Beginners' Guide/Installation (Српски)

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Note: Ovo je deo visestranog clanka za Uputstvo za pocetnike.Kliknite ovde ako biste pre zeleli da citate uputstvo u celosti.

Instalacija osnovnog sistema

Kao root korisnik, pokrenite instalacionu skriptu sa tty1:

# /arch/setup

Trebalo bi da vidite Arch Linux frejmvork ekran.

Izaberite izvor za instalaciju

Nakon ekrana za dobrodoslicu, bicete upozoreni za instalacioni izvor. Izaberite odgovarajuci izvor za instaler koji koristite. Ako koristite odraz za instalaciju preko interneta, relativna brzina i svezina paketa u repozitorijumima moze biti proverena here.

  • Ako izaberete CORE instaler i zelite da koristite pakete sa CD-a, izaberite CD-ROM kao izvor
  • Alternativno, ako koristite net-instalacioni medij, izaberite NET i pogledajte sekciju ispod (Podesavanje mreze).

Podesavanje mreze (Netinstall)

Bicete obavesteni da ucitate ethernet drajvere rucno, ako zelite. Udev je prilocno efikasan kada je ucitavanje neophodnih modula u pitanju, tako da mozete da pretpostavite da je to vec uradio. Na sledecem ekranu, izaberite "Setup Network". Mozete potvrditi ovo pritiskom na <Alt>+F3 i pokretanjem ifconfig-a. Nakon toga se vratite na tty1 pritiskom na <Alt>+F1.

Dostupni interfejsi ce se pojaviti. Ako su jedan interfejs i HWaddr (HardWare address) izlistani, onda je vas modul vec ucitan. Ako vas interfejs nije izlistan, mozete da uradite probe iz instalera ili da to rucno uradite iz druge virtualne konzole. Izaberite vas interfejs da bi nastavili.

Instaler ce vas zatim upitati da li zelite da koristite DHCP. Ako izaberete Yes, to ce pokrenuti dhcpcd da pronadje dostupni gateway i da izda zahtev za IP adresom; Izborom No opcije cete biti upitani za vasu staticku IP adresu, netmask, broadcast, gateway DNS IP, HTTP proxy i FTP proxy. Nakon toga bicete vraceni na Net instalacioni meni

Izaberite Choose Mirror i selektujte FTP/HTTP odraz. Kada zavrsite, vratite se na glavni meni.

Note: archlinux.org je usporen na 50KB/s
(A)DSL brzi start za zivo okruzenje

(Ako imate modem ili ruter u bridge modu za konektovanje na vaseg ISP-a)

Predjite na drugu virtualnu konzolu (<Alt> + F2), ulogujte se kao root i pokrenite

# pppoe-setup

Ako je sve dobro konfigurisano na kraju, mozete da se povezete sa ISP-om sa

# pppoe-start

Vratite se na prvu virtualnu konzolu sa <ALT>+F1. Nastavite sa Podesavanje sata

Bezicni internet - brzi start za zivo okruzenje

(Ako imate pristup bezicnom internetu tokom instalacionog procesa)

Drajveri za bezicni internet i pomocni programi su vam dostupni u zivom okruzenju instalacionog medija. Dobro poznavanje vaseg hardvera za bezicni internet ce biti od kljucnog znacaja za uspecno konfigurisanje. Imajte na umu da ce sledeca procedura za brzi start, "obavljena u ovom momentu u instalaciji", inicijalizovati vas hardver za bezicni internet za upotrebu "u zivom okruzenju instalacionog medija". Ovi koraci (ili neki drugi oblik upravljanja vajrles-om) moraju biti ponovljeni iz instaliranog sistema nakon njegovog startovanja.

Takodje znajte da su ovi koraci opcioni ukoliko vajrles konekcija nije neophodna u ovom momentu u okviru instalacije; vajrles funkcionalnost moze biti uspostavljena kasnije bez problema.

Note: Sledeci primeri koriste wlan0 za interfejs i 'linksys' za ESSID. Zapamtite da promenite ove u skladu sa vasom situacijom.

Osnovna procedura je:

  • Predjite na slobodnu virtualnu konzolu , npr.: <ALT>+F3
  • Ulogujte se kao root
  • (Opciono) identifikujte bezicni interfejs:
# lspci | grep -i net
  • Proverite da je udev ucitao drajver i da je drajver kreirao upotrebljiv vajrles kernel interfejs sa /usr/sbin/iwconfig:

Template:Command wlan0 je dostupni interfejs za vajrles (bezicni internet) u ovom primeru.

Note: Ako ne vidite izlaz slican ovom, onda vas vajrles drajver nije ucitan. U tom slucaju morate da ucitate drajver sami. Pogledajte Wireless Setup za vise detaljnih informacija.
  • Podignite (startujte) interfejs sa /sbin/ifconfig <interface> up.
# ifconfig wlan0 up

Mali procenat vajrles cipova zahteva i firmver, kao dodatak odgovarajucem drajveru. Ako vajrles cipovi zahtevaju firmver, verovatno cete dobiti ovu gresku prilikom podizanja interfejsa:

Template:Command

Ako niste sigurni, pokrenite /usr/bin/dmesg da upitate kernel log da li su vajrles cipovi izdali zahtev za firmver. Primer izlaza za jedan Intel skup cipova koji su zatrazili firmver od kernela prilikom startovanja sistema:

Template:Command

Ako ne postoji izlaz, moze se zakljuciti da vajrles cipset ne zahteva firmver.

Note: Firmver paketi za vajrles cipove (za kartice koje ih zahtevaju) su unapred instalirani pod /lib/firmware u zivom okruzenju (na CD/USB stiku) ali moraju biti eksplicitno instalirani na vas sistem da pruze funkcionalnost vajrlesa nakon sto restartujete u sistem! Selekcija i instalacija paketa je pokrivena kasnije u ovom uputstvu. Obezbedite instalaciju vajrles modula i firmvera tokom koraka selekcije paketa! Pogledajte Wireless Setup ako niste sigurni oko zahteva odgovarajuceg firmvera za vas specificni skup cipova. Ovo je vrlo cesta greska.
  • Ako je ESSID zaboravljen ili je nepoznat, upotrebite /sbin/iwlist <interface> scan da skenirate mreze u okruzenju.
# iwlist wlan0 scan

  • Ako mreza ima WPA enkripciju:

Upotreba WPA enkripcije zahteva da kljuc bude enkriptovan i skladisten u fajlu, zajedno sa ESSID-om, da bi mogao kasnije da se upotrebi za konekciju preko wpa_supplicant. Usled toga, nekoliko dodatnih koraka je neophodno:

Za svrhu pojednostavljenja i rezervne kopije, preimenujte pocetni wpa_supplicant.conf fajl:

# mv /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf.original

Upotrebom wpa_passphrase, omogucite vasoj vajrles mrezi i WPA kljucu da bude enkriptovan i zapisan u /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

Sledeci primer enkriptuje kljuc 'my_secret_passkey' od 'linksys' vajrles mreze, generise novi konfiguracioni fajl (<file>/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf</file>), i and zatim preusmerava enkriptovani kljuc, zapisujuci ga u fajl:

# wpa_passphrase linksys "my_secret_passkey" > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

Proverite WPA Supplicant za vise informacija i resavanje eventualnih problema.

Note: /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf se nalazi u obicnom tekst formatu. Ovo nije rizicno u instalacionom okruzenju, ali nakon restarta u vas novi sistem i rekonfigurisanja WPA, ne zaboravite da promenite dozvole na /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf (e.g. chmod 0600 /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf da ga ucinite citljivim samo za root korisnika).
  • Povezite vas vajrles uredjaj sa pristupnom tackom koju zelite da koristite. U zavisnosti od enkripcije (none, WEP, ili WPA), procedura moze da varira. Morate da znate ime izabrane vajrles mreze (ESSID).
Enkripcija Komanda
Bez enkripcije iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys"
WEP w/ Hex kljuc iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "0241baf34c"
WEP w/ ASCII lozinka iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "s:pass1"
WPA wpa_supplicant -B -Dwext -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
Note: Proces konektovanja na mrezu moze biti automatizovan kasnije upotrebom Arch mreznog daemon-a, netcfg, wicd, ili drugog mreznog menadzera prema vasem izboru.
  • Nakon primene odgovarajuce metode udruzenja, navedene gore, sacekajte nekoliko trenutaka i proverite da ste uspesno udruzeni sa pristupnom tackom nakon sto nastavite. Npr.:
# iwconfig wlan0

Izlaz bi trebao da nagovesti da je vajrles mreza udruzena sa interfejsom.

  • Zahtevajte IP adresu sa /sbin/dhcpcd <interface> . npr.:
# dhcpcd wlan0
  • Na kraju, uverite se da mozete da rutirate upotrebom /bin/ping:
# ping -c 3 www.google.com

Trebalo bi da imate mreznu konekciju koja radi. Za resavanje eventualnih problema, proverite detaljniju Wireless Setup stranicu.

Vratite se na tty1 sa <ALT>+F1. Nastavite sa Podesavanje sata

Podesavanje sata

  • UTC - Izaberite UTC ako koristite samo UNIX-olike operativne sisteme.
  • localtime - izaberite local ako pokrecete i Microsoft Windows OS uporedo.

Pripremite hard diskove

Warning: Particionisanje hard diskova moze unistiti podatke. Upozoravamo vas da napravite kopiju vasih vaznih podataka pre nego sto nastavite.
Note: Particionisanje moze biti obavljeno pre pokretanja Arch instalacije, ako zelite, upotrebom GParted ili drugih dostupnih alata. Ako je instalacioni disk vec particionisan prema neophodnim specifikacijama, nastavite sa Podesavanje tacaka za montiranje fajl sistema

Proverite trenutni raspored na disku i identitete pokretanjem /sbin/fdisk sa -l (malo L) prekidacem.

Otvorite drugu virtualnu konzolu (<ALT>+F3) i unesite:

# fdisk -l

Zabelezite disk/particiju koju cete upotrebiti za Arch instalaciju.

Predjite nazad na instalacionu skriptu sa <ALT>+F1

Izaberite prvu opciju na meniju "Prepare Hard Drive".

  • Opcija1: Auto-Prepare (Brise ceo hard disk i podesava particije)

Auto-Prepare deli disk na sledecu konfiguraciju:

  • ext2 /boot paricija, pocetna velicina 32MB. Bicete upitani da modifikujete velicinu prema vasim potrebama.
  • swap paricija, pocetna velicina 256MB. Bicete upitani da modifikujete velicinu prema vasim potrebama.
  • Odvojena / i /home particija, (velicina isto mogu biti zadate). Dostupni fajl sistemi su ext2, ext3, ext4, reiserfs, xfs and jfs, ali zapamtite da oba / i /home ce deliti isti fajl sistem tip ako izaberete Auto Prepare opciju.

Znajte da ce Be Auto-prepare kompletno obrisate izabrani hard disk. Procitajte upozorenje prikazano od strane instalera veoma pazljivo i uverite se da je ispravan uredjaj selektovan za particionisanje.

  • Opcija 2: Rucno particionisanje hard diskova (sa cfdisk)- preporucljivo.

Ova opcija ce vam dozvoliti najrobustnije particionisanje hard diskova prema vasim potrebama.

  • Opcija 3: Rucno konfigurisanje blok uredjaja, fajl sistema i tacaka za montiranje

Ako je ovo selektovano, sistem ce listati fajl sisteme i tacke za montiranje koje je pronasao i pitati vas ako zelite da ih upotrebite. Ako izaberete "Yes", bice vam dat izbor da selektujete zeljenu metodu identifikacije, prema dev, label ili uuid.

  • Opcija 4: Vracanje zadnjih fajl sistem izmena

U ovom momentu, napredniji GNU/Linux korisnici koji su upoznati i opusteni kada je rucno particionisanje u pitanju, mogu preskociti dole na Selektovanje paketa ispod.

Note: Ako instalirate na USB fles, pogledajte "Installing Arch Linux on a USB key".

Particionisanje hard diskova

Partition Info

Particionisanje hard diskova definise odredjene oblasti (particije) u okviru diska, od kojih ce se svaka pojavljivati i ponasati se kao zaseban disk i na kojima se mogu kreirati razliciti fajl sistemi (formatiranje).

  • Postoji 3 vrste disk particionisanja:
  1. Primary (primarna)
  2. Extended (prosirena)
  3. Logical (logicka)

Primary particije mogu biti butabilne, i ogranicene su na 4 particije po disku ili raid-u. Ako sema za particionisanje zahteva vise od 4 particije, jedna "extended" particija koja ce sadrzati "logical" particije ce biti neophodna.

Prosirene (extended) particije nisu upotrebljive same po sebi; one su zapravo "kontejner" za logicke particije. Ako je neophodno, hard disk ce sadrzati samo jednu prosirenu (extended) particiju; koja ce zatim biti podeljenja na logicke particije.

Kada particionisete disk, mozete da posmatrate ovu semu za brojanje tako sto cete napraviti primarne particije sda1 do sda3 praceno sa kreiranjem jedne extended (prosirene) particije, sda4, a zatim da kreirate logicke particije u okviru prosirene (extended) particije; sda5, sda6, i tako dalje.

Swap particija

Swap particija je mesto na hard disku gde obitava ram memorija, pruzajuci kernelu da na lak nacin koristi hard disk za one podatke za koje nema mesta u fizickoj RAM memoriji.

Istorijski, generalno pravilo za velicinu swap particije je bilo 2x iznos fizickog RAM-a. Tokom vremena, kako su racunari dobijali sve vece kapacitete memorije, ovo pravilo je postalo zastarelo. Generalno, na masinama sa vise od 512MB RAM-a, pravilo 2x je obicno sasvim dovoljno. Ako instalaciona masina pruza veci iznos rama (vise od 1024 MB), vrlo lako mozete kompletno da zaboravite na swap particiju, jer je opcija za kreiranje swap fajl uvek dostupna kasnije. 1 GB swap particija ce biti upotrebljena u ovom slucaju.

Note: Ako koristite suspend-to-disk, (hibernacija) swap particija bar jednaka u velicini sa ukupnim iznosom fizikog RAM-a je neophonda. Neki Arch korisnici su cak preporucili pravljenje vecih swap particija od fizickog RAM-a za nekih 10-15%, da bi obezbedili prostor za eventualne lose sektore.
Sema za particionisanje

Sema za particionisanje diska je zasebna za svaku osobu. Izbor svakog korisnika ce biti jedisntven u skladu sa njihovim licnim navikama i potrebama u koriscenju racunara. Ako zelite da imate dupli boot izmedju Arch Linux-a i Windows operativnog sistema molim vas pogledajte Windows and Arch Dual Boot.

Fajl sistem kandidati za zasebne particije obuhvataju:

/ (root) Root fajl sistem je primarni fajl sistem iz kog se svi ostali fajl sistemi granaju; vrh hijerarhije. Svi fajlovi i direktorijumi se pojavljuju pod "/", cak i ako su skladisteni na drugim fizickim uredjajima. Sadrzaji root fajl sistema moraju biti adekvatni za startovanje, povratak, oporavak i/ili popravku sistema. Tako da odgovarajuci direktorijumi pod / nisu sami za sebe kandidati za zasebne particije. (Pogledajte upozorenje ispod)."

/boot Ovaj direktorijum sadrzi kernel i ramdisk odraze i konfiguracioni fajl za bootloader, i bootloader faze. /boot takodje skladisti podatke koji se koriste pre nego sto kernel pocne sa izvrsavanjem programa za korisnicki prostor. Ovo moze da sadrzi cuvanje master boot sektora i sektor map fajlova. /boot je od vitalnog znacaja za startovanje, ali je jedinstven po tome sto moze biti skladisten na svojoj zasebnoj particiji (ukoliko je neophodno)."

/home Pruza poddirektorijume, svaki imenovan za korisnika sistema, za skladistenje raznih licnih podataka kao i konfiguracionih fajlova za aplikacije na nivou korisnika.

/usr Dok je root primarni fajl sistem, /usr je sekundarna hijerarhija za sve podatke sistem korisnika, ukljucujuci vecinu visekorisnickih pomocnih programa i aplikacija. /usr je upotrebljiv od strane vise korisnika i dozvoljeno je samo njegovo citanje. To znaci da ce /usr biti deljiv izmedju nekoliko razlicitih hostova i u njega ne sme biti pisano, osim u slucaju osvezavanja/nadogradnje sistema. Svaka informacija koja je specificna za hosta ili varira po pitanju vremena je skladistena na nekom drugom mestu."

/tmp direktorijum za programe koji zahtevaju privremene fajlove poput '.lck' fajlova, koji se mogu koristiti za sprecavanje vise instanci njihovog odgovarajuceg programa sve dok posao nije zavrsen, u kom momentu ce '.lck' fajl biti uklonjen. Programi ne smeju pretpostaviti da su bilo koji fajlovi ili direktorijumi u /tmp sacuvani izmedju pokretanja programa i fajlovi i direktorijumi locirani pod /tmp ce tipicno biti obrisati svaki put kad se sistem restartuje.

/var sadrzi varijabilne podatke; spool direktorijume i fajlove, administrativne i login podatke, kes od pakmena, ABS drvo, itd. /var postoji da bi omogucio montiranje /usr kao samo-citljivog. Sve sto kroz istoriju ide u /usr, a zapisano je tokom operacija sistema (u odnosu na instalaciju i odrzavanje softvera) mora obitavati pod /var.

Warning: Pored /boot, direktorijumi od vitalnog znacaja za startovanje su: '/bin', '/etc', '/lib', and '/sbin'. Tako da, oni ne smeju obitavati na odvojenim particijama od /.

Postoji nekoliko prednosti za koriscenje diskretnih fajl sistema, pre nego ih kombinovati sve na jednu particiju:

  • Bezbednost: Svaki fajlsistem moze biti podesen u /etc/fstab kao 'nosuid', 'nodev', 'noexec', 'readonly', itd.
  • Stabilnost: Korisnik, ili program koji ne funkcionise mogu kompletno da popune fajl sistem sa smecem ako ne imaju dozvole za pisanje da to ucine. Kriticni programi, koji obitavaju na razlicitim fajl sistemima ne trpe ovaj uticaj.
  • Brzina: Fajl sistem na koji se pise cesto moze postati fragmentovan. (Efikasan metod izbegavanja fragmentacije je da obezbedite da fajl sistemi nikad ne dodju u opasnost od potpunog popunjavanja.) Zasebni fajl sistemi ne trpe ovaj uticaj, i svaki moze biti defragmentovan odvojeno za sebe.
  • Integritet: Ako jedan fajl sistem postane korumpiran, odvojeni fajl sistemi nemaju taj problem.
  • Prilagodljivost: Deljenje podataka preko nekoliko sistema postaje celishodno kada su nezavisni fajl sistemi u upotrebi. Zasebni fajl sistem tipovi mogu isto biti izabrani bazirano na prirodi podataka i upotrebi.

U ovom primeru, mi cemo koristiti odvojene particije za /, /var, /home, i swap particije.

Note: /var sadrzi mnogo malih fajlova. Ovo treba uzeti u obzir kada birate fajl sistem tip za njega, (ako kreirate njegovu zasebnu particiju).
Koliko velike particije treba da napravim?

Ovo pitanje se najbolje odgovara bazirano na individualnim potrebama. Mozda cete zeleti da prosto kreirate jednu particiju za root i jednu particiju za swap ili samo jednu root particiju bez swap-a ili pogledajte sledece primere i razmotrite smernice da obezbedite referentni okvir:

  • Root fajl sistem (/) u primeru ce stadrzati /usr direktorijum, koji ce postati srednje velik, u zavisnosti od toga koliko softvera je instalirano. 15-20 GB bi trebalo da bude dovoljno za vecinu korisnika.
  • /var fajl sistem ce sadrzati, pored ostalih podataka, ABS drvo i pacman kes. Cuvanje kesiranih paketa je korisno i pruza mogucnost prilagodljivosti; pruza mogucnost da unazadite pakete ako je neophodno. /var tezi da raste u velicini; pacman kes moze narasti velik tokom dugog vremenskog perioda, ali moze biti bezbedno ociscen ukoliko je neophodno. Ako koristite SSD, mozete da locirate vas /var na hard disku i da drzite / i /home particije na vasem SSD-u da bi ste izbegli besportrebno citanje/pisanje na SSD. 8-12 gigabajta na desktop sistemu bi trebalo da bude dovoljno za /var, u zavisnosti od toga koliko softvera nameravate da instalirate. Serveri teze da imaju relativno vece /var fajl sisteme.
  • The /home fajl sistem je tipicno gde se nalaze korisnicki podaci, download-i, i multimedija. Na desktop sistemu, /home je tipicno najveci fajl sistem na hard disku. Zapamtite da ako izaberete da reinstalirate Arch, svi podaci na vasoj /home particiji ce biti netaknuti (sve dok imate zasebnu /home particiju).
  • Dodatnih 25% prostora dodatih na svaki fajl sistem ce pruziti prostor za nepredvidjene slucajeve, prosirenje, i moze posluziti kao preventiva za fragmentaciju.

Iz gornjih uputstava, primer sistema ce sadrzati ~15GB root (/) particiju, ~10GB /var, 1GB swap i /home koji sadrzi ostatak prostora.

Kreiranje particija sa cfdisk

Startujte sa kreiranjem primarne particije koja ce sadrzati root, (/) fajlsistem.

Izaberite New -> Primary i unesite zeljenu velicinu za root (/). Stavite particiju na pocetak diska.

Takodje izaberite Type obelezavanjem na '83 Linux'. Kreirana / particija ce se pojaviti kao sda1 u nasem primeru.

Sada kreirajte primarnu particiju za /var, obelezavanjem Type 83 Linux. Kreirana /var particija ce se pojaviti kao sda2.

Sledece, kreirajte particiju za swap. Izaberite odgovarajucu velicinu i zadajte Type kao 82 (Linux swap / Solaris). Kreirana particija ce se pojaviti kao sda3.

Na kraju, kreirajte particiju za vas /home direktorijum. Izaberite drugu primarnu particiju i podesite zeljenu velicinu.

Takodje, izaberite Type kao 83 Linux. Kreirana /home particija ce se pojaviti kao sda4.

Primer:

Name    Flags     Part Type    FS Type           [Label]         Size (MB)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
sda1               Primary     Linux                             15440 #root
sda2               Primary     Linux                             10256 #/var
sda3               Primary     Linux swap / Solaris              1024  #swap
sda4               Primary     Linux                             140480 #/home

Izaberite Write i napisite 'yes'. Budite na oprezu da ova operacija moze da unisti podatke na vasem disku. Izaberite Quit da napustite particioner. Izaberite Done da napustite meni i nastavite sa "Podesavanje tacaka za montiranje fajl sistema".

Note: Od zadnjeg razvoja Linux kernela koji sadrzi libata i PATA module, svi IDE, SATA i SCSI diskovi su usvojili sdx sistem imenovanja. Ovo je savrseno normalno i ne treba da bude briga.

Podesavanje tacaka za montiranje fajl sistema

Zadajte svaku particiju i odgovarajucu tacku za montiranje prema vasim potrebama. (Setite se da se particije zavrsavaju sa brojem. Tako da , sda nije sama po sebi particija, vec oznacava ceo disk).

Fajl sistem tipovi

Opet, fajl sistem tip je vrlo subjektivna stvar koja se zasniva na licnom izboru. Svaka ima svoje prednosti, nedostatke i jedinstvene atribute. Kratak pregled podrzanih fajl sistema:

1. ext2 Second Extended Filesystem- Stari, pouzdani GNU/Linux fajl sistem. Vrlo stabilan, ali bez podrzke za zurnalizovanja. Moze biti nepogodna za root (/) i /home, zbog vrlo dugackog fsck-a (dugacke provere fajl sistema). ext2 fajl sistem moze lako biti konvertovan u ext3.

2. ext3 Third Extended Filesystem- U sustini ext2 sistem, ali sa podrskom za zurnalizovanje. ext3 je kompatibilan u nazad sa ext2. Ektremno stabilan, zreo i najvise koriscen i podrzan GNU/Linux fajl sistem.

3. ext4 Fourth Extended Filesystem- Kompatibilan u nazad sa ext2 i ext3. Predstavlja podrsku za diskove velicine preko 1 exabajta i fajlove sa velicinom do 16 terabajta. Uvecava 32,000 velicinu poddirektorijuma u ext3 na 64,000. Pruza mogucnost onlajn defragmentacije.

4. ReiserFS (V3)- Hans Reiser-ov fajl sistem visokih performansi sa zurnalizovanjem. Koristi vrlo interestantan metod protoka podataka baziranog na nekonvencionalnom i kreativnom algoritmu. ReiserFS se reklamira kao vrlo brz, pogotovo kada radi sa mnogo malih fajlova. ReiserFS se brzo formatira, ali je spor prilikom montiranja. Prilicno sazreo i stabilan. ReiserFS (V3) nije u procesu razvoja u ovom momentu. Generalno se smartra kao dobar izbor za /var.

5. JFS - IBM's Journaled FileSystem- Prvi fajl sistem koji je pruzio zurnalizovanje. JFS je imao mnogo godina upotrebe u IBM AIX® OS-u pre nego sto je ubacen u GNU/Linux. JFS trenutno koristi najmanje procesorskih resursa od svih GNU/Linux fajl sistema. Veoma brz prilikom formatiranja, montiranja i fsck-a (provere fajl sistema) i generalno veoma dobre performanse, pogotovo u odnosu sa dedlajnom I/O zakazivacem. (Pogledajte JFS.) Nije tako siroko podrzan kao ext ili ReiserFS, ali veoma zreo i stabilan.

6. XFS - Jos jedan rani fajl sistem sa zurnalizovanjem originalno razvijen od strane Silicon Graphics-a za IRIX operativni sistem i ubacen u GNU/Linux. XFS pruza veoma brz protok za velike fajlove i velike fajl sisteme. Veoma brz prilikom formatiranja i montiranja. Generalno obelezen kao spor sa mnogo malih fajlova, u poredjenju sa ostalim fajl sistemima. XFS je veoma zreo i pruza onlajn mogucnost defragmentovanja.

7. Btrfs - Takodje poznat kao "Bolji FS" je novi fajl sistem sa znatnim, novim i mocnim karakteristikama. Slican Sun/Oracle-ovom odlicnom ZFS-u. Ovi sadrze snepsotove, pravljenje odraza sa vise diskova (prakticno softverski raid bez mdadm-a), checksum-e, inkementalni bekap i kompresiju u letu (koja moze da pruzi znacajno povecanje performansi kao i stednju prostora), i jos toga. Jos uvek se smatra "nestabilnim" od Januara 2011, ali je zdruzen u glavni kernel pod eksperimentalnim statusom. Btrfs izgleda kao buducnost linux fajl sistema i sada se pruza kao root fajl sistem izbor u Ubuntu 10.10, OpenSUSE 11.3 i drugim velikim distribucijama.

  • JFS i XFS fajl sistemi ne mogu biti smanjeni sa disk alatima (poput gparted-a ili parted magic-a)
Napomena u vezi zurnalizovanja

Svi gornji fajl sistemi, osim ext2, koriste zurnalizovanje. Fajl sistemi sa zurnalizovanjem su otporni na greske. Oni koriste zurnalizovanje da loguju promene pre nego sto su pocinjene nad fajl sistemom da bi izbegli korupciju meta podataka u slucaju pada sistema. Imajte na umu da nisu sve tehnike zurnalizovanja iste; samo ext3 i ext4 pruzaju data-mod zurnalizovanje, (ali ne kao pocetno podesavanje), koji zurnalizuje oba, podatke i meta podatke (ali sa znacajnim penalom u brzini). Ostali samo pruzaju ordered-mod zurnalizovanje, koji zurnalizuje samo meta podatke. Dok ce svi vratiti vas fajl sistem u ispravno stanje nakon oporavka od pada, data-mod zurnalizovanje pruza najvecu zastitu protiv korupcije fajl sistema i gubitka podataka, ali moze patiti od pada performansi jer su svi posaci pisu dva puta (prvo u dnevnik, a zatim na disk). U zavisnosti od toga koliko su vam bitni vasi podaci, mozete razmotriti odgovarajuci fajl sistem za vas.

Nastavak dalje ...

Choose and create the filesystem (format the partition) for / by selecting yes. You will now be prompted to add any additional partitions. In our example, sda2 and sda4 remain. For sda2, choose a filesystem type and mount it as /var. Finally, choose the filesystem type for sda4, and mount it as /home. Template:Box Note Return to the main menu.

Select Packages

All packages during installation are from the [core] repository. They are further divided into Base, and Base-devel. Package information and brief descriptions are available here.

First, select the package category:

Note: For expedience, all packages in base are selected by default. Use the space-bar to select and de-select packages.
Base 
Packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment. Always select this and only remove packages that will not be used.
Base-devel 
Extra tools from [core] such as make, and automake. Most beginners should choose to install it, as many will probably need it later.

After category selection, you will be presented with the full lists of packages, allowing you to fine-tune your selections. Use the space bar to select and unselect.

Note: If connection to a wireless network is required, remember to select and install the wireless_tools package. Some wireless interfaces also need ndiswrapper and/or a specific firmware. If you plan to use WPA encryption, you will need wpa_supplicant. The Wireless Setup page will help you choose the correct packages for your wireless device. Also strongly consider installing netcfg, which will help you set up your network connection and profiles after you reboot into your new system.

After selecting the needed packages, leave the selection screen and continue to the next step, Install Packages.

Install Packages

Install Packages will install the selected packages to your new system. If you selected a CD/USB as the source, package versions from the CD/USB will be installed. If you opted for a Netinstall, fresh packages will be downloaded from the internet and installed.

Note: In some installers, you will be asked if you wish to keep the packages in the pacman cache. If you choose 'yes', you will have the flexibility to downgrade to previous package versions in the future, so this is recommended (you can always clear the cache in the future).

After the packages have been downloaded, the installer will check their integrity. Next it will create the kernel from the packages downloaded.

Configure the System

Tip: Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.

At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. Previous versions of the installer included hwdetect to gather information for your configuration. This has been deprecated and replaced with udev, which should handle most module loading automatically at boot.

Now you will be asked which text editor you want to use; choose nano, joe or [[Vim|vi]. nano is generally considered the easiest of the three. Please see the releated wiki pages of the editor you wish to use for instructions on how to use them. You will be presented with a menu including the main configuration files for your system.

Note: It is very important at this point to edit, or at least verify by opening, every configuration file. The installer script relies on your input to create these files on your installation. A common error is to skip over these critical steps of configuration.

Can the installer handle this more automatically?

Hiding the process of system configuration is in direct opposition to The Arch Way. While it is true that recent versions of the kernel and hardware probing tools offer excellent hardware support and auto-configuration, Arch presents the user all pertinent configuration files during installation for the purposes of transparency and system resource control. By the time you have finished modifying these files to your specifications, you will have learned the simple method of manual Arch Linux system configuration and become more familiar with the base structure, leaving you better prepared to use and maintain your new installation productively.

/etc/rc.conf

Arch Linux uses the file Template:Filename as the principal location for system configuration. This one file contains a wide range of configuration information, principally used at system startup. As its name directly implies, it also contains settings for and invokes the /etc/rc* files, and is, of course, sourced by these files.


LOCALIZATION section
Example for LOCALIZATION:
LOCALE="en_US.utf8"
HARDWARECLOCK="localtime"
USEDIRECTISA="no"
TIMEZONE="US/Eastern"
KEYMAP="us"
CONSOLEFONT=
CONSOLEMAP=
USECOLOR="yes"
LOCALE 
This sets your system locale, which will be used by all i18n-aware applications and utilities. You can get a list of the available locales by running Template:Codeline from the command line. This setting's default is usually fine for US English users. However if you experience any problems such as some characters not printing right and being replaced by squares you may want to go back and replace "en_US.utf8" with just "en_US".
HARDWARECLOCK 
Specifies whether the hardware clock, which is synchronized on boot and on shutdown, stores UTC time, or localtime. UTC makes sense because it greatly simplifies changing timezones and daylight savings time. localtime is necessary if you dual boot with an operating system such as Windows, that only stores localtime to the hardware clock.
USEDIRECTISA 
Use direct I/O request instead of Template:Filename for hwclock
TIMEZONE 
Specify your TIMEZONE. (All available zones are under Template:Filename).
KEYMAP 
The available keymaps are in Template:Filename. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or X.
CONSOLEFONT 
Available console fonts reside under Template:Filename if you must change. The default (blank) is safe.
CONSOLEMAP 
Defines the console map to load with the setfont program at boot. Possible maps are found in Template:Filename, if needed. The default (blank) is safe.
USECOLOR 
Select "yes" if you have a color monitor and wish to have colors in your consoles.

HARDWARE Section
Example for HARDWARE:
# Scan hardware and load required modules at boot
MOD_AUTOLOAD="yes"
# Module Blacklist - Deprecated
MOD_BLACKLIST=()
#
MODULES=(!net-pf-10 !pcspkr loop)
MOD_AUTOLOAD 
Setting this to "yes" will use udev to automatically probe hardware and load the appropriate modules during boot, (convenient with the default modular kernel). Setting this to "no" will rely on the user's ability to specify this information manually, or compile their own custom kernel and modules, etc.
MOD_BLACKLIST 
This has become deprecated in favor of adding blacklisted modules directly to the MODULES= line below.
MODULES 
Specify additional MODULES if you know that an important module is missing. If your system has any floppy drives, add "floppy". If you will be using loopback filesystems, add "loop". Also specify any blacklisted modules by prefixing them with a bang (!). Udev will be forced NOT to load blacklisted modules. In the example, the IPv6 module as well as the annoying pcspeaker are blacklisted.

NETWORKING Section
HOSTNAME 
Set your HOSTNAME to your liking. This is the name of your computer. Whatever you put here, also put it in Template:Filename
eth0 
'Ethernet, card 0'. If you are using static IP, adjust the interface IP address, netmask and broadcast address. Set eth0="dhcp" if you want to use DHCP for dynamic/automatic configuration.
INTERFACES 
Specify all interfaces here. Multiple interfaces should be separated with a space as in: (eth0 wlan0)
gateway 
If you are using static IP, set the gateway address. If using DHCP, you can usually ignore this variable, though some users have reported the need to define it.
ROUTES 
If you are using static IP, remove the ! in front of 'gateway'. If using DHCP, you can usually leave this variable commented out with the bang (!), but again, some users require the gateway and ROUTES defined. If you experience networking issues with pacman, for instance, you may want to return to these variables.

Example w/ Dynamic IP (DHCP):

HOSTNAME="arch"
#eth0="eth0 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255"
eth0="dhcp"
INTERFACES=(eth0)
gateway="default gw 192.168.0.1"
ROUTES=(!gateway)

Example w/ Static IP:

HOSTNAME="arch"
eth0="eth0 192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255"
INTERFACES=(eth0)
gateway="default gw 192.168.0.1"
ROUTES=(gateway)

When using a static IP, modify Template:Filename to specify the DNS servers of choice. Please see the section below regarding this file.

Note: Remember, connecting to a wireless network automatically requires a few more steps and may require you to set up a network manager such as netcfg or wicd. Please see the Wireless Setup page for more information
Tip: If using a non-standard MTU size (a.k.a. jumbo frames) is desired AND the installation machine hardware supports them, see the Jumbo Frames wiki article for further configuration.

DAEMONS Section

This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in /etc/rc.d/ which are to be started during the boot process, and the order in which they start. Asynchronous initialization by backgrounding is also supported and useful for speeding up boot.

DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)
  • If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed.
  • If a script is prefixed with an "at" symbol (@), it shall be executed in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of each daemon before continuing to the next. (Useful for speeding up system boot). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example "mpd" depends on "network", therefore backgrounding network may cause mpd to break.
  • Edit this array whenever new system services are installed, if starting them automatically during boot is desired.
Note: This 'BSD-style' init, is the Arch way of handling what other distributions handle with various symlinks to an /etc/init.d directory.

About DAEMONS

The daemons line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide.

A daemon is a program that runs in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A good example is a web server that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g.:httpd) or an SSH server waiting for a user login (e.g.:sshd). While these are full-featured applications, there are also daemons whose work is not that visible. Examples are a daemon which writes messages into a log file (e.g. syslog, metalog), and a daemon which provides a graphical login (e.g.: gdm, kdm). All these programs can be added to the daemons line and will be started when the system boots. Useful daemons will be presented during this guide.

Historically, the term daemon was coined by the programmers of MIT's Project MAC. They took the name from Maxwell's demon, an imaginary being from a famous thought experiment that constantly works in the background, sorting molecules. *nix systems inherited this terminology and created the backronym disk and execution monitor.

Tip: All Arch daemons reside under /etc/rc.d/

/etc/fstab

The fstab (for file systems table) is part of the system configuration listing all available disks and disk partitions, and indicating how they are to be initialized or otherwise integrated into the overall system's filesystem. The /etc/fstab file is most commonly used by the mount command. The mount command takes a filesystem on a device, and adds it to the main system hierarchy that you see when you use your system. mount -a is called from /etc/rc.sysinit, about 3/4 of the way through the boot process, and reads /etc/fstab to determine which options should be used when mounting the specified devices therein. If noauto is appended to a filesystem in /etc/fstab, mount -a will not mount it at boot.

An example of Template:Filename

# <file system>        <dir>        <type>        <options>                 <dump>    <pass>
none                   /dev/pts     devpts        defaults                       0         0
none                   /dev/shm     tmpfs         defaults                       0         0
/dev/sda1                   /          jfs        defaults,noatime               0         1
/dev/sda2                   /var     reiserfs     defaults,noatime,notail        0         2
/dev/sda3                    swap     swap        defaults                       0         0
/dev/sda4                   /home      jfs        defaults,noatime               0         2
Note: The 'noatime' option disables writing read access times to the metadata of files and may safely be appended to / and /home regardless of your specified filesystem type for increased speed, performance, and power efficiency (see here for more). 'notail' disables the ReiserFS tailpacking feature, for added performance at the cost of slightly less efficient disk usage.
<file system> 
describes the block device or remote filesystem to be mounted. For regular mounts, this field will contain a link to a block device node (as created by mknod which is called by udev at boot) for the device to be mounted; for instance, '/dev/cdrom' or '/dev/sda1'.
Note: If your system has more than one hard drive, the installer will default to using UUID rather than the sdx naming scheme, for consistent device mapping. Utilizing UUID has several advantages and may also be preferred to avoid issues if hard disks are added to the system in the future. Due to active developments in the kernel and also udev, the ordering in which drivers for storage controllers are loaded may change randomly, yielding an unbootable system/kernel panic. Nearly every motherboard has several controllers (onboard SATA, onboard IDE), and due to the aforementioned development updates, /dev/sda may become /dev/sdb on the next reboot. (See this wiki article for more information on persistent block device naming. )
<dir> 
describes the mount point for the filesystem. For swap partitions, this field should be specified as 'swap'; (Swap partitions are not actually mounted.)
<type> 
describes the type of the filesystem. The Linux kernel supports many filesystem types. (For the filesystems currently supported by the running kernel, see /proc/filesystems). An entry 'swap' denotes a file or partition to be used for swapping. An entry 'ignore' causes the line to be ignored. This is useful to show disk partitions which are currently unused.
<options> 
describes the mount options associated with the filesystem. It is formatted as a comma-separated list of options with no intervening spaces. It contains at least the type of mount plus any additional options appropriate to the filesystem type. For documentation on the available options for non-nfs file systems, see mount(8).
<dump> 
used by the dump(8) command to determine which filesystems are to be dumped. dump is a backup utility. If the fifth field is not present, a value of zero is returned and dump will assume that the filesystem does not need to be backed up. Note that dump is not installed by default.
<pass> 
used by the fsck(8) program to determine the order in which filesystem checks are done at boot time. The root filesystem should be specified with a <pass> of 1, and other filesystems should have a <pass> of 2 or 0. Filesystems within a drive will be checked sequentially, but filesystems on different drives will be checked at the same time to utilize parallelism available in the hardware. If the sixth field is not present or zero, a value of zero is returned and fsck will assume that the filesystem does not need to be checked.

Expanded information available in the Fstab wiki entry.

/etc/mkinitcpio.conf

Most users will not need to modify this file at this time, but please read the following explanatory information.

This file allows further fine-tuning of the initial ram filesystem, or initramfs, (also historically referred to as the initial ramdisk or "initrd") for your system. The initramfs is a gzipped image that is read by the kernel during boot. The purpose of the initramfs is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are required for devices like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if you are booting from a USB/FW drive). Once the initrramfs loads the proper modules, either manually or through udev, it passes control to the kernel and your boot continues. For this reason, the initramfs only needs to contain the modules necessary to access the root filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would ever want to use. The majority of common kernel modules will be loaded later on by udev, during the init process.

mkinitcpio is the next generation of initramfs creation. It has many advantages over the old mkinitrd and mkinitramfs scripts.

  • It uses glibc and busybox to provide a small and lightweight base for early userspace.
  • It can use udev for hardware autodetection at runtime, thus preventing numerous unnecessary modules from being loaded.
  • Its hook-based init script is easily extendable with custom hooks, which can easily be included in pacman packages without having to modifiy mkinitcpio itself.
  • It already supports lvm2, dm-crypt for both legacy and luks volumes, raid, swsusp and suspend2 resuming and booting from usb mass storage devices.
  • Many features can be configured from the kernel command line without having to rebuild the image.
  • The mkinitcpio script makes it possible to include the image in a kernel, thus making a self-contained kernel image is possible.
  • Its flexibility makes recompiling a kernel unnecessary in many cases.

If using RAID or LVM on the root filesystem, the appropriate HOOKS must be configured. See the wiki pages for RAID and /etc/mkinitcpio for more info. If using a non-US keyboard. add the "keymap" hook to load your local keymap during boot. Add the "usbinput" hook if using a USB keyboard. Don't forget to add the "usb" hook when installing arch on an external hard drive, Comfact Flash, or SD card, which is connected via usb, e.g.:

HOOKS="base udev autodetect pata scsi sata usb filesystems keymap usbinput"

(Otherwise, if boot fails for some reason you will be asked to enter root's password for system maintenance but will be unable to do so.)

If you need support for booting from USB devices, FireWire devices, PCMCIA devices, NFS shares, software RAID arrays, LVM2 volumes, encrypted volumes, or DSDT support, configure your HOOKS accordingly.

/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf

This file can be used to set special configuration options for the kernel modules. It is unnecessary to configure this file in the example.

/etc/resolv.conf

Note: If you are using DHCP, you may safely ignore this file, as by default, it will be dynamically created and destroyed by the dhcpcd daemon. You may change this default behavior if you wish. See the Network and Resolv.conf pages for mor information.

The resolver is a set of routines in the C library that provide access to the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). One of the main functions of DNS is to translate domain names into IP addresses, to make the Web a friendlier place. The resolver configuration file, or /etc/resolv.conf, contains information that is read by the resolver routines the first time they are invoked by a process.

If you use a static IP, set your DNS servers in /etc/resolv.conf (nameserver <ip-address>). You may have as many as you wish. An example, using OpenDNS:

nameserver 208.67.222.222
nameserver 208.67.220.220

If you are using a router, you will probably want to specify your DNS servers in the router itself, and merely point to it from your Template:Filename, using your router's IP (which is also your gateway from Template:Filename). Example:

nameserver 192.168.1.1

If using DHCP, you may also specify your DNS servers in the router, or allow automatic assignment from your ISP, if your ISP is so equipped.

/etc/hosts

This file associates IP addresses with hostnames and aliases, one line per IP address. For each host a single line should be present with the following information:

<IP-address> <hostname> [aliases...]

Add your hostname, coinciding with the one specified in /etc/rc.conf, as an alias, so that it looks like this:

127.0.0.1   localhost.localdomain   localhost yourhostname
Warning: This format, including the 'localhost' and your actual host name, is required for program compatibility! So, if you have named your computer "arch", then that line above should look like this:
127.0.0.1   localhost.localdomain   localhost arch
Errors in this entry may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all. This is a very common error for beginners.
Note: Recent versions of the Arch Linux Installer automatically add your hostname to this file once you edit Template:Filename with such information. If, for whatever reason, this is not the case, you may add it yourself with the given instructions.

If you use a static IP, add another line using the syntax: <static-IP> <hostname.domainname.org> <hostname> e.g.:

192.168.1.100 yourhostname.domain.org  yourhostname
Tip: For convenience, you may also use /etc/hosts aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web, e.g.:
64.233.169.103   www.google.com   g
192.168.1.90   media
192.168.1.88   data
The above example would allow you to access google simply by typing 'g' into your browser, and access to a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.

/etc/hosts.deny and /etc/hosts.allow

Modify these configurations according to your needs if you plan on using the ssh daemon. The default configuration will reject all incoming connections, not only ssh connections. Edit your /etc/hosts.allow file and add the appropriate parameters:

  • Let everyone connect to you
sshd: ALL
  • Restrict it to a certain ip
sshd: 192.168.0.1
  • Restrict it to your local LAN network (range 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.0.255)
sshd: 192.168.0.
  • Restrict for an IP range
sshd: 10.0.0.0/255.255.255.0

If you do not plan on using the ssh daemon, leave this file at the default, (empty).

/etc/locale.gen

The /usr/sbin/locale-gen command reads from /etc/locale.gen to generate specific locales. They can then be used by glibc and any other locale-aware program or library for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.

By default Template:Filename is an empty file with commented documentation. Once edited, the file remains untouched. locale-gen runs on every glibc upgrade, generating all the locales specified in Template:Filename.

Choose the locale(s) you need (remove the # in front of the lines you want), e.g.:

en_US ISO-8859-1
en_US.UTF-8

The installer will now run the locale-gen script, which will generate the locales you specified. You may change your locale in the future by editing /etc/locale.gen and subsequently running 'locale-gen' as root.

Note: If you fail to choose your locale, this will lead to a "The current locale is invalid..." error. This is perhaps the most common mistake by new Arch users.

Pacman-Mirror

Choose a mirror repository for pacman. Remember that archlinux.org is throttled, limiting downloads to 50KB/s.

Root password

Finally, set a root password and make sure that you remember it later. Return to the main menu and continue with installing bootloader.

Done

When you select "Done", the system will rebuild the images and put you back to the Main Menu. This may take some time.

Install Bootloader

Because we have no secondary operating system in our example, we will need a bootloader. GRUB is the recommended bootloader and will be used in the following examples. Alternatively, you may choose LILO or Syslinux. Please see the related wiki and documentation pages if you choose to use a bootloader other than GRUB.

The provided GRUB configuration (Template:Filename) should be sufficient, but verify its contents to ensure accuracy (specifically, ensure that the root (/) partition is specified by UUID on line 3). You may want to alter the resolution of the console by adding a vga=<number> kernel argument corresponding to your desired virtual console resolution. (A table of resolutions and the corresponding numbers is printed in the Template:Filename.)

Explanation:

title 
A printed menu selection. "Arch Linux (Main)" will be printed on the screen as a menu selection.
root 
GRUB's root; the drive and partition where the kernel (/boot) resides, according to system BIOS. (More accurately, where GRUB's stage2 file resides). NOT necessarily the root (/) file system, as they can reside on separate partitions. GRUB's numbering scheme starts at 0, and uses an hdx,x format regardless of IDE or SATA, and enclosed within parentheses. The example indicates that /boot is on the first partition of the first drive, according to the BIOS, so (hd0,0).
kernel 
This line specifies:
  • The path and filename of the kernel relative to GRUB's root. In the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and vmlinuz26 is the kernel filename; Template:Filename. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply Template:Filename, being relative to GRUB's root.
  • The root= argument to the kernel statement specifies the partition containing the root (/) directory in the booted system, (more accurately, the partition containing Template:Filename). An easy way to distinguish the 2 appearances of 'root' in Template:Filename is to remember that the first root statement informs GRUB where the kernel resides, whereas the second root= kernel argument tells the kernel where the root filesystem (/) resides.
  • Kernel options. In our example, ro mounts the filesystem as read-only during startup, (usually a safe default; you may wish to change this in case it causes problems booting). Depending on hardware, rootdelay=8 may need to be added to the kernel options in order to be able to boot from an external usb hard drive.
initrd 
The path and filename of the initial RAM filesystem relative to GRUB's root. Again, in the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and kernel26.img is the initrd filename; /boot/kernel26.img. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply /kernel26.img, being relative to GRUB's root.

Example

title  Arch Linux (Main)
root   (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz26 root=/dev/sda1 ro
initrd /boot/kernel26.img

Example for /boot on a separate partition

title  Arch Linux (Main)
root   (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz26 root=/dev/sda3 ro
initrd /kernel26.img

Install the GRUB bootloader to the master boot record (/dev/sda in our example).

Warning: Make sure to install GRUB on /dev/sdX and not /dev/sdX#! This is a common mistake.
Tip: For more details, see the GRUB wiki page.

Reboot

That's it; You have configured and installed your Arch Linux base system. Exit the install, and reboot:

# reboot
Tip: Be sure to remove the installation media and perhaps change the boot preference in your BIOS; otherwise you may boot back into the installation!

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