enabled on boot for wired devices, and will attempt to start a connection. To access captive portal login forms, use the ELinks browser.

Verify a connection was established, for example with ping. If none is available, proceed to configure the network; the examples below use netctl to this purpose. To prevent conflicts, stop the dhcpcd service (replacing enp0s25 with the correct wired interface):

# systemctl stop dhcpcd@enp0s25.service

Interfaces can be listed using ip link, or iw dev for wireless devices. They are prefixed with en (ethernet), wl (WLAN), or ww (WWAN).

Wireless

List available networks, and make a connection for a specified interface:

# wifi-menu -o wlp2s0

The resulting configuration file is stored in /etc/netctl. For networks which require both a username and password, see WPA2 Enterprise#netctl.

Other

Several example profiles, such as for configuring a static IP address, are available. Copy the required one to /etc/netctl, for example ethernet-static:

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/ethernet-static /etc/netctl

Adjust the copy as needed, and enable it:

# netctl start ethernet-static

Update the system clock

Use systemd-timesyncd to ensure that your system clock is accurate. To start it:

# timedatectl set-ntp true

To check the service status, use timedatectl status.

Prepare the storage devices

Warning:
  • In general, partitioning or formatting will make existing data inaccessible and subject to being overwritten, i.e. destroyed, by subsequent operations. For this reason, all data that needs to be preserved must be backed up before proceeding.
  • If dual-booting with an existing installation of Windows on a UEFI/GPT system, avoid reformatting the UEFI partition, as this includes the Windows .efi file required to boot it. Furthermore, Arch must follow the same firmware boot mode and partitioning combination as Windows. See Dual boot with Windows#Important information.

In this step, the storage devices that will be used by the new system will be prepared. Read Partitioning for a more general overview.

Users intending to create stacked block devices for LVM, disk encryption or RAID, should keep those instructions in mind when preparing the partitions. If intending to install to a USB flash key, see Installing Arch Linux on a USB key.

Identify the devices

The first step is to identify the devices where the new system will be installed. The following command will show all the available devices:

# lsblk

This will list all devices connected to your system along with their partition schemes, including that used to host and boot live Arch installation media (e.g. a USB drive). Not all devices listed will therefore be viable or appropriate mediums for installation. Results ending in rom, loop or airoot can be ignored.

Devices (e.g. hard disks) will be listed as sdx, where x is a lower-case letter starting from a for the first device (sda), b for the second device (sdb), and so on. Existing partitions on those devices will be listed as sdxY, where Y is a number starting from 1 for the first partition, 2 for the second, and so on. In the example below, only one device is available (sda), and that device has only one partition (sda1):

NAME            MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda               8:0    0    80G  0 disk
└─sda1            8:1    0    80G  0 part

The sdxY convention will be used in the examples provided below for partition tables, partitions, and file systems. As they are just examples, it is important to ensure that any necessary changes to device names, partition numbers, and/or partition sizes (etc.) are made. Do not just blindly copy and paste the commands.

If the existing partition scheme does not need to be changed, skip to #Format the file systems and enable swap, otherwise continue reading the following section.

Partition table types

If you are installing alongside an existing installation (i.e. dual-booting), a partition table will already be in use. If the devices are not partitioned, or the current partitions table or scheme needs to be changed, you will first have to determine the partition tables (one for each device) in use or to be used.

There are two types of partition table:

Any existing partition table can be identified with the following command for each device:

# parted /dev/sdx print

Partitioning tools

Warning: Using a partitioning tool that is incompatible with your partition table type will likely result in the destruction of that table, along with any existing partitions/data.

For each device to be partitioned, a proper tool must be chosen according to the partition table to be used. Several partitioning tools are provided by the Arch installation medium, including:

  • parted: GPT and MBR
  • fdisk, cfdisk, sfdisk: GPT and MBR
  • gdisk, cgdisk, sgdisk: GPT

Devices may also be partitioned before booting the installation media, for example through tools such as GParted (also provided as a live CD).

Using parted in interactive mode

All the examples provided below make use of parted, as it can be used for both UEFI/GPT and BIOS/MBR. It will be launched in interactive mode, which simplifies the partitioning process and reduces unnecessary repetition by automatically applying all partitioning commands to the specified device.

In order to start operating on a device, execute:

# parted /dev/sdx

You will notice that the command-line prompt changes from a hash (#) to (parted): this also means that the new prompt is not a command to be manually entered when running the commands in the examples.

To see a list of the available commands, enter:

(parted) help

When finished, or if wishing to implement a partition table or scheme for another device, exit from parted with:

(parted) quit

After exiting, the command-line prompt will change back to #.

Create new partition table

You need to (re)create the partition table of a device when it has never been partitioned before, or when you want to change the type of its partition table. Recreating the partition table of a device is also useful when the partition scheme needs to be restructured from scratch.

Open each device whose partition table must be (re)created with:

# parted /dev/sdx

To then create a new GPT partition table for UEFI systems, use the following command:

(parted) mklabel gpt

To create a new MBR/msdos partition table for BIOS systems instead, use:

(parted) mklabel msdos

Partition schemes

You can decide the number and size of the partitions the devices should be split into, and which directories will be used to mount the partitions in the installed system (also known as mount points). The mapping from partitions to directories is the partition scheme, which must comply with the following requirements:

  • At least a partition for the / (root) directory must be created.
  • When using a UEFI motherboard, one EFI System Partition must be created.

In the examples below it is assumed that a new and contiguous partitioning scheme is applied to a single device. Some optional partitions will also be created for the /boot and /home directories which otherwise would simply be contained in the / partition. See the Arch filesystem hierarchy for an explanation of the purpose of the various directories. Also the creation of an optional partiton for swap space will be illustrated.

If not already open in a parted interactive session, open each device to be partitioned with:

# parted /dev/sdx

The following command will be used to create partitions:

(parted) mkpart part-type fs-type start end
  • part-type is one of primary, extended or logical, and is meaningful only for MBR partition tables.
  • fs-type is an identifier chosen among those listed by entering help mkpart as the closest match to the file system that you will use in #Format the file systems and enable swap. The mkpart command does not actually create the file system: the fs-type parameter will simply be used by parted to set a 1-byte code that is used by boot loaders to "preview" what kind of data is found in the partition, and act accordingly if necessary. See also Wikipedia:Disk partitioning#PC partition types.
Tip: Most Linux native file systems map to the same partition code (0x83), so it is perfectly safe to e.g. use ext2 for an ext4-formatted partition.
  • start is the beginning of the partition from the start of the device. It consists of a number followed by a unit, for example 1M means start at 1MiB.
  • end is the end of the partition from the start of the device (not from the start value). It has the same syntax as start, for example 100% means end at the end of the device (use all the remaining space).
Warning: It is important that the partitions do not overlap each other: if you do not want to leave unused space in the device, make sure that each partition starts where the previous one ends.
Note: parted may issue a warning like:
Warning: The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best performance.
Ignore/Cancel?
In this case, read Partitioning#Partition alignment and follow GNU Parted#Alignment to fix it.

The following command will be used to flag the partition that contains the /boot directory as bootable:

(parted) set partition boot on
  • partition is the number of the partition to be flagged (see the output of the print command).

UEFI/GPT examples

In every instance, a special bootable EFI System Partition is required.

If creating a new EFI System Partition, use the following commands (a size of 512MiB is suggested):

(parted) mkpart ESP fat32 1MiB 513MiB
(parted) set 1 boot on

The remaining partition scheme is entirely up to you. For one other partition using 100% of remaining space:

(parted) mkpart primary ext4 513MiB 100%

For separate / (20GiB) and /home (all remaining space) partitions:

(parted) mkpart primary ext4 513MiB 20.5GiB
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 20.5GiB 100%

And for separate / (20GiB), swap (4GiB), and /home (all remaining space) partitions:

(parted) mkpart primary ext4 513MiB 20.5GiB
(parted) mkpart primary linux-swap 20.5GiB 24.5GiB
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 24.5GiB 100%

BIOS/MBR examples

For a minimum single primary partition using all available disk space, the following command would be used:

(parted) mkpart primary ext4 1MiB 100%
(parted) set 1 boot on

In the following instance, a 20GiB / partition will be created, followed by a /home partition using all the remaining space:

(parted) mkpart primary ext4 1MiB 20GiB
(parted) set 1 boot on
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 20GiB 100%

In the final example below, separate /boot (100MiB), / (20GiB), swap (4GiB), and /home (all remaining space) partitions will be created:

(parted) mkpart primary ext4 1MiB 100MiB
(parted) set 1 boot on
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 100MiB 20GiB
(parted) mkpart primary linux-swap 20GiB 24GiB
(parted) mkpart primary ext4 24GiB 100%

Format the file systems and enable swap

Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system, except for swap partitions. All available partitions on the intended installation device can be listed with the following command:

# lsblk /dev/sdx

With the exceptions noted below, it is recommended to use the ext4 file system:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdxY

If a swap partition has been created, it must be set up and activated with:

# mkswap /dev/sdxY
# swapon /dev/sdxY

Mount the root partition to the /mnt directory of the live system:

# mount /dev/sdxY /mnt

Remaining partitions (except swap) may be mounted in any order, after creating the respective mount points. For example, when using a /boot partition:

# mkdir -p /mnt/boot
# mount /dev/sdxZ /mnt/boot

If a new UEFI system partition has been created on a UEFI/GPT system, it must be formatted with a fat32 file system:

# mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sdxY

/mnt/boot is also recommended for mounting the (formatted or already existing) EFI System Partition on a UEFI/GPT system. See EFISTUB and related articles for alternatives.

Installation

Select the mirrors

Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.

The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account. See Mirrors for details.

pacstrap will also install a copy of this file to the new system, so it is worth getting right.

Install the base packages

The pacstrap script installs the base system. To build packages from the AUR or with ABS, the base-devel group is also required.

Not all tools from the live installation (see packages.both) are part of the base group. Packages can later be installed with pacman, or by appending their names to the pacstrap command.

# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel

The -i switch ensures prompting before package installation.

Configuration

fstab

Generate an fstab file. The -U option indicates UUIDs: see Persistent block device naming. Labels can be used instead through the -L option.

# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

Check the resulting file in /mnt/etc/fstab afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.

Change root

Copy netctl profiles in /etc/netctl to the new system in /mnt (when applicable), then chroot to it:

# arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash

Locale

The Locale defines which language the system uses, and other regional considerations such as currency denomination, numerology, and character sets.

Possible values are listed in /etc/locale.gen. Uncomment en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8, as well as other needed localisations. Save the file, and generate the new locales:

# locale-gen

Create /etc/locale.conf, where LANG refers to the first column of an uncommented entry in /etc/locale.gen:

/etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.UTF-8

If you set the keyboard layout, make the changes persistent in /etc/vconsole.conf. For example, if de-latin1 was set with loadkeys, and lat9w-16 with setfont, assign the KEYMAP and FONT variables accordingly:

/etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1
FONT=lat9w-16

Time

Select a time zone:

# tzselect

Create the symbolic link /etc/localtime, where Zone/Subzone is the TZ value from tzselect:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Zone/SubZone /etc/localtime

It is recommended to adjust the time skew, and set the time standard to UTC:

# hwclock --systohc --utc

If other operating systems are installed on the machine, they must be configured accordingly. See Time for details.

Initramfs

As mkinitcpio was run on installation of linux with pacstrap, most users can use the defaults provided in mkinitcpio.conf.

For special configurations, set the correct hooks in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf and re-generate the initramfs image:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Install a boot loader

See Boot loaders for available choices and configurations. If you have an Intel CPU, install the intel-ucode package, and enable microcode updates.

UEFI/GPT

Here, the installation drive is assumed to be GPT-partioned, and have the EFI System Partition (gdisk type EF00, formatted with FAT32) mounted at /boot.

Install systemd-boot to the EFI system partition:

# bootctl install

When successful, create a boot entry as described in systemd-boot#Configuration (replacing $esp with /boot), or adapt the examples in /usr/share/systemd/bootctl/.

BIOS/MBR

Install the grub package. To search for other operating systems, also install os-prober:

# pacman -S grub os-prober

Install the bootloader to the drive Arch was installed to:

# grub-install --target=i386-pc /dev/sda

Generate grub.cfg:

# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

See GRUB for more information.

Configure the network

The procedure is similar to #Connect to the Internet, except made persistent for subsequent boots. Select one daemon to handle the network.

Hostname

Set the hostname to your liking by adding myhostname to the following file, where myhostname is the hostname you wish to set:

/etc/hostname
myhostname

It is recommended to append the same hostname to localhost entries in /etc/hosts. See Network configuration#Set the hostname for details.

Wired

When only requiring a single wired connection, enable the dhcpcd service:

# systemctl enable dhcpcd@interface.service

Where interface is an ethernet device name.

See Network configuration#Configure the IP address for other available methods.

Wireless

Install iw, wpa_supplicant, and (for wifi-menu) dialog:

# pacman -S iw wpa_supplicant dialog

Additional firmware packages may also be required.

If you used wifi-menu priorly, repeat the steps after finishing the rest of this installation and rebooting, to prevent conflicts with the existing processes.

See Netctl and Wireless#Wireless management for more information.

Root password

Set the root password with:

# passwd

Unmount the partitions and reboot

Exit from the chroot environment by running exit or pressing Ctrl+D.

Partitions will be unmounted automatically by systemd on shutdown. You may however unmount manually as a safety measure:

# umount -R /mnt

If the partition is "busy", you can find the cause with fuser. Reboot the computer.

# reboot

Remove the installation media, or you may boot back into it. You can log into your new installation as root, using the password you specified with passwd.

Post-installation

Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready to be built into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. You are now strongly advised to read the General recommendations article, especially the first two sections. Its other sections provide links to post-installation tutorials like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad.

For a list of applications that may be of interest, see List of applications.