Difference between revisions of "Beginners' Guide/Installation (한국어)"

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</noinclude>
 
</noinclude>
 
==설치하기==
 
==설치하기==
{{Note|만약 여러분이 HTTP나 FTP 프록시를 통해 인터넷을 접속하고 네트워크 인터페이스를 설정하기 위해 DHCP를 사용하고 있다면, 여러분은 {{ic|/arch/setup}}을 실행시키기 전에 아래에 표시된 것처럼 {{ic|http_proxy}}와 {{ic|ftp_proxy}}의 환경변수를 설정해줘야만 할지 모릅니다.
+
부팅 후에는 설치 미디어에서 자동으로 '''root'''로 로그인되며 US 키보드 레이아웃을 사용합니다.
{{bc|1=export http_proxy=<nowiki>http://<http_proxy_address>:<proxy_port></nowiki>
+
export ftp_proxy=<nowiki>ftp://<ftp_proxy_address>:<proxy_port></nowiki>}}}}
+
  
root 권한으로, tty1에서 설치도구 스크립트를 실행시킵니다:
+
===키맵 변경하기===
{{bc|# /arch/setup}}
+
여러분은 화면으로 아치리눅스 프레임워크 스크린을 보게 될 것입니다.
+
  
===설치할 소스 선택하기===
+
{{Tip|한글 키보드의 경우 영문 키보드와는 한/영키와 한자키 정도의 차이밖에 없으므로, 이 설정은 IME를 설치하기 전까지는 쓸모가 없습니다.}}
여러분을 환영한다는 첫 화면 이후, 여러분은 곧바로 설치할 소스를 선택하게 될 것입니다.
+
  
소스를 선택하는 화면은 여러분에게 여러분이 사용하고 싶은 [[Official Repositories|리포지토리]]를 선택할 것인지 묻을 것입니다.
+
US와 호환되지 않는 키보드 레이아웃을 사용할 경우 다음 명령어를 이용해 대화형으로 키맵과 콘솔 폰트를 지정할 수 있습니다.
 +
{{bc|# loadkeys ''layout''}}
 +
여기서 ''layout''은 {{ic|fr}}, {{ic|uk}} 혹은 {{ic|be-latin1}}와 같은 여러분 키보드의 레이아웃을 뜻합니다.
  
;넷인스톨:만약 넷인스톨 이미지를 사용한다면, 여러분은 단지 '''remote''' 리포지토리만을 사용할 있을 것입니다.
+
키맵은 여러 나라나 키보드 타입에 대해 제공됩니다. 키맵 파일은 {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/}} 내에서 찾을 있습니다 (you can omit the keymap path and file extension when using {{ic|loadkeys}}).
  
;코어:만약 코어 설치도구를 사용하고 CD에서 패키지를 사용한다면, '''core-local'''을 선택하십시오.
+
===라이브 설치 환경에서 네트워크 설정하기===
:{{Warning|여러분은 다른 '''remote''' 리포지토리도 선택할 수 있습니다만, 설치도구의 메세지를 기억하십시오: "만약 여러분이 하고 있는 일이 무엇인지 알고 있다면(이것은 패키지를 망가트릴 것입니다) 로컬 리포지토리와 원격의 미러 리포지토리를 함께 사용하지 마십시오!"}}
+
====유선 네트워크 설정하기====
  
만약 여러분이 무엇을 사용해야 할 지 모르겠다면, 'core'에 추가로 'extra'와 [[community]]를 선택하십시오. 만약 여러분이 64비트 아치리눅스를 설치하고 있다면, 여러분은 또한 '[[multilib]]'도 원할지도 모릅니다.그러나 이런 셋팅들은 실치 과정 후반에 설치중인 시스템을 위해 만들어질 것입니다.
+
여러분의 컴퓨터가 이더넷 네트워크에 연결되어 있다면 이 절차를 따르십시오.
  
{{Warning|만약 여러분이 리포지토리를 테스트하고 있다면, 여러분은 [http://mailman.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/arch-dev-public arch-dev-public] 메일링리스트를 읽고 있을지도 모르겠습니다.여러분은 어떻게 [[downgrade packages|패키지 다운그레이드]]를 하는지와 문제점을 고치기 위해 아치리눅스 설치에서 어떻게 [[chroot|권한변경]]을 해야하는지 반드시 알아야 합니다.}}
+
=====유동 IP (DHCP)=====
 +
유선 인터넷 연결을 하면서 DHCP서버에 접속(예를 들어 라우터를 사용하는 경우)한다고 가정하고,
 +
# dhcpcd
 +
를 실행하여 IP를 얻으십시오.
 +
이더넷 카드가 여러 개 있는 등 여러 가지 인터페이스가 있는 경우, {{ic|dhcpcd <interface>}}로 다음과 같이 특정 인터페이스를 선택할 수 있습니다.
 +
# dhcpcd eth0
  
====Setup network====
+
=====고정 IP=====
{{Note|ftp.archlinux.org is throttled to 50KB/s.}}
+
DHCP를 사용하지 않거나 접속할 수 없는 경우에는 고정 IP 주소를 직접 배정해야 합니다.
You will be given a list to select an additional FTP or HTTP mirror.
+
다음 설정값들을 알아야 합니다:
{{Tip|1=To achieve the best download speed possible, you should choose mirrors that preferably reside in your country, and are hosted by hosting providers you know to be reliable (eg. universities). Relative speed and update status of source repository mirrors may be checked [http://www.archlinux.org/mirrors/status/ here].}}
+
* 고정 IP 주소
If you chose '''core-local''' as well as '''remote''' repositories, you will now be given the choice either to consult remote sources only for packages unavailable locally, or the converse.
+
* 서브넷 마스크
 +
* 게이트웨이 IP 주소
 +
* 네임서버(DNS)의 IP 주소
 +
* 도메인 이름(여러분이 직접 지을 수 있는 로컬 랜이 아닌 경우)
 +
콘솔에서, 다음 명령어를 넣으십시오.
 +
# ip addr add <IP 주소>/<서브넷 마스크> dev <인터페이스>
 +
예시:
 +
# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev eth0
  
At the next screen, select ''Yes'' to set up the network. You shall be prompted to load ethernet drivers manually, if desired. UDev is quite effective at loading the required modules, so you may assume it has already done so. You may verify this by pressing {{Keypress|Alt+F3}} and invoking {{ic|ip addr}}. When done, return to tty1 by pressing {{Keypress|Alt+F1}}.
+
더 많은 옵션을 보려면, {{ic|man ip}}를 보십시오.
  
Available interfaces will be presented. If an interface and HWaddr ('''H'''ard'''W'''are '''addr'''ess) is listed, then your module has already been loaded. If your interface is not listed, you may probe it from the installer, or manually do so from another virtual console. Select your interface to continue.
+
다음과 같이 게이트웨이를 추가하십시오.
 +
# ip route add default via <IP 주소>
 +
(여러분 게이트웨이의 IP 주소로 바꿔 넣으십시오.)
  
The installer will then ask if you wish to use DHCP. Choosing "Yes" will run {{ic|dhcpcd}} to discover an available gateway and request an IP address; choosing "No" will prompt you for your static IP address, netmask, broadcast (optional), gateway, DNS server, HTTP proxy (optional), and FTP proxy (optional).  
+
예시:
 +
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
  
Afterwards, you will be returned to the ''Main Menu''
+
여러분의 네임서버 IP 주소와 로컬 도메인 이름을 {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}에 다음과 같이 넣으십시오.
 +
nameserver 61.23.173.5
 +
nameserver 61.95.849.8
 +
search example.com
  
=====Setup ADSL bridging in the live environment (optional)=====
+
{{Note|현재, 최대 3개의 {{ic|nameserver}}줄을 넣을 수 있습니다.}}
 +
{{Note|네트워크 설정에 대해 좀 더 깊이 있는 정보를 원하신다면 [[configuring network|유선 네트워크 연결]]페이지를 보십시오.}}
  
(If you have a modem or router in bridge mode to connect to your ISP)
+
{{Tip|무선 네트워크나 ADSL을 설정할 필요가 없다면, [[#하드디스크_준비하기|하드디스크 준비하기]]로 넘어가십시오.}}
  
Switch to another virtual console ({{Keypress|Alt+F2}}), login as root and invoke:
+
====ADSL 브릿지 설정하기====
 +
 
 +
ISP에 접속하기 위해 브릿지 모드로 설정된 모뎀이나 라우터가 있는 경우 다음 절차를 따르십시오.
 +
 
 +
다음 명령어를 실행하십시오.
 
{{bc|# pppoe-setup}}
 
{{bc|# pppoe-setup}}
  
If everything is well configured in the end you can connect to your ISP with:
+
모든 설정이 제대로 끝나고 나면, 다음 명령어로 ISP에 연결하실 수 있습니다.
 
{{bc|# pppoe-start}}
 
{{bc|# pppoe-start}}
  
Return to first virtual console ({{Keypress|Alt+F1}}) and continue with [[#Set editor|Set editor]].
+
[[#하드디스크_준비하기|하드디스크 준비하기]]로 넘어가십시오.
 
+
=====Setup wireless in the live environment (optional)=====
+
  
(If you need wireless connectivity during the installation process)
+
====무선 네트워크 설정하기====
 +
설치 과정에서 무선 연결이 필요하다면 다음 절차를 따르십시오.
  
The wireless drivers and utilities are now available to you in the live environment of the installation media. A good knowledge of your wireless hardware will be of key importance to successful configuration. Note that the following quick-start procedure ''executed at this point in the installation'' will initialize your wireless hardware for use ''in the live environment of the installation media''. These steps (or some other form of wireless management) '''must be repeated from the actual installed system after booting into it'''.
+
무선 드라이버와 유틸리티는 설치 미디어의 라이브 환경에서 사용하실 수 있습니다. 무선 하드웨어에 대해 잘 알고 있을수록 설정을 쉽게 끝낼 수 있을 것입니다. ''지금 시점에서 실행하는'' 간단 설정 내용은 무선 장치를 ''설치 매체의 라이브 환경에서만'' 사용할 수 있게 만들 것입니다. 이 단계(혹은 다른 형태의 무선 관리)'''설치가 끝난 뒤 다시 한번 설정해 주어야 합니다'''.
  
Also note that these steps are optional if wireless connectivity is unnecessary at this point in the installation; wireless functionality may always be established later.
+
또한 이 시점에서의 무선 연결은 꼭 필요하지만은 않다는 것을 알아두십시오; 무선 네트워크는 나중에라도 언제든지 연결할 수 있습니다.
  
{{Note|The following examples use {{ic|wlan0}} for the interface and {{ic|linksys}} for the ESSID. Remember to change these values according to your setup.}}
+
{{Note|다음 예시는 {{ic|wlan0}}를 인터페이스로, {{ic|linksys}}를 ESSID로 가정합니다. 여러분의 환경에 따라 이 값들을 변경해서 사용하십시오.}}
  
The basic procedure will be:
+
기본 단계는 다음과 같습니다.
* Switch to a free virtual console, e.g.: {{Keypress|Alt+F3}}
+
* (선택) 무선장치의 인터페이스를 알아냅니다.
* Login as root
+
기본적인 방법은 다음과 같습니다.
* (optional) Identify the wireless interface:
+
 
{{bc|<nowiki># lspci | grep -i net</nowiki>}}
 
{{bc|<nowiki># lspci | grep -i net</nowiki>}}
* Ensure udev has loaded the driver, and that the driver has created a usable wireless kernel interface with {{ic|/usr/sbin/iwconfig}}:
+
혹은, USB 어댑터를 사용한다면 다음과 같이 합니다.
 +
{{bc|<nowiki># lsusb </nowiki>}}
 +
* {{ic|/usr/sbin/iwconfig}}를 통해 다음과 같이 udev가 드라이버를 로드했고 해당 드라이버가 사용 가능한 커널 인터페이스를 만들어냈다는 것을 확인합니다.
  
 
{{hc|# iwconfig|<nowiki> lo no wireless extensions.
 
{{hc|# iwconfig|<nowiki> lo no wireless extensions.
Line 92: Line 112:
 
           Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0  Missed beacon:0
 
           Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0  Missed beacon:0
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
{{ic|wlan0}} is the available wireless interface in this example.  
+
이 예시에서는 {{ic|wlan0}} 가 사용할 수 있는 무선 인터페이스입니다.
  
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless Setup]] for more detailed information.}}
+
{{Note|이런 내용이 출력되지 않는다면, 무선 드라이버가 로드되지 않은 것입니다. 이런 경우, 여러분이 직접 드라이버를 로드해야 합니다. [[Wireless Setup|무선 네트워크 설정]] 페이지를 통해 자세한 정보를 얻으십시오.}}
  
* Bring the interface up with:
+
* 해당 인터페이스를 다음 명령어로 작동시킵니다.
 
{{bc|# ip link set wlan0 up}}
 
{{bc|# ip link set wlan0 up}}
  
A small percentage of wireless chipsets also require firmware, in addition to a corresponding driver. If the wireless chipset requires firmware, you are likely to receive this error when bringing the interface up:
+
몇몇 무선 드라이버는 드라이버 뿐만 아니라 펌웨어도 필요로 합니다. 무선 칩셋이 펌웨어를 필요로 한다면 인터페이스를 작동시킬 때 다음과 같은 에러가 나타날 것입니다.
  
 
{{hc|# ip link set wlan0 up|SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}
 
{{hc|# ip link set wlan0 up|SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}
  
If unsure, invoke {{ic|/usr/bin/dmesg}} to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset. Example output from an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
+
잘 모르겠다면, {{ic|/usr/bin/dmesg}} 명령어로 커널 로그를 보면서 해당 칩셋에 대한 펌웨어 요청이 있는지 확인하십시오.
 +
 
 +
다음 예는 펌웨어가 필요한 한 인텔 칩셋의 경우에 부팅 시의 커널의 요청을 나타냅니다.
  
 
{{hc|<nowiki>$ dmesg | grep firmware</nowiki>|firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
 
{{hc|<nowiki>$ dmesg | grep firmware</nowiki>|firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
  
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
+
출력이 없다면, 시스템의 무선 칩셋에 펌웨어가 필요하지 않다는 뜻입니다.
  
{{Note|Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under {{ic|/lib/firmware}} in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) '''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!''' Package selection and installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware during the package selection step! See [[Wireless Setup]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset. This is a very common error.}}
+
{{Warning|(CD나 USB 스틱의) 라이브 환경 하에서는 (필요한 카드에 대해) 무선 칩셋 펌웨어 패키지가 {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}}에 미리 설치되어 있지만 '''재부팅 후에는 직접 따로 시스템에 설치해 줘야 합니다.''' 패키지 설치는 이 가이드 내에서 나중에 다뤄집니다. 재부팅 하기 전에 무선 모듈과 펌웨어를 꼭 설치하도록 하세요! 특정 칩셋이 펌웨어를 필요로 하는지 잘 모르겠다면 [[Wireless Setup|무선 네트워크 설정]] 페이지를 보세요. 이것은 일어나기 쉬운 실수입니다.}}
  
* If the ESSID has been forgotten or is unknown, use {{ic|/sbin/iwlist <interface> scan}} to scan for nearby networks:
+
* 만약 ESSID를 잊어버렸거나 알지 못한다면, {{ic|iwlist <인터페이스> scan}} 명령어로 가까운 네트워크를 찾아볼 수 있습니다.
 
{{hc|# iwlist wlan0 scan|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|# iwlist wlan0 scan|<nowiki>
 
Cell 01 - Address: 04:25:10:6B:7F:9D
 
Cell 01 - Address: 04:25:10:6B:7F:9D
Line 124: Line 146:
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
* If using WPA encryption:
+
* WPA 암호화를 사용하는 경우
  
Using WPA encryption requires that the key be encrypted and stored in a file, along with the ESSID, to be used later for connection via {{ic|wpa_supplicant}}. Thus, a few extra steps are required:
+
WPA 암호화를 사용하는 경우 키와 ESSID를 하나의 파일 내에 저장한 다음 나중에 {{ic|wpa_supplicant}}를 통해 접속해야 합니다. 그러므로, 몇 단계가 더 필요합니다.
  
For the purpose of simplifying and backup, rename the default {{ic|wpa_supplicant.conf}} file:
+
절차를 줄이고 백업을 해 두고 싶은 경우, 기본 {{ic|wpa_supplicant.conf}}파일의 이름을 다음과 같이 바꿔 두십시오.
 
{{bc|# mv /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf.original}}
 
{{bc|# mv /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf.original}}
  
Using {{ic|wpa_passphrase}}, provide your wireless network name and WPA key to be encrypted and written to {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}.
+
{{ic|wpa_passphrase}}를 사용해서 {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}에 무선 네트워크 이름과 WPA 키가 암호화되어 쓰여지도록 하십시오.
  
The following example encrypts the key "my_secret_passkey" of the "linksys" wireless network, generates a new configuration file ({{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}), and subsequently redirects the encrypted key, writing it to the file:
+
다음의 예는 "my_secret_passkey"라는 키와 "linksys"라는 무선 네트워크를 사용한다고 가정해서 새로운 설정 파일{{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}을 만들어냅니다.
 
{{bc|# wpa_passphrase linksys "my_secret_passkey" > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}
 
{{bc|# wpa_passphrase linksys "my_secret_passkey" > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}
{{Note|If the above fails with a {{ic|bash: event not found}} error, it may be due to special characters (e.g. {{ic|!}}) used in your wireless network name. In that case try the following:
+
{{Note|만약 위의 명령어가 {{ic|bash: event not found}}라는 에러를 낸다면, 무선 네트워크 이름 내의 {{ic|!}}와 같은 특수문자 때문일 수 있습니다. 이런 경우 다음과 같이 해 보십시오.
{{bc|# sh -c 'wpa_passphrase linksys "my_secret_passkey" > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf'}}}}
+
{{bc|# sh -c 'wpa_passphrase linksys "my_secret_passkey" > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf'}}
 +
그래도 특수문자로 인한 문제가 발생한다면, {{ic|~/mykey}}에 임시로 비밀번호를 저장해 두고 다음과 같이 해 보십시오.
 +
{{bc|# cat ~/mykey <nowiki>|</nowiki> wpa_passphrase linksys > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}
 +
보안상의 문제로 {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}} 파일을 설정한 후에는 이 {{ic|~/mykey}} 파일을 삭제하는 것이 좋습니다.
  
Check [[WPA Supplicant]] for more information and troubleshooting.
+
[[WPA Supplicant]]페이지에서 더 많은 정보와 해결책을 찾을 수 있습니다.
  
{{Note|{{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}} is stored in plain text format. This is not risky in the installation environment, but when you reboot into your new system and reconfigure WPA, remember to change the permissions on {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}} (e.g. {{ic|chmod 0600 /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}} to make it readable by root only).}}
+
{{Note|{{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}는 평범한 텍스트 파일 형식입니다. 설치 환경에서는 이것이 상관 없지만, 설치 후에 새로운 시스템에서 WPA를 다시 설정할 때에는 {{ic|/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}의 권한을 꼭 변경해 두십시오. (예를 들어, {{ic|chmod 0600 /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}명령어로 루트 권한으로만 읽을 수 있도록 할 수 있습니다.)}}
  
* Associate your wireless device with the access point you want to use. Depending on the encryption (none, WEP, or WPA), the procedure may differ. You need to know the name of the chosen wireless network (ESSID).
+
* 여러분의 무선 장치를 사용하고자 하는 AP에 연결시키십시오. 암호화에 따라서(WPA, WEP, 혹은 없음) 절차는 달라질 수 있습니다. 사용하고자 하는 무선 네트워크의 이름(ESSID)를 알고 있어야 합니다.
  
 
{| border="1"
 
{| border="1"
 
! Encryption || Command
 
! Encryption || Command
 
|-
 
|-
| No Encryption || {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys"}}
+
| 암호화 없음 || {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys"}}
 
|-
 
|-
| WEP w/ Hex Key || {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "0241baf34c"}}
+
| WEP (Hex 키) || {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "0241baf34c"}}
 
|-
 
|-
| WEP w/ ASCII passphrase || {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "s:pass1"}}
+
| WEP (ASCII 비밀번호) || {{ic|iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "s:pass1"}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| WPA || {{ic|wpa_supplicant -B -Dwext -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}
 
| WPA || {{ic|wpa_supplicant -B -Dwext -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf}}
 
|}
 
|}
  
{{Note|The network connection process may be automated later by using the default Arch network daemon, [[netcfg]], [[wicd]], or another network manager of your choice.}}
+
{{Note|네트워크 연결 과정은 이후에 기본 아치 네트워크 데몬, [[netcfg]], [[wicd]] 혹은 다른 네트워크 관리자를 사용해서 자동화시킬 수 있습니다.}}
 +
{{Note|무선 연결이 필요하다면, {{Pkg|wireless_tools}} 패키지를 선택해서 설치하는 것을 잊지 마십시오. 몇몇 무선 인터페이스는 [[Wireless Setup#ndiswrapper|'''ndiswrapper''']]나 특정 [[Wireless Setup#Drivers and firmware|'''펌웨어''']]가 필요할 수 있습니다. 만약 WPA 암호화가 필요하다면, [[WPA Supplicant|'''wpa_supplicant''']]가 필요할 것입니다. [[Wireless Setup|무선 네트워크 설정]] 페이지에서 여러분의 무선 장치에 필요한 패키지를 찾을 수 있을 것입니다. 또한 설치 후 새로운 시스템으로 부팅할 때 네트워크 연결과 프로필을 설정하도록 도와줄 '''[[netcfg]]'''도 설치하는것을 깊이 고려해 보십시오.}}
 +
{{Note|만약 여러분이 라이브 환경에서 일반 설치로 chroot했다면, 명령줄에서 {{ic|/etc/rc.d/dbus start}}와 {{ic|/etc/rc.d/networkmanager start}}를 넣고networkmanager를 시작한 다음, 사용가능한 연결을 {{ic|nmcli con list}}로 사용할 수 있는 연결을 나열하고 {{ic|nmcli con up id NAME}}(NAME은 연결대상의 이름)을 통해 무선 연결을 설정할 수도 있습니다.}}
  
* After utilizing the appropriate association method outlined above, wait a few moments and confirm you have successfully associated to the access point before continuing, e.g.:
+
* 위에서 설명한 방법대로 연결을 마친 뒤, 잠깐 기다리고 나서 AP와 제대로 연결되었다는 것을 다음과 같은 방법으로 확인하십시오.
 
{{bc|# iwconfig wlan0}}
 
{{bc|# iwconfig wlan0}}
Output should indicate the wireless network is associated with the interface.
+
출력에 무선 네트워크가 해당 인터페이스와 연결되었다는 것이 나타나야 합니다.
* Request an IP address with {{ic|/sbin/dhcpcd <interface>}}, e.g.:
+
* 다음과 같이 {{ic|/sbin/dhcpcd <interface>}}를 통해 IP 주소를 요청합니다.
 
{{bc|# dhcpcd wlan0}}
 
{{bc|# dhcpcd wlan0}}
* Lastly, ensure you can route using {{ic|/bin/ping}}:
+
* 마지막으로, {{ic|/bin/ping}}를 통해 라우팅이 제대로 되는 것을 확인합니다.
 
{{hc|# ping -c 3 www.google.com|<nowiki>
 
{{hc|# ping -c 3 www.google.com|<nowiki>
 
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.224.146) 56(84) bytes of data.
 
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.224.146) 56(84) bytes of data.
Line 175: Line 202:
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
Hopefully you should have a working network connection. For troubleshooting, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
+
이제 무선 연결이 제대로 연결되어 있을 것입니다. 그렇지 않다면, [[Wireless Setup|무선 네트워크 연결]]페이지에서 상세한 내용을 확인하십시오.
 
+
Return to tty1 with ({{Keypress|Alt+F1}}) and continue with [[#Set editor|Set editor]].
+
 
+
===에디터 정하기===
+
이제 여러분은 설정 파일을 수정하기 위해 사용고 싶은 에디터를 정하게 될 것입니다.선택지는 {{ic|nano}} 혹은 {{ic|vi}}입니다. nano는 그 작동상태가 그래픽 워드프로세서를 닮았고 보다 직관적이기 때문에 일반적으로 초심자들에게 더 쉽다고 알려져있습니다. 예를 들어, 키보드의 화살표, 백스페이스, 그리고 딜리트 키는 예상대로 작동합니다. 대부분의 공통 명령어를 위한 메뉴(예를 들면, 잘라내기는 {{keypress|Ctrl-k}}, 붙여넣기는 {{keypress|Ctrl-u}}, 종료는 {{keypress|Ctrl-x}})는 nano 터미널 화면의 아래쪽에 보입니다. 보다 세세한 내용은 wiki 페이지 [[Nano]]와 [[Vi]]를 읽어주시기 바랍니다.
+
 
+
===Set clock===
+
 
+
====지역과 표준시간대 정하기====
+
위아래 화살표 키를 사용하거나 첫 글자를 쳐서 색션 이동을 해서 여러분의 지역과 표준시간대를 선택한 다음, 엔터키를 눌러주세요.
+
 
+
====시간과 날짜 정하기====
+
Set the hardware clock mode. If this does not match the setting of your other operating systems, they will overwrite the time and cause clock shifts (which can cause time drift correction to be miscalibrated).
+
 
+
* [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] (recommended)
+
{{Note|Using UTC for the hardware clock does not mean time will be displayed in UTC in software.}}
+
* '''localtime''' (discouraged) - Used by default in Windows. If time is set to localtime, DST shifts will not be made by Linux.
+
{{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|Any other value will result in the hardware clock being left untouched (useful for virtualization).}}
+
 
+
=====윈도우즈와 듀얼 부팅 설치에서 시간 정하기=====
+
 
+
If you are setting up a dual-boot with Windows on your system, you have two options:
+
 
+
* Recommended: Set Arch Linux to UTC and make Windows use UTC too (a quick registry fix is needed, see [https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UbuntuTime#Make%20Windows%20use%20UTC this page] for instructions). Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time with the Internet, as it will make the hardware clock use ''localtime'' again. If you want such functionality (NTP sync), you should use [[ntpd]] on your Arch Linux installation instead.
+
 
+
* Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to ''localtime'' and later (in [[#Configure the system|Configure the system]]) remove {{ic|hwclock}} from the {{ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} (Windows will take care of hardware clock corrections).
+
  
 
===Prepare hard drive===
 
===Prepare hard drive===
  
{{Warning|Partitioning hard drives can destroy data. You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup your critical data if applicable.}}
+
{{Warning|Partitioning hard drives can destroy data. You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
  
{{Note|Partitioning may be performed before initiating the Arch installation if desired, by utilizing [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] or other available tools. If the installation drive has already been partitioned to the required specifications, continue with [[#Option 3: Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints]].}}
+
{{Note|Use any partitioning tool you prefer, such as [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] or other available tools. The current install media includes the disk partitioning tools '''fdisk''', '''cfdisk''', '''gdisk''', '''cgdisk''', and '''parted'''.}}
  
Verify current disk identities and layout by invoking {{ic|/sbin/fdisk}} with the {{ic|-l}} (lower-case L) switch.
+
If you have already partitioned your hard disk, verify current disk identities and layout by invoking {{ic|/sbin/fdisk}} with the {{ic|-l}} (lower-case L) switch.
  
Open another virtual console ({{Keypress|Alt+F3}}) and enter:
+
At the root prompt enter:
 
{{bc|# fdisk -l}}
 
{{bc|# fdisk -l}}
Take note of the disk(s) and/or partition(s) to utilize for the Arch installation.
+
Take note of the disk(s) and/or partition(s) to utilize for the Arch installation. Each partition is identified with a number suffix. Example: {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of a drive while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive. You may now proceed to [[#Configure_block_devices.2C_filesystems.2C_and_mountpoints|Configure block devices, filesystems, and mountpoints]].
 
+
Switch back to the installation script with {{Keypress|Alt+F1}}.
+
 
+
Select the menu entry &quot;Prepare Hard Drive&quot;.  A list of four options is presented:
+
 
+
* '''Option 1''': [[#Option 1: Auto prepare|Auto-Prepare]]
+
This will erase the ENTIRE hard drive and set up partitions automatically. Some customization is available.
+
 
+
* '''Option 2''': [[#Option 2: Manually partition hard drives|Manually Partition Hard Drives]] 
+
 
+
Recommended. This option uses the cfdisk utility and allows for the most robust and customized partitioning. After the partitions are setup, proceed to Option 3.
+
 
+
* '''Option 3''': [[#Option 3: Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints|Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints]]
+
 
+
You can skip directly to this option if the hard drive has already been partitioned to your liking.  Option 3 is also the next step of disk preparation that follows Option 2.  The system will list what filesystems and mountpoints it has found and ask you if you wish to use them.  You will be given a choice to select the desired method of identification, i.e. by dev, label, or uuid.
+
 
+
* '''Option 4''': Rollback last filesystem changes
+
 
+
Reverts back to previous set of changes.
+
 
+
Options 1, 2, and 3 are explained in more detail below.  To understand what is involved in these options, a short discussion on Linux partitions and filesystems is presented next.  Advanced GNU/Linux users who are familiar and comfortable with manual partitioning may wish to skip down to [[#Select packages|Select packages]] below.
+
  
 
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
 
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
  
====Partitioning hard disks: General information====
+
The remainder of this section shows an example configuration for a beginner's Arch installation and uses the '''cfdisk''' partitioning tool. You are not required to use this configuration or this tool; it is presented here only as an example.
  
=====Partition type=====
+
For more information on partitioning your hard disk, see [[Partitioning]].
  
Partitioning a hard disk drive defines specific memory storage areas.  These are called partitions. Each partition behaves as a separate disk and is formatted with a specific filesystem type (see below).
+
For more information on possible file system types, see [[File Systems]].
  
There are 3 types of disk partitions:
+
====Manually partition hard drives====
  
* Primary
+
The current install media includes the disk partitioning tools [[Wikipedia:fdisk|fdisk]], [[Wikipedia:cfdisk|cfdisk]], {{ic|gdisk}}, {{ic|cgdisk}}, and [[Wikipedia:parted|parted]]. {{ic|gdisk}} and {{ic|cgdisk}} support only [[GPT]] partition tables; {{ic|fdisk}} and {{ic|cfdisk}} support only [[Master_Boot_Record|MBR]] partition tables; {{ic|parted}} supports both. This example uses '''cfdisk'''.
* Extended
+
** Logical
+
  
'''Primary''' partitions can be bootable and are limited to four partitions per disk or RAID volume. If a partitioning scheme requires more than four partitions, an '''extended''' partition containing '''logical''' partitions is used.  Extended partitions can be thought of as containers for logical partitions. A hard disk can contain no more than one extended partition. The extended partition is also counted as a primary partition so if the disk has an extended partition, only three additional primary partitions are possible (i.e. three primary partitions and one extended partition).  The number of logical partitions residing in an extended partition is unlimited.  A system that dual boots with Windows will require that Windows reside in a primary partition.
+
Use '''cfdisk''' to open the selected target disk for manual partitioning (if you have an [[SSD]] drive other choices like [[GUID_Partition_Table|gdisk]] or [http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/manual/html_mono/parted.html GNU Parted] may be preferable). This example uses the first hard disk, designated '''sda''':
  
The customary numbering scheme is to create primary partitions {{ic|sda1}} through {{ic|sda3}} followed by an extended partition {{ic|sda4}}. The logical partitions on {{ic|sda4}} are numbered {{ic|sda5}}, {{ic|sda6}}, etc.
+
# cfdisk /dev/sda
  
=====Swap partition=====
+
The example system will contain a 15GB root ({{ic|/}}) partition, a 1GB {{ic|swap}} partition, and a {{ic|/home}} partition for the remaining disk space. It is emphasized again that partitioning is a personal choice and this example is only for illustration.
  
A swap partition is a place on the drive for virtual RAM. This allows the kernel to access disk space for data that does not fit into physical RAM.
+
Choose '''N'''ew -> 'Primary' and enter the desired size (15.44 GB in this example) for the '''root''' ({{ic|/}}) filesystem. The partition will be put at the beginning of the disk. Select the '''T'''ype and designate it as {{ic|83 Linux}}. The created {{ic|/}} partition will appear as {{ic|sda1}}. Thereafter select "Bootable" to flag root as bootable.  
  
Historically, the general rule for swap partition size was to allocate twice the amount of physical RAM. As computers have gained ever larger memory capacities, this rule has become deprecated. On machines with up to 512MB RAM, the 2x rule is usually adequate. If a sufficient amount of RAM (more than 1024MB) is available, it may be possible to have a smaller swap partition or even eliminate it. With more than 2 GB of physical RAM, one can generally expect good performance without a swap partition.  There is always an option to create a [[HOW TO: Create swap file|swap file]] after the system is setup.  
+
Next, create a second partition for ''swap''. Select an appropriate size (~1 GB here) and specify the '''T'''ype as {{ic|82 (Linux swap / Solaris)}}. The created swap partition will appear as {{ic|sda2}}.
  
{{Note|If using suspend-to-disk (hibernate), a swap partition at least '''equal''' in size to the amount of physical RAM is required. Some Arch users even recommend oversizing it beyond the amount of physical RAM by 10-15%, to allow for possible bad sectors.}}
+
The remaining space is used to create a third partition for the {{ic|/home}} directory. Identify it as a primary partition and set the size. Select the '''T'''ype as {{ic|83 Linux}}. The created {{ic|/home}} partition will appear as {{ic|sda3}}.
 
+
=====Selecting a partitioning scheme=====
+
 
+
There are no strict rules for partitioning a hard drive, although one may follow the general guidance given below.  A disk partitioning scheme is determined by various issues such as desired flexibility, speed, security, as well as the limitations imposed by available disk space. It is essentially personal preference.  Two simple possibilities are: i) one partition for root and one partition for swap or ii) just a single root partition without swap. Read through the following discussion and examples to understand the benefits and tradeoffs in making the decision.  If you would like to dual boot Arch Linux and a Windows operating system please see [[Windows and Arch Dual Boot]].
+
 
+
The following mountpoints are possible choices for separate partitions:
+
 
+
;{{ic|/}} (root):The root directory is the top of the hierarchy, the point where the primary filesystem is mounted and from which all other filesystems stem. All files and directories appear under the root directory'' {{ic|/}}'', even if they are stored on different physical devices. The contents of the root filesystem must be adequate to boot, restore, recover, and/or repair the system. Therefore, certain directories under'' {{ic|/}} ''are not candidates for separate partitions (See warning below).
+
 
+
;{{ic|/boot}}:This directory contains the kernel and ramdisk images as well as the bootloader configuration file and bootloader stages. It also stores data that is used before the kernel begins executing user-space programs. This may include saved master boot sectors and sector map files.  This directory is essential for booting, but is unique in that it may still be kept on its own optional partition. <br> {{Warning|In addition to {{ic|/boot}}, the directories essential for booting are: {{ic|/bin}}, {{ic|/etc}}, {{ic|/lib}}, and {{ic|/sbin}}. Unlike {{ic|/boot}}, these directories cannot reside in separate partitions and must be on''' {{ic|/}}'''.'''}}
+
 
+
;{{ic|/home}}:Provides subdirectories for each system user. It holds miscellaneous personal data as well as user-specific configuration files for applications.
+
 
+
;{{ic|/tmp}}:Directory for programs that require temporary storage of files such as'' {{ic|.lck}} '', which can be used to prevent multiple instances of their respective program until a task is completed. Upon completion, the'' {{ic|.lck}} ''file will be automatically removed. Programs must not assume that any files or directories in'' {{ic|/tmp}} ''are preserved between invocations of the program and files and directories located under'' {{ic|/tmp}} ''will typically be deleted whenever the system is booted.
+
 
+
;{{ic|/var}}:Contains variable data such as spool directories and files, administrative and logging data, [[pacman]]'s cache, the [[Arch Build System|ABS]] tree, etc.  It exists to make it possible to mount'' {{ic|/usr}} ''as read-only. Everything that historically went into'' {{ic|/usr}} ''that is written to during system operation (as opposed to installation and software maintenance) must reside under'' {{ic|/var}}''. <br> {{Note|{{ic|/var}} contains many small files. The choice of filesystem type (see below) should consider this fact if a separate partition is used.}}
+
 
+
There are several advantages for using discrete filesystems as opposed to placing everything in one partition:
+
 
+
* Security: Each filesystem may be configured in {{ic|/etc/fstab}} as 'nosuid', 'nodev', 'noexec', 'readonly', etc.
+
* Stability: A user, or malfunctioning program can completely fill a filesystem with garbage if they have write permissions for it. Critical programs residing on a different filesystem remain unaffected.
+
* Speed: A filesystem that gets re-written too frequently may become fragmented. Separate filesystems remain unaffected and each can be defragmented separately. Fragmentation can be avoided by ensuring that each filesystem is never in danger of filling up completely.
+
* Integrity: If one filesystem becomes corrupted, separate filesystems remain unharmed.
+
* Versatility: Sharing data across several systems becomes more expedient when independent filesystems are used. Separate filesystem types may also be chosen based upon the nature of data and usage.
+
 
+
=====How big should my partitions be?=====
+
 
+
The size of the partitions depends on personal preference, but the following information may be helpful:
+
 
+
* The root filesystem ({{ic|/}}) will contain the {{ic|/usr}} directory, which can grow significantly depending upon how much software is installed.  15-20 GB should be sufficient for most users with modern hard disks.
+
* The {{ic|/var}} filesystem will contain, among other data, the [[Arch Build System|ABS]] tree and the [[pacman]] cache. Keeping cached packages is useful and versatile as it provides the ability to downgrade. As a result, {{ic|/var}} tends to grow in size. The pacman cache in particular will grow as the system is expanded and updated.  It can, however, be safely cleared if space becomes an issue.  If you are using an SSD, you may wish to locate your {{ic|/var}} on an HDD and keep the {{ic|/}} and {{ic|/home}} partitions on your SSD to avoid needless read/writes to the SSD.  8-12 GB on a desktop system should be sufficient for {{ic|/var}}, depending on how much software will be installed. Servers tend to have relatively larger {{ic|/var}} filesystems.
+
* The {{ic|/home}} filesystem is typically where user data, downloads, and multimedia reside. On a desktop system, {{ic|/home}} is typically the largest filesystem on the drive by a large margin.  If it becomes necessary to reinstall Arch, all the data on your {{ic|/home}} partition will be retained if it is setup on its own partition.
+
* A {{ic|/boot}} partition requires only about 100MB.
+
* If available, an extra 25% of space added to each filesystem will provide a cushion for future expansion and help protect against fragmentation.
+
 
+
====Creating filesystems: General information====
+
 
+
=====Filesystem types=====
+
Individual drive partitions can be setup using one of the many different available filesystems.  Each has its own advantages, disadvantages, and unique idiosyncrasies. A brief overview of supported filesystems follows; the links are to wikipedia pages that provide much more information.
+
 
+
# [[Wikipedia:ext2|ext2]] '''Second Extended Filesystem''' is an established, mature GNU/Linux filesystem that is very stable. A drawback is that it does not have journaling support (see below) or barriers. Lack of journaling can result in data loss in the event of a power failure or system crash. It may also be inconvenient for root ({{ic|/}}) and {{ic|/home}} partitions because file-system checks can take a long time. An ext2 filesystem can be converted to ext3.
+
# [[Wikipedia:ext3|ext3]] '''Third Extended Filesystem'''  is essentially the ext2 system with journaling support and write barriers. It is backward compatible with ext2, well tested, and extremely stable.
+
# [[Wikipedia:ext4|ext4]] '''Fourth Extended Filesystem''' is a newer filesystem that is also compatible with ext2 and ext3. It provides support for volumes with sizes up to 1 exabyte (i.e. 1,048,576 terabytes) and files sizes up to 16 terabytes. It increases the 32,000 subdirectory limit in ext3 to 64,000. It also offers online defragmentation capability.
+
# [[Wikipedia:ReiserFS|ReiserFS]] (V3) Hans Reiser's high-performance journaling FS uses a very interesting method of data throughput based on an unconventional and creative algorithm. ReiserFS is touted as very fast, especially when dealing with many small files. ReiserFS is fast at formatting, yet comparatively slow at mounting. Quite mature and stable. ReiserFS (V3) is not being actively developed at this time. Generally regarded as a good choice for {{ic|/var}}.
+
# [[Wikipedia:JFS (file system)|JFS]] IBM's '''Journaled File System''' was the first filesystem to offer journaling. It had many years of development in the IBM AIX® operating system before being ported to GNU/Linux. JFS makes the smallest demand on CPU resources of any GNU/Linux filesystem. It is very fast at formatting, mounting, and filesystem checks (fsck).  JFS offers very good all-around performance especially in conjunction with the deadline I/O scheduler.  It is not as widely supported as the ext series or ReiserFS, but still very mature and stable.
+
# [[Wikipedia:XFS|XFS]] is another early journaling filesystem originally developed by Silicon Graphics for the IRIX operating system and ported to GNU/Linux. It provides very fast throughput on large files and filesystems and is very fast at formatting and mounting. Comparative benchmark testing has shown it to be slower when dealing with many small files. XFS is very mature and offers online defragmentation capability.{{Note|The JFS and XFS filesystems cannot be shrunk by disk utilities such as '''gparted''' or '''parted magic'''.}}
+
# [[Wikipedia:vfat|vfat]] or '''Virtual File Allocation Table''' is technically simple and supported by virtually all existing operating systems. This makes it a useful format for solid-state memory cards and a convenient way to share data between operating systems.  VFAT supports long file names.
+
# [[Wikipedia:Btrfs|Btrfs]] Also known as "Better FS", '''Btrfs''' is a new filesystem with powerful features similar to Sun/Oracle's excellent [[Wikipedia:ZFS|ZFS]]. These include snapshots, multi-disk striping and mirroring (software RAID without mdadm), checksums, incremental backup, and on-the-fly compression that can give a significant performance boost as well as save space. As of January 2011, Btrfs is considered unstable although it has been merged into the mainline kernel with an experimental status. Btrfs appears to be the future of GNU/Linux filesystems and is offered as a root filesystem option in all major distribution installers.{{Warning|Btrfs has not yet implemented a fsck utility.  The filesystem cannot be repaired if corruption occurs.}}
+
# [[Wikipedia:nilfs|nilfs2]] '''New Implementation of a Log-structured File System''' was developed by NTT. It records all data in a continuous log-like format that is only appended to and never overwritten. It is designed to reduce seek times and minimize the type of data loss that occurs after a crash with conventional Linux filesystems.
+
 
+
=====Journaling=====
+
 
+
All the above filesystems with the exception of ext2 use [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journaling_file_system journaling]. Journaling provides fault-resilience by logging changes before they are committed to the filesystem.  In the event of a system crash or power failure, such file systems are faster to bring back online and less likely to become corrupted.  The logging takes place in a dedicated area of the filesystem. 
+
 
+
Not all journaling techniques are the same. Only ext3 and ext4 offer data-mode journaling, which logs both data and meta-data. Data-mode journaling comes with a speed penalty and is not enabled by default.  The other filesystems provide ordered-mode journaling, which only logs meta-data. While all journaling will return a filesystem to a valid state after a crash, data-mode journaling offers the greatest protection against corruption and data loss. There is a compromise in system performance, however, because data-mode journaling does two write operations: first to the journal and then to the disk.  The trade-off between system speed and data safety should be a considered when choosing the filesystem type.
+
 
+
====Option 1: Auto prepare====
+
Auto-Prepare erases the entire drive and divides it into the following four partitions:
+
 
+
* A {{ic|/boot}} partition formatted ext2. The default size of 100MB can be changed.
+
* A {{ic|/swap}} partition of default size of 256MB (adjustable).
+
* Separate {{ic|/}} and {{ic|/home}} partitions with adjustable sizes and filesystems. Available filesystems include ext2, ext3, ext4, reiserfs, xfs, jfs, vfat, nilfs2 (experimental), and btrfs (experimental). Both {{ic|/}} and {{ic|/home}} will have the same filesystem type when using the Auto Prepare option.
+
 
+
Be warned that Auto-Prepare will completely format the entire hard drive. Read the '''warning''' presented by the installer very carefully and make sure the correct device is about to be partitioned.
+
 
+
If you do not wish to use the default configuration of Auto prepare, you can setup the partitions manually.  This will be necessary if, for example, you are configuring a dual-boot system with an existing Windows partition.  Manual partitioning can be accomplished with Option 2 (followed by Option 3) or by using a live media utility such as GParted.
+
 
+
====Option 2: Manually partition hard drives====
+
 
+
Choosing the target disk will open [[Wikipedia:cfdisk|cfdisk]] for manual partitioning (if you have an [[SSD]] drive other choices like [[GUID_Partition_Table|gdisk]] or [http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/manual/html_mono/parted.html GNU Parted] may be preferable). Its operation can be understood with an example where four partitions are made on a 160 GB drive for root, var, swap, and home.  Following the guidelines above, the example system will contain a 15GB root ({{ic|/}}) partition, a 10GB {{ic|/var}} partition, a 1GB swap partition, and a {{ic|/home}} partition for the remaining disk space.  It is emphasized again that partitioning is a personal choice and this example is only for illustration.
+
 
+
Choose '''N'''ew -> 'Primary' and enter the desired size (15.44 GB in this example) for the '''root''' ({{ic|/}}) filesystem. The partition will be put at the beginning of the disk.  Select the '''T'''ype and designate it as {{ic|83 Linux}}. The created {{ic|/}} partition will appear as {{ic|sda1}}.
+
 
+
In a similar manner, create a second primary partition of size 10.256 GB for {{ic|/var}}, designating it as '''T'''ype {{ic|83 Linux}}. The created {{ic|/var}} partition will appear as {{ic|sda2}}.
+
 
+
Next, create a third partition for ''swap''. Select an appropriate size (~1 GB here) and specify the '''T'''ype as {{ic|82 (Linux swap / Solaris)}}. The created swap partition will appear as {{ic|sda3}}.
+
 
+
The remaining space is used to create a fourth partition for the {{ic|/home}} directory. Identify it as a primary partition and set the size. Select the '''T'''ype as {{ic|83 Linux}}. The created {{ic|/home}} partition will appear as {{ic|sda4}}.
+
  
 
This is how the example will look:
 
This is how the example will look:
Line 346: Line 244:
 
  Name    Flags    Part Type    FS Type          [Label]        Size (MB)
 
  Name    Flags    Part Type    FS Type          [Label]        Size (MB)
 
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------
  sda1               Primary    Linux                            15440 #root
+
  sda1   Boot      Primary    Linux                            15440       #root
  sda2               Primary    Linux                            10256 #/var
+
  sda2              Primary    Linux swap / Solaris              1024       #swap
sda3               Primary    Linux swap / Solaris              1024 #swap
+
  sda3               Primary    Linux                            133000     #/home
  sda4               Primary    Linux                            133000 #/home
+
  
Choose '''W'''rite and type {{ic|yes}}. Beware that this operation may destroy data on your disk. Choose '''Q'''uit to leave the partitioner.
+
Choose '''W'''rite and type {{ic|yes}}. Be aware that this operation may destroy data on your disk. Choose '''Q'''uit to leave the partitioner.
  
Familiarize yourself with the various filesystems discussed above and then proceed to Option 3.
+
For more information on partitioning your hard disk, see [[Partitioning]].  
  
 
{{Note|Since the latest developments of the Linux kernel which include the libata and PATA modules, all IDE, SATA and SCSI drives have adopted the sd''x'' naming scheme. This is perfectly normal and should not be a concern.}}
 
{{Note|Since the latest developments of the Linux kernel which include the libata and PATA modules, all IDE, SATA and SCSI drives have adopted the sd''x'' naming scheme. This is perfectly normal and should not be a concern.}}
 +
{{Note|If you are using (U)EFI you will most probably need another partition to host the UEFI System partition. Read [[Unified_Extensible_Firmware_Interface#Create_an_UEFI_System_Partition_in_Linux|this article]].}}
  
====Option 3: Manually configure block devices, filesystems, and mountpoints====
+
=== Configure block devices, filesystems, and mountpoints ===
This option requires the presence of existing partitions (generated in Option 2, for example) and is implemented as [[Wikipedia:/dev|dev]], label, or [[UUID]].  The list of recognized partitions will be shown. Each partition is identified with a number suffix. Example: {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of a drive while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive.
+
Use the {{ic|mkfs}} utility to format the partitions into filesystems. In this example configuration, we are using the ext4 filesystem for both root and home partitions.
  
Format each partition with the desired filesystem and specify the mountpoints. You can choose a label and additional options for [[Wikipedia:mkfs|mkfs]].  
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
 +
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3
  
{{Note|If you have not created and do not need a separate {{ic|/boot}} partition, you may safely ignore the warning that it does not exist.}}
+
Format and activate the swap partition:
  
Return to the Main Menu.
+
# mkswap /dev/sda2 && swapon /dev/sda2
  
===Select packages===
+
For more information on possible file system types, see [[File Systems]].
All software packages available during installation are from the [[Official Repositories#.5Bcore.5D|<nowiki>[core]</nowiki>]] repository. They are further divided into '''base''' <sup>([http://www.archlinux.org/groups/i686/base/ i686]|[http://www.archlinux.org/groups/x86_64/base/ x86_64])</sup>, and '''base-devel''' <sup>([http://www.archlinux.org/groups/i686/base-devel/ i686]|[http://www.archlinux.org/groups/x86_64/base-devel/ x86_64])</sup> groups. Package information and brief descriptions for [core] are available [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?repo=Core&arch=any&arch=i686&arch=x86_64&limit=all&sort=pkgname here].
+
  
====Bootloader====
+
=== Mount the partitions ===
You will be prompted to select either [[GRUB]] or [[syslinux]] as a bootloader.
+
Mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}.
 +
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
  
====Package groups====
+
Create a directory for the /home partition and mount it:  
Now select the package category:
+
 +
# mkdir /mnt/home && mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/home
  
{{Note|For expedience, all packages in '''base''' are selected by default. Use the space-bar to select and de-select packages.}}
+
===Select installation mirror===
 +
Before installing, you may want to edit {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} such that your preferred mirror is first. This copy of the mirrorlist will be installed on your new system by {{ic|pacstrap}} as well, so it's worth getting it right.
 +
{{Note|ftp.archlinux.org is throttled to 50KB/s.}}
  
* '''base:''' Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment. Always select this and do not remove any packages from it, as all packages in Arch Linux assume that ''base'' is installed.
+
=== Install the base system ===
* '''base-devel:''' Extra tools from [core] such as {{ic|make}}, and {{ic|automake}}. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand your new system.  The ''base-devel'' group will be required to install software from the [[Arch User Repository]].
+
The base system is installed using the [https://github.com/falconindy/arch-install-scripts/blob/master/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script. A minimal system requires the '''base''' package group; also installing the '''base-devel''' package group at this time is highly recommended. If you require other packages at this time, simply add them to the pacstrap command.
  
After category selection, you will be presented with lists of available packages, allowing you to fine-tune your selections. Use the space bar to select and un-select.  If you are uncertain about which additional packages to install at this point, you can skip this step and add them later using [[pacman]].
+
# pacstrap /mnt base base-devel
  
{{Note|If connection to a wireless network is required, remember to select and install the {{Pkg|wireless_tools}} package. Some wireless interfaces also need [[Wireless Setup#ndiswrapper|'''ndiswrapper''']] and/or a specific [[Wireless Setup#Drivers and firmware|'''firmware''']]. If you plan to use WPA encryption, you will need [[WPA Supplicant|'''wpa_supplicant''']]. The [[Wireless Setup]] page will help you choose the correct packages for your wireless device. Also strongly consider installing '''[[netcfg]]''', which will help you set up your network connection and profiles after you reboot into your new system.}}
+
* {{Grp|base}}: Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment.
 +
* {{Grp|base-devel}}: Extra tools from [core] such as {{ic|make}}, and {{ic|automake}}. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand your new system. The ''base-devel'' group will be required to install software from the [[Arch User Repository]].
  
After selecting the desired packages, leave the selection screen and continue to the next step, '''Install Packages'''.
+
This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using [[pacman]].
  
===Install packages===
+
{{Note|If pacman fails to verify your packages, check your system time. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually, or with ntp client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to [[Time|Time]] page for more information on correcting system time. }}
  
''Install Packages'' will install the selected packages to your new system. If you selected local sources, package versions from the CD-ROM/USB will be installed. If you opted for remote sources, the most currently available packages will be downloaded from the Internet and installed by [[pacman]].
+
=== Install a bootloader ===
  
{{Note|In some installers, you will be asked if you wish to keep the packages in the pacman cache, which is located at {{ic|/var/cache/pacman/pkg}}. If you choose "yes", you will have the flexibility to [[downgrade]] packages to previous versions. This is recommended if there is sufficient drive space available. The cache will grow over time as the system is updated, but can be cleared as needed using [[pacman]]}}
+
Install either syslinux ''or'' GRUB2 (you do not need to install both).
  
===Configure the system===
+
==== [[Syslinux|Syslinux]] ====
 +
 +
# pacstrap /mnt syslinux
  
{{Tip|Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.}}
+
==== [[GRUB2|GRUB]] ====
  
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system.
+
===== For BIOS =====
  
You will be presented with a menu including the main configuration files for your system.
+
# pacstrap /mnt grub-bios
  
{{Note|It is very important at this point to edit, or at least verify by opening, every configuration file. The installer script relies on your input to create these files on your installation. A common error is to skip over these critical steps of configuration.}}
+
===== For EFI =====
  
====Can the installer handle this more automatically?====
+
# pacstrap /mnt grub-efi-x86_64
  
Hiding the process of system configuration is in direct opposition to '''[[The Arch Way]]'''. While it is true that recent versions of the kernel and hardware probing tools offer excellent hardware support and auto-configuration, Arch presents the user all pertinent configuration files during installation for the purposes of ''transparency and system resource control''. By the time you have finished modifying these files to your specifications, you will have learned the simple method of manual Arch Linux system configuration and become more familiar with the base structure, leaving you better prepared to use and maintain your new installation productively.
+
(in rare cases you will need {{ic|grub-efi-i386}} instead)
  
====/etc/rc.conf====
+
{{Tip|Do not forget to [[#Configure_the_bootloader|configure the bootloader]] before you reboot. This is a common beginner's mistake.}}
  
Arch Linux uses the file {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} as the principal location for system configuration. This one file contains a wide range of configuration information such as timezone, keymap, kernel modules, networking, and startup daemons.  It also contains settings that are sourced by the various {{ic|/etc/rc*}} files.
+
=== Generate fstab ===
 +
Generate an [[fstab]] file with the following command. (If you prefer to use UUIDs or labels, add the {{ic|-U}} or {{ic|-L}} option, respectively.)
 +
# genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
  
=====LOCALIZATION section=====
+
{{Note|It is a good idea to check the auto-generated fstab file ({{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}}) before continuing. If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do '''not''' run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file. Also, only the "/" partition needs "1" at the end. Everything else should have "2" or "0" (see [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Fstab#Field_definitions #Field definitions]).}}
  
:; LOCALE: This sets your location environment, which will be used by all i18n-aware applications and utilities. You can get a list of the available locales by running {{ic|locale -a}} from the command line. This default is usually fine for US English users. If you experience problems such as alpha-numeric characters being replaced by squares you may want to replace &quot;en_US.utf8&quot; with &quot;en_US&quot;.
+
=== Chroot into system ===
:; DAEMON_LOCALE: Set to ''yes'' to use the daemon locale with the environmental variable $LOCALE.  Setting to ''no'' will use the C locale (default).
+
Next we [[chroot]] into our newly installed system.
:; HARDWARECLOCK: Specifies whether the hardware clock, which is synchronized on boot and on shutdown, stores '''UTC''' time, or '''local time'''. See [[#Set clock|Set clock]].
+
# arch-chroot /mnt
:; TIMEZONE: Specify your time zone. (All available zones are under {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/}}).
+
:; KEYMAP: The available keymaps are in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/keymaps}}. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or '''X'''.
+
:; CONSOLEFONT : Available alternate console fonts reside in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. The default (blank) is safe.
+
:; CONSOLEMAP : Defines the console map to load with the setfont program at boot. Possible maps are found in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consoletrans}}, if needed. The default (blank) is safe.
+
:; USECOLOR : Select &quot;yes&quot; if you have a color monitor and wish to have colors in your consoles.
+
  
'''Example for LOCALIZATION:'''
+
{{Tip|If you forgot to install packages with the pacstrap script, you may install them after the chroot with '''pacman -S <package>'''}}
LOCALE=&quot;en_US.utf8&quot;
+
DAEMON_LOCALE=&quot;no&quot;
+
HARDWARECLOCK=&quot;UTC&quot;
+
TIMEZONE=&quot;US/Eastern&quot;
+
KEYMAP=&quot;us&quot;
+
CONSOLEFONT=
+
CONSOLEMAP=
+
USECOLOR=&quot;yes&quot;
+
  
=====HARDWARE section=====
+
===Configure the system===
  
:; MODULES : If you know a module is missing, it can be specified here.  For example, if you will be using loopback filesystems, add "loop".  
+
{{Tip|Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.}}
  
{{Note| Normally all needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here.}}
+
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system.
  
'''Example for HARDWARE:'''
+
====Configuration files====
# Scan hardware and load required modules at boot
+
MODULES=()
+
  
=====NETWORKING section=====
+
{{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} is the configuration file for Arch's initscripts, and in the past used to also contain configurations for other parts of the system. {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} configures what daemons to start during boot-up and some networking and storage information.
  
:; HOSTNAME: Set your hostname to your liking. This is the name of your computer. Whatever you put here, also put it in {{ic|/etc/hosts}}.
+
{{Note|Using the legacy configuration options in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} for system configuring still works, but is no longer the official way. The new configuration files take precedence over {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}. This change was made to eliminate trivial differences between Arch Linux and other distros, as well as between [[initscripts]] and [[systemd]]. The table below indicates the files to edit as well as their corresponding legacy {{ic|etc/rc.conf}} configuration, but '''beginners or users performing new installations should ignore the legacy settings''', since they are going to be deprecated in the future. See also [[systemd]] and [[rc.conf]] for a description of the changes.}}
  
'''Example:'''
+
{{Note|You may need to create these files.}}
HOSTNAME="arch"
+
  
:; interface: Specify the ethernet interface you want to be used for connecting to your local network.
+
{| class="wikitable"
:; address: If you want to use a static IP for your computer, specify it here. '''Leave this blank for DHCP.'''
+
|-
:; netmask: Optional, defaults to ''255.255.255.0''. If you want to use a custom netmask, specify it here. '''Leave this blank for DHCP.'''
+
! scope="col"| Configuration
:; broadcast: Optional. If you want to use a custom broadcast address, specify it here. '''Leave this blank for DHCP.'''
+
! scope="col"| Configuration file(s)
:; gateway: If you set a static IP in "address", enter the IP address of the default gateway (eg. your modem/router) here. '''Leave this blank for DHCP.'''
+
! scope="col"| Legacy {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} section
 +
|-
 +
| align="center"|Hostname
 +
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/hostname}}
 +
{{ic|/etc/hosts}}
 +
| align="center"|{{ic|NETWORKING}}
 +
|-
 +
| align="center"|Console fonts and Keymap
 +
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}}
 +
| align="center"|{{ic|LOCALIZATION}}
 +
|-
 +
| align="center"|Locale
 +
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/locale.conf}}
 +
{{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}
 +
| align="center"|{{ic|LOCALIZATION}}
 +
|-
 +
| align="center"|Timezone
 +
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/timezone}}
 +
{{ic|/etc/localtime}}
 +
| align="center"|{{ic|LOCALIZATION}}
 +
|-
 +
| align="center"|Hardware clock
 +
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/adjtime}}
 +
| align="center"|{{ic|LOCALIZATION}}
 +
|-
 +
| align="center"|Kernel modules
 +
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}}
 +
| align="center"|{{ic|HARDWARE}}
 +
|-
 +
| align="center"|Daemons
 +
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}
 +
| align="center"|{{ic|DAEMONS}}
 +
|-
 +
| align="center"|Wired Network
 +
| align="left"|{{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}
 +
| align="center"|{{ic|NETWORKING}}
 +
|}
  
:; NETWORK_PERSIST :Setting this to "yes" will enable graceful logouts if users are ssh'ed into the box and the box is being restarted or shutdown. This is required if the root device is on NFS.
+
==== Hostname ====
:; NETWORKS: This is an optional setting to be enabled only if using the [[netcfg]] package with optional ''dialog'' package.  Enable these netcfg profiles at boot-up. These are useful if you happen to need more advanced network features than the simple network service supports, such as multiple network configurations (ie, laptop users).
+
Add your ''hostname'' in {{ic|/etc/hostname}}. '''Example:'''
  
'''Example with Static IP:'''
+
myhostname
{{bc|1=
+
HOSTNAME=arch
+
interface=eth0
+
address=192.168.1.100
+
netmask=255.255.255.0
+
broadcast=192.168.1.255
+
gateway=192.168.1.1
+
#NETWORKS=(main)
+
}}
+
  
'''Example with Dynamic IP (DHCP):'''
+
Set it to your liking. This is the name of your computer.
{{bc|1=
+
HOSTNAME=arch
+
interface=eth0
+
address=
+
netmask=
+
broadcast=
+
gateway=
+
#NETWORKS=(main)
+
}}
+
  
'''Other notes'''
+
Add also your ''hostname'' in {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, coinciding with the one specified in {{ic|/etc/hostname}} as an alias, so that it looks like this:
  
When using a static IP, modify {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} to specify the DNS servers of choice. Please see the [[#/etc/resolv.conf|section below]] regarding this file.
+
127.0.0.1  localhost.localdomain  localhost '''myhostname'''
{{Note|Connecting to a wireless network automatically requires a few more steps and may require you to set up a network manager such as [[netcfg]] or [[wicd]]. Please see the [[Wireless Setup#Part II: Wireless management|Wireless Setup]] page for more information}}
+
::1        localhost.localdomain  localhost '''myhostname'''
{{Tip|If using a non-standard MTU size (a.k.a. jumbo frames) is desired AND the installation machine hardware supports them, see the [[Jumbo Frames]] wiki article for further configuration.}}
+
  
=====DAEMONS section=====
+
{{Note|::1 is the IPv6 equivalent of 127.0.0.1}}
  
This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in {{ic|/etc/rc.d/}} which are to be started during the boot process, and the order in which they start. Asynchronous initialization by backgrounding is also supported and useful for speeding up boot:
+
{{Warning |This format, '''including the "localhost" and your actual host name''', is required for program compatibility. Errors in this entry may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all. This is a very common error for beginners.}}
  
DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)
+
If you use a static IP, add another line using the syntax: <static-IP> <hostname.domainname.org> <hostname> e.g.:
  
* If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed.
+
192.168.1.100 '''myhostname'''.domain.org '''myhostname'''
* If a script is prefixed with an &quot;at&quot; symbol (@), it shall be executed in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of each daemon before continuing to the next. (Useful for speeding up system boot). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example "mpd" depends on "network", therefore backgrounding network may cause mpd to break.
+
* Edit this array whenever new system services are installed, if starting them automatically during boot is desired.
+
  
{{Note|This "BSD-style" init, is the Arch way of handling what other distributions handle with various symlinks to an /etc/init.d/ directory.}}
+
{{Tip|For convenience, you may also use {{ic|/etc/hosts}} aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web, e.g.:
  
======General information======
+
192.168.1.90 media
 +
192.168.1.88 data
  
The [[daemons]] line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide.
+
The above example would allow you access a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.}}
  
A [[Wikipedia:Daemon (computing)|daemon]] is a program that runs in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A good example is a web server that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g.: httpd) or an SSH server waiting for a user login (e.g.: sshd). While these are full-featured applications, there are also daemons whose work is not that visible. Examples are a daemon which writes messages into a log file (e.g. syslog, metalog), and a daemon which provides a graphical login (e.g.: gdm, kdm). All these programs can be added to the daemons line and will be started when the system boots. Useful daemons will be presented during this guide.
+
==== Console fonts and keymap ====
 +
Edit {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}}.
 +
:; KEYMAP: The available keymaps are in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/keymaps}}. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or '''X'''.
 +
:; FONT : Available alternate console fonts reside in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. The default (blank) is safe.
 +
:; FONT_MAP : Defines the console map to load with the setfont program at boot. Possible maps are found in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consoletrans}}, if needed. The default (blank) is safe.
  
{{Tip|All Arch daemon scripts reside under /etc/rc.d/}}
+
'''Example:'''
 +
KEYMAP=us
 +
FONT=lat9w-16
 +
FONT_MAP=8859-1_to_uni
  
====/etc/fstab====
+
==== Timezone ====
The [[Wikipedia:fstab|fstab]] (for '''f'''ile '''s'''ystems '''tab'''le) is part of the system configuration listing all available disks and disk partitions, and indicating how they are to be initialized or otherwise integrated into the overall system's filesystem. The {{ic|/etc/fstab}} file is most commonly used by the '''mount''' command. The mount command takes a filesystem on a device, and adds it to the main system hierarchy that you see when you use your system. '''mount -a''' is called from {{ic|/etc/rc.sysinit}}, about 3/4 of the way through the boot process, and reads {{ic|/etc/fstab}} to determine which options should be used when mounting the specified devices therein. If '''noauto''' is appended to a filesystem in {{ic|/etc/fstab}}, '''mount -a''' will not mount it at boot.
+
Edit the file {{ic|/etc/timezone}} and write your {{ic|Zone}}/{{ic|Subzone}}. Available time zones and subzones can be found in the {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} directories. '''Example:'''
 +
Europe/Minsk
 +
Read {{ic|man 5 timezone}} for more options.
  
''An example of {{ic|/etc/fstab}}''
+
Additionaly, create a symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}} to the same {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} using this command:
# <file system>                           <dir>     <type>  <options>            <dump> <pass>
+
tmpfs                                      /tmp      tmpfs  nodev,nosuid        0      0
+
UUID=0ddfbb25-9b00-4143-b458-bc0c45de47a0  /        ext4    defaults            0      1
+
UUID=da6e64c6-f524-4978-971e-a3f5bd3c2c7b  /var      ext4    defaults            0      2
+
UUID=440b5c2d-9926-49ae-80fd-8d4b129f330b  none      swap    defaults            0      0
+
UUID=95783956-c4c6-4fe7-9de6-1883a92c2cc8  /home    ext4    defaults            0      2
+
  
{{Note|See the [[fstab|fstab article]] for more information and performance tweaks such as "noatime" or "relatime".}}
+
# ln -s {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} /etc/localtime
  
; <file system>: Describes the block device or remote filesystem to be mounted. For regular mounts, this field will contain a link to a block device node (as created by mknod which is called by udev at boot) for the device to be mounted; for instance, {{ic|/dev/cdrom}} or {{ic|/dev/sda1}}. {{Note | If your system has more than one hard drive, the installer will default to using UUID rather than the sd''x'' naming scheme, for consistent device mapping. '''[[Persistent block device naming| Utilizing UUID]] has several advantages and may also be preferred to avoid issues if hard disks are added to the system in the future.''' Due to active developments in the kernel and also udev, the ordering in which drivers for storage controllers are loaded may change randomly, yielding an unbootable system/kernel panic. Nearly every motherboard has several controllers (onboard SATA, onboard IDE), and due to the aforementioned development updates, {{ic|/dev/sda}} may become {{ic|/dev/sdb}} on the next reboot. For more information, see [[Persistent block device naming]].}}
+
'''Example:'''
  
; <dir>: Describes the mount point for the filesystem. For swap partitions, this field should be specified as 'none'; (Swap partitions are not actually mounted.)
+
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime
  
; <type>: Describes the type of the filesystem. The Linux kernel supports many filesystem types. (For the filesystems currently supported by the running kernel, see {{ic|/proc/filesystems}}). An entry 'swap' denotes a file or partition to be used for swapping. An entry 'ignore' causes the line to be ignored. This is useful to show disk partitions which are currently unused.
+
==== Locale ====
 +
=====Enable locales=====
 +
The {{ic|/usr/sbin/locale-gen}} command reads from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}} to generate specific locales. They can then be used by '''glibc''' and any other locale-aware program or library for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
  
; <options>: Describes the mount options associated with the filesystem. It is formatted as a comma-separated list of options with no intervening spaces. It contains at least the type of mount plus any additional options appropriate to the filesystem type. For documentation on the available options for non-nfs file systems, see mount(8).
+
By default {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}} is an empty file with commented documentation. Once edited, the file remains untouched. {{ic|locale-gen}} runs on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
  
; <dump>: Used by the dump(8) command to determine which filesystems are to be dumped. dump is a backup utility. If the fifth field is not present, a value of zero is returned and dump will assume that the filesystem does not need to be backed up. ''Note that dump is not installed by default.''
+
Choose the locale(s) you need by removing the # in front of the lines you want, e.g.:
  
; <pass>: Used by the fsck(8) program to determine the order in which filesystem checks are done at boot time. The root filesystem should have the highest priority with <pass> of 1, and other filesystems you want to have checked should have a <pass> of 2. Filesystems with 0 <pass> will not be checked. Filesystems within a drive will be checked sequentially, but filesystems on different drives will be checked at the same time to utilize parallelism available in the hardware. If the sixth field is not present or zero, a value of zero is returned and fsck will assume that the filesystem does not need to be checked.
+
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
  
* For more information, see [[fstab]].
+
Then run:
  
====/etc/mkinitcpio.conf====
+
# locale-gen
  
{{Note|Most users will not need to modify this file at this time, but please read the following explanatory information.}}
+
{{Note|If you fail to choose your locale, this will lead to a {{ic|"The current locale is invalid..."}} error. This is perhaps the most common mistake by new Arch users.}}
  
This file allows further fine-tuning, through [[mkinitcpio]], of the initial ram filesystem, or initramfs, (also historically referred to as the initial ramdisk or "initrd") for your system. The initramfs is a gzipped image that is read by the kernel during boot. The purpose of the initramfs is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are required for devices like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if you are booting from a USB/FW drive). Once the initrramfs loads the proper modules, either manually or through udev, it passes control to the kernel and your boot continues. For this reason, the initramfs only needs to contain the modules necessary to access the root filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would ever want to use. The majority of common kernel modules will be loaded later on by udev, during the init process.
+
=====Setting up system-wide locale=====
 +
Set [https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Locale#Setting_system-wide_locale locale] preferences in {{ic|/etc/locale.conf}}. Example:
  
'''mkinitcpio''' is the next generation of '''initramfs creation'''. It has many advantages over the old '''mkinitrd''' and '''mkinitramfs''' scripts.
+
{{hc|/etc/locale.conf|2=LANG=en_US.UTF-8}}
  
* It uses '''glibc''' and '''busybox''' to provide a small and lightweight base for early userspace.
+
Run {{ic|source /etc/profile.d/locale.sh}} to load the locale settings for the current shell, or just log in again.
* It can use '''udev''' for hardware autodetection at runtime, thus preventing numerous unnecessary modules from being loaded.
+
* Its hook-based init script is easily extendable with custom hooks, which can easily be included in pacman packages without having to modifiy mkinitcpio itself.
+
* It already supports '''lvm2''', '''dm-crypt''' for both legacy and luks volumes, '''raid''', '''swsusp''' and '''TuxOnIce''' resuming and booting from '''usb mass storage''' devices.
+
* Many features can be configured from the kernel command line without having to rebuild the image.
+
* The '''mkinitcpio''' script makes it possible to include the image in a kernel, thus making a self-contained kernel image is possible.
+
* Its flexibility makes recompiling a kernel unnecessary in many cases.
+
  
If using RAID or LVM on the root filesystem, the appropriate HOOKS must be configured. See the wiki pages for [[Installing with Software RAID or LVM|LVM/RAID]] and [[Configuring mkinitcpio]] for more information. If using a non-US keyboard. add the {{ic|keymap}} hook to load your local keymap during boot. Add the {{ic|usbinput}} hook if using a USB keyboard (otherwise, if boot fails for some reason you will be asked to enter root's password for system maintenance but will be unable to do so). Remember to add the {{ic|usb}} hook when installing arch on an external hard drive, Comfact Flash, or SD card, which is connected via usb, e.g.:
+
==== Hardware clock time ====
 +
This is set in {{ic|/etc/adjtime}}. Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems on the same machine. Otherwise, they will overwrite the time and cause clock shifts (which can cause time drift correction to be miscalibrated).
  
HOOKS="base udev autodetect pata scsi sata usb filesystems keymap usbinput"
+
You can generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}} automatically by using one of the following commands.
  
If you need support for booting from USB devices, FireWire devices, PCMCIA devices, NFS shares, software RAID arrays, LVM2 volumes, encrypted volumes, or DSDT support, configure your HOOKS accordingly.
+
{{Note|Make sure HARDWARECLOCK in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} is not set when using this method.}}
  
====/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf====
+
* [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] (recommended)
  
This file can be used to set special configuration options for the kernel modules. It is unnecessary to configure this file in the example. The article on [[kernel modules]] has more information.
+
# hwclock --systohc --utc
  
====/etc/resolv.conf====
+
{{Note|Using UTC for the hardware clock does not mean time will be displayed in UTC in software.}}
  
{{Note|If you are using DHCP, you may safely ignore this file, as by default, it will be dynamically created and destroyed by the dhcpcd daemon. You may change this default behavior if you wish. See the [[Network#For DHCP IP|network]] and [[resolv.conf]] pages for more information.}}
+
* '''localtime''' (discouraged) - Used by default in Windows
  
The ''resolver'' is a set of routines in the C library that provide access to the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). One of the main functions of DNS is to translate domain names into IP addresses, to make the Web a friendlier place. The resolver configuration file, or {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}, contains information that is read by the resolver routines the first time they are invoked by a process.
+
# hwclock --systohc --localtime
  
If you use a static IP, set your DNS servers in {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} (nameserver <ip-address>). You may have as many as you wish.
+
{{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}}
  
An example, using OpenDNS:
+
=====Setting time in a Windows dual boot setup=====
  
nameserver 208.67.222.222
+
If you are setting up a dual-boot with Windows on your system, you have two options:
nameserver 208.67.220.220
+
  
If you are using a router, you may specify your DNS servers in the router itself, and merely point to it from your {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}, using your router's IP (which is also your gateway from {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}). Example:
+
* Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC (a quick registry fix is needed, see [https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UbuntuTime#Make_Windows_use_UTC this page] for instructions). Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time with the Internet, as it will make the hardware clock use ''localtime'' again. If you want such functionality (NTP sync), you should use [[ntpd]] on your Arch Linux installation instead.
  
nameserver 192.168.1.1
+
* Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to ''localtime'' and later (in [[#Configure the system|Configure the system]]) remove {{ic|hwclock}} from the {{ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} (Windows will take care of hardware clock corrections).
  
If using '''DHCP''', you may also specify your DNS servers in the router, or allow automatic assignment from your ISP, if your ISP is so equipped.
+
==== Kernel modules ====
 +
{{Tip|Normally all needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.}}
 +
Edit {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}} to configure kernel modules to load during boot in a static list. Each configuration file is named in the style of {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/<program>.conf}}. The configuration files should simply contain a list of kernel module names to load, separated by newlines. Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is {{ic|#}} or {{ic|;}} are ignored. Example:
 +
{{hc|/etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf|<nowiki>
 +
# Load virtio-net.ko at boot
 +
virtio-net</nowiki>}}
  
====/etc/hosts====
+
====Daemons====
 +
{{Tip| The daemons line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide. }}
  
This file associates IP addresses with hostnames and aliases. Each host is represented by a single line.
+
[[Wikipedia:Daemon (computing)|Daemons]] are programs that run in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A good example is a web server that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g.: {{ic|httpd}}) or an SSH server waiting for a user login (e.g.: {{ic|sshd}}). While these are full-featured applications, there are also daemons whose work is not that visible. Examples are a daemon which writes messages into a log file (e.g. {{ic|syslog}}, {{ic|metalog}}), and a daemon which provides a graphical login (e.g.: {{ic|gdm}}, {{ic|kdm}}).
  
<IP-address> <hostname> [aliases...]
+
These programs can be added to the DAEMONS line in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} and will be started when the system boots. The DAEMONS array simply list the names of those scripts contained in {{ic|/etc/rc.d/}} which are to be started during the boot process, and the order in which they start. Asynchronous initialization by backgrounding is also supported and useful for speeding up boot:
  
Add your ''hostname'', coinciding with the one specified in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}, as an alias, so that it looks like this:
+
DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)
  
127.0.0.1  localhost.localdomain  localhost '''yourhostname'''
+
* If a script name is prefixed with a bang ({{ic|!}}), it is not executed.
 +
* If a script is prefixed with an &quot;at&quot; symbol ({{ic|@}}), it shall be executed in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of each daemon before continuing to the next. (Useful for speeding up system boot). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example {{ic|mpd}} depends on {{ic|network}}, therefore backgrounding {{ic|network}} may cause {{ic|mpd}} to break.
 +
* Edit this array whenever new system services are installed, if starting them automatically during boot is desired.
 +
{{Tip|A list of available services (and their running status) can be found using this command: {{ic|rc.d list}}.}}
  
{{Warning |This format, '''including the "localhost" and your actual host name''', is required for program compatibility! So, if you have named your computer "arch", then that line above should look like this:
+
=== Configure the network ===
 +
You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described [[#Setup_network_in_the_live_installation_environment|above]], except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.
 +
{{Note|For more in-depth information on network configration, visit [[configuring network]] and [[Wireless_Setup|Wireless setup]].}}
  
127.0.0.1  localhost.localdomain  localhost arch
+
====Wired Network====
 +
If you only use a single wired network connection, you can use the '''network''' daemon, a simple solution for both dynamic and static IP addressing. First, insure that the daemon is listed in the '''DAEMONS''' array:
  
Errors in this entry may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all. This is a very common error for beginners.}}
+
{{hc|/etc/rc.conf|<nowiki>
 +
DAEMONS=(... network ...)
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
{{Note|Recent versions of the Arch Linux Installer automatically add your hostname to this file once you edit {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} with such information. If, for whatever reason, this is not the case, you may add it yourself with the given instructions.}}
+
Then configure the '''NETWORKING''' section of {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} as follows, depending on your IP addressing type.
  
If you use a static IP, add another line using the syntax: <static-IP> <hostname.domainname.org>  <hostname> e.g.:
+
===== Dynamic IP (DHCP) =====
 +
Assuming the network interface to activate at start is eth0, use this configuration:
  
  192.168.1.100 '''yourhostname'''.domain.org '''yourhostname'''
+
  interface=eth0
 +
  address=
 +
netmask=
 +
gateway=
  
{{Tip|For convenience, you may also use {{ic|/etc/hosts}} aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web, e.g.:
+
Your DNS server addresses will be automatically filled in by the dhcpcd daemon.
  
192.168.1.90 media
+
===== Static IP =====
192.168.1.88 data
+
If you need to use a static IP address, use this configuration:
  
The above example would allow you access a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.}}
+
interface=eth0
 +
address=192.168.0.2
 +
netmask=255.255.255.0
 +
broadcast=192.168.0.255
 +
gateway=192.168.0.1
  
====/etc/locale.gen====
+
You will also need to add your name servers' (DNS) IP addresses and your local domain name to your {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} like this:
 +
nameserver 61.23.173.5
 +
nameserver 61.95.849.8
 +
search example.com
  
The {{ic|/usr/sbin/locale-gen}} command reads from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}} to generate specific locales. They can then be used by '''glibc''' and any other locale-aware program or library for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
+
{{Tip|The '''network''' daemon is suitable for systems connecting wired to a single network. For multiple network configurations (e.g. using a laptop), it is recommended to use a network manager program, such as [[netcfg]], which has been designed to manage both wired and wireless connections.}}
  
By default {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}} is an empty file with commented documentation. Once edited, the file remains untouched. {{ic|locale-gen}} runs on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
+
==== Wireless network ====
 +
The '''network''' daemon is not sufficient to handle [[Wireless_Setup|Wireless]] networking, which requires additional configuration. You will need to install other programs to configure and manage wireless network profiles, such as [[netcfg]]. [[NetworkManager]] and [[Wicd]] are popular alternatives.
  
Choose the locale(s) you need by removing the # in front of the lines you want, e.g.:
+
* Exit the chroot environment:
 +
# exit
  
en_US ISO-8859-1
+
* Install the required packages:
  en_US.UTF-8
+
  # pacstrap /mnt wireless_tools netcfg
  
The installer will now run the locale-gen script, which will generate the locales you specified. You may change your locale in the future by editing {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}} and subsequently running {{ic|locale-gen}} as root.
+
* If you use WPA/WPA2 wireless encryption, install:
 +
# pacstrap /mnt wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond
  
{{Note|If you fail to choose your locale, this will lead to a "The current locale is invalid..." error. This is perhaps the most common mistake by new Arch users.}}
+
* If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in [[#Setup_wireless_network]] and [[Wireless_Setup#Drivers_and_firmware]]), install the package containg your firmware, ''e.g.'':
 +
# pacstrap /mnt zd1211-firmware
  
====/etc/pacman.conf====
+
* Chroot back:
pacman will attempt to read {{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}} each time it is invoked.  This configuration file is divided into sections, or repositories.  Each  section  defines  a package [[Official Repositories|repository]] that pacman can use when searching for packages. The exception to this is the {{ic|options}} section, which defines global options.
+
# arch-chroot /mnt
  
Enable all desired repositories by removing the # in front of the 'Include =' and '[repository]' lines.
+
* Create a network profile for your wireless connection in the {{ic|/etc/network.d}} directory:
 +
** Copy and rename a configuration template from {{ic|/etc/network.d/examples/}} to {{ic|/etc/network.d/mynetwork}} (''mynetwork'' being an example; the name is not a network setting and does not need to match the wireless network name (SSID)). These templates are adapted to the type of your wireless connection, such as {{ic|wireless-wep}} or {{ic|wireless-wpa}}. See [[Netcfg#Configuration]] for a list of available templates and their usage.
 +
** Set {{ic|INTERFACE}} to the correct wireless interface. This can be checked with {{ic|iwconfig}}.
 +
** Ensure the {{ic|ESSID}} and {{ic|KEY}} (passkey) are set correctly for wireless connections. Typos in these fields are common errors.
 +
*** Note that WEP ''string'' keys (not ''hex'' keys) must be specified with a leading {{ic|s:}} (e.g. {{ic|<nowiki>KEY="s:somepasskey"</nowiki>}}).
 +
*** For WPA-Personal, it is possible to specify the passkey in plain text or as an encoded hex.
  
{{Note|  
+
* Add {{ic|net-auto-wireless}} to the {{ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}:
*The defaults should work, so modifying at this point may be unnecessary, but verification is always recommended. Further info available in the [[Official Repositories]] article.
+
{{hc|/etc/rc.conf|<nowiki>
*If you are using a 64-bit installation, you should consider enabling the multilib repository to allow access to 32-bit software. All 32-bit software is in the multilib repository for 64-bit installations. Enabling multilib is not necessary for proper functioning, but it must be enabled to access 32-bit software.
+
DAEMONS=(... net-auto-wireless ...)
*<nowiki>When choosing repos, be sure to uncomment both the repository header lines in [brackets] as well as the 'Include =' lines. Failure to do so will result in the selected repository being omitted! This is a very common error.</nowiki>}}
+
</nowiki>}}
  
====/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist====
+
And specify the desired wireless interface with the {{ic|WIRELESS_INTERFACE}} variable in {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}:
  
Mirror sites are Internet locations where exact copies of data reside.  Multiple mirrors provide reliability, redundancy, and allow for faster data transfer depending on geographic location.  Closer sites generally give faster data rates.  Choose a mirror repository for {{ic|pacman}} by uncommenting the desired mirror locations in this file. Remember that ftp.archlinux.org is throttled, limiting downloads to 50 kB/s. Read the [[Mirrors]] wiki page for more details about setting up pacman mirrors. Note that the mirrors chosen here will carry over into your installation.
+
{{hc|/etc/conf.d/netcfg|<nowiki>
 
+
WIRELESS_INTERFACE="wlan0"
====Root password====
+
</nowiki>}}
 
+
Finally, set a root password and make sure that you remember it later. Return to the Main Menu and continue with '''Installing Bootloader'''.
+
  
====Done====
+
It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected with the {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} variable in  {{ic|/etc/conf.d/netcfg}}. If {{ic|AUTO_PROFILES}} is not set, all wireless networks will be tried.
  
When you select "Done", the system will rebuild the images and put you back to the Main Menu. This may take some time.
+
{{Note|[[netcfg|Netcfg]] also provides other daemons to connect automatically. Refer to the [[netcfg]] article for more information.}}
  
===Install bootloader===
+
=== Create an initial ramdisk environment ===
 +
Configure {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} as needed (see [[mkinitcpio]]) and create an initial RAM disk with
 +
 +
# mkinitcpio -p linux
  
Because we have no secondary operating system in our example, we will need a bootloader. [[GRUB]] ('''GR'''and '''U'''nified '''B'''ootloader) will be used in the following examples. Alternatively, you may choose [[LILO]], [[Syslinux]] or [[GRUB2]]. Please see the related wiki and documentation pages if you choose to use a bootloader other than GRUB.
+
{{Tip|Most users can simply accept the defaults provided in the {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} file.}}
  
The provided '''GRUB''' configuration ({{ic|/boot/grub/menu.lst}}) should be sufficient, but verify its contents to ensure accuracy (specifically, ensure that the root (/) partition is specified by UUID on line 3). You may want to alter the resolution of the console  by adding a vga=<number> kernel argument corresponding to your desired virtual console resolution. (A table of resolutions and the corresponding numbers is printed in the {{ic|menu.lst}}.)
+
=== Configure the bootloader ===
 +
{{Note|This step is very important. Forgetting it is a common beginner's mistake.}}
 +
==== Syslinux ====
 +
If you installed syslinux, edit the {{ic|/boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg}} to point to the right {{ic|/}} partition. Then type the following command to install ({{ic|-i}}), set boot flag ({{ic|-a}}) and install the MBR ({{ic|-m}}).
  
'''Explanation:'''
+
# /usr/sbin/syslinux-install_update -iam
  
; title: A printed menu selection. &quot;Arch Linux (Main)&quot; will be printed on the screen as a menu selection.
+
For more information on configuring and using syslinux, see [[Syslinux]].
  
; root: '''GRUB''''s root; the drive and partition where the kernel (/boot) resides, according to system BIOS. (More accurately, where GRUB's stage2 file resides). '''NOT necessarily the root (/) file system''', as they can reside on separate partitions. GRUB's numbering scheme starts at 0, and uses an hd''x,x'' format regardless of IDE or SATA, and enclosed within parentheses. The example indicates that /boot is on the first partition of the first drive, according to the BIOS, so (hd0,0).
+
==== Grub ====
 +
If you installed GRUB2, install it to the hard disk containing your boot partition.
  
; kernel: This line specifies:
+
# grub-install /dev/sda
:* The path and filename of the kernel '''''relative to GRUB's root'''''. In the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and '''vmlinuz-linux''' is the kernel filename; {{ic|/boot/vmlinuz-linux}}. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply {{ic|/vmlinuz-linux}}, being relative to '''GRUB''''s root.
+
:* The {{ic|root<nowiki>=</nowiki>}} argument to the kernel statement specifies the partition containing the root (/) directory in the booted system, (more accurately, the partition containing {{ic|/sbin/init}}). An easy way to distinguish the 2 appearances of "root" in {{ic|/boot/grub/menu.lst}} is to remember that the first root statement ''informs GRUB where the kernel resides'', whereas the second {{ic|root<nowiki>=</nowiki>}} kernel argument ''tells the kernel where the root filesystem (/) resides''.
+
:* Kernel options: In our example, '''ro''' mounts the filesystem as read-only during startup, which is usually a safe default; you may wish to change this in case it causes problems booting. '''quiet''' sets the default kernel log level so that all messages during boot are suppressed except serious ones. Depending on hardware, '''rootdelay=8''' may need to be added to the kernel options in order to be able to boot from an external usb hard drive.
+
  
; initrd: The path and filename of the initial RAM filesystem '''relative to GRUB''''s root. Again, in the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and '''initramfs-linux.img''' is the initrd filename; {{ic|/boot/initramfs-linux.img}}. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply '''/initramfs-linux.img''', being relative to '''GRUB''''s root.
+
To prevent a (harmless) error message at boot time:
  
Example:
+
  # mkdir -p /boot/grub/locale
title Arch Linux (Main)
+
  # cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo
root  (hd0,0)
+
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda1 ro quiet
+
  initrd /boot/initramfs-linux.img
+
  
Example for /boot on a separate partition:
+
Create the grub.cfg file.
title  Arch Linux (Main)
+
root  (hd0,0)
+
kernel /vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda3 ro quiet
+
initrd /initramfs-linux.img
+
  
Install the [[GRUB]] bootloader to the '''Master Boot Record''' (/dev/sda in our example).
+
  # grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
 +
For more information on configuring and using GRUB2, see [[GRUB2]].
  
{{Note|Arch Linux installers prior to the 2011.08.19 release included an option to install the bootloader to either a partition or the MBR. This option has been removed and so it is no longer possible to install the bootloader to a partition using AIF (see {{Bug|25726}}). If you wish to install the bootloader to a [[Wikipedia:Volume boot record|partition boot record]], simply exit AIF without invoking the "Install bootloader" step and install the bootloader manually.}}
+
=== Root password ===
 +
Set a root password with {{ic|passwd}}.
  
===Reboot===
+
=== Unmount the partitions and reboot ===
 +
If you are still in the chroot environment then type {{ic|exit}} or {{ic|Ctrl+D}} in order to exit chroot.
 +
Since the partitions are mounted under {{ic|/mnt}}, we use the following command to unmount them. 
 +
# umount /mnt/{boot,home,}
  
That is it; You have configured and installed your Arch Linux base system. Exit the install, and reboot:
+
Exit the install, and reboot:
 
{{bc|# reboot}}
 
{{bc|# reboot}}
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media and perhaps change the boot preference in your BIOS; otherwise you may boot back into the installation!}}<noinclude>
+
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media and change the boot preference in your BIOS (if you changed it to install); otherwise you may boot back into the installation media!}}
{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>
+
<noinclude>
 +
{{Beginners' Guide navigation_(한국어)}}</noinclude>

Revision as of 03:13, 29 July 2012

Tip: This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. Click here if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.

설치하기

부팅 후에는 설치 미디어에서 자동으로 root로 로그인되며 US 키보드 레이아웃을 사용합니다.

키맵 변경하기

Tip: 한글 키보드의 경우 영문 키보드와는 한/영키와 한자키 정도의 차이밖에 없으므로, 이 설정은 IME를 설치하기 전까지는 쓸모가 없습니다.

US와 호환되지 않는 키보드 레이아웃을 사용할 경우 다음 명령어를 이용해 대화형으로 키맵과 콘솔 폰트를 지정할 수 있습니다.

# loadkeys layout

여기서 layoutfr, uk 혹은 be-latin1와 같은 여러분 키보드의 레이아웃을 뜻합니다.

키맵은 여러 나라나 키보드 타입에 대해 제공됩니다. 키맵 파일은 /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/ 내에서 찾을 수 있습니다 (you can omit the keymap path and file extension when using loadkeys).

라이브 설치 환경에서 네트워크 설정하기

유선 네트워크 설정하기

여러분의 컴퓨터가 이더넷 네트워크에 연결되어 있다면 이 절차를 따르십시오.

유동 IP (DHCP)

유선 인터넷 연결을 하면서 DHCP서버에 접속(예를 들어 라우터를 사용하는 경우)한다고 가정하고,

# dhcpcd

를 실행하여 IP를 얻으십시오. 이더넷 카드가 여러 개 있는 등 여러 가지 인터페이스가 있는 경우, dhcpcd <interface>로 다음과 같이 특정 인터페이스를 선택할 수 있습니다.

# dhcpcd eth0
고정 IP

DHCP를 사용하지 않거나 접속할 수 없는 경우에는 고정 IP 주소를 직접 배정해야 합니다. 다음 설정값들을 알아야 합니다:

  • 고정 IP 주소
  • 서브넷 마스크
  • 게이트웨이 IP 주소
  • 네임서버(DNS)의 IP 주소
  • 도메인 이름(여러분이 직접 지을 수 있는 로컬 랜이 아닌 경우)

콘솔에서, 다음 명령어를 넣으십시오.

# ip addr add <IP 주소>/<서브넷 마스크> dev <인터페이스>

예시:

# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev eth0

더 많은 옵션을 보려면, man ip를 보십시오.

다음과 같이 게이트웨이를 추가하십시오.

# ip route add default via <IP 주소>

(여러분 게이트웨이의 IP 주소로 바꿔 넣으십시오.)

예시:

# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1

여러분의 네임서버 IP 주소와 로컬 도메인 이름을 /etc/resolv.conf에 다음과 같이 넣으십시오.

nameserver 61.23.173.5
nameserver 61.95.849.8
search example.com
Note: 현재, 최대 3개의 nameserver줄을 넣을 수 있습니다.
Note: 네트워크 설정에 대해 좀 더 깊이 있는 정보를 원하신다면 유선 네트워크 연결페이지를 보십시오.
Tip: 무선 네트워크나 ADSL을 설정할 필요가 없다면, 하드디스크 준비하기로 넘어가십시오.

ADSL 브릿지 설정하기

ISP에 접속하기 위해 브릿지 모드로 설정된 모뎀이나 라우터가 있는 경우 다음 절차를 따르십시오.

다음 명령어를 실행하십시오.

# pppoe-setup

모든 설정이 제대로 끝나고 나면, 다음 명령어로 ISP에 연결하실 수 있습니다.

# pppoe-start

하드디스크 준비하기로 넘어가십시오.

무선 네트워크 설정하기

설치 과정에서 무선 연결이 필요하다면 다음 절차를 따르십시오.

무선 드라이버와 유틸리티는 설치 미디어의 라이브 환경에서 사용하실 수 있습니다. 무선 하드웨어에 대해 잘 알고 있을수록 설정을 쉽게 끝낼 수 있을 것입니다. 지금 시점에서 실행하는 간단 설정 내용은 무선 장치를 설치 매체의 라이브 환경에서만 사용할 수 있게 만들 것입니다. 이 단계(혹은 다른 형태의 무선 관리)는 설치가 끝난 뒤 다시 한번 설정해 주어야 합니다.

또한 이 시점에서의 무선 연결은 꼭 필요하지만은 않다는 것을 알아두십시오; 무선 네트워크는 나중에라도 언제든지 연결할 수 있습니다.

Note: 다음 예시는 wlan0를 인터페이스로, linksys를 ESSID로 가정합니다. 여러분의 환경에 따라 이 값들을 변경해서 사용하십시오.

기본 단계는 다음과 같습니다.

  • (선택) 무선장치의 인터페이스를 알아냅니다.

기본적인 방법은 다음과 같습니다.

# lspci | grep -i net

혹은, USB 어댑터를 사용한다면 다음과 같이 합니다.

# lsusb 
  • /usr/sbin/iwconfig를 통해 다음과 같이 udev가 드라이버를 로드했고 해당 드라이버가 사용 가능한 커널 인터페이스를 만들어냈다는 것을 확인합니다.
# iwconfig
 lo no wireless extensions.
 eth0 no wireless extensions.
 wlan0    unassociated  ESSID:""
          Mode:Managed  Channel=0  Access Point: Not-Associated
          Bit Rate:0 kb/s   Tx-Power=20 dBm   Sensitivity=8/0
          Retry limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
          Power Management:off
          Link Quality:0  Signal level:0  Noise level:0
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0

이 예시에서는 wlan0 가 사용할 수 있는 무선 인터페이스입니다.

Note: 이런 내용이 출력되지 않는다면, 무선 드라이버가 로드되지 않은 것입니다. 이런 경우, 여러분이 직접 드라이버를 로드해야 합니다. 무선 네트워크 설정 페이지를 통해 자세한 정보를 얻으십시오.
  • 해당 인터페이스를 다음 명령어로 작동시킵니다.
# ip link set wlan0 up

몇몇 무선 드라이버는 드라이버 뿐만 아니라 펌웨어도 필요로 합니다. 무선 칩셋이 펌웨어를 필요로 한다면 인터페이스를 작동시킬 때 다음과 같은 에러가 나타날 것입니다.

# ip link set wlan0 up
SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory

잘 모르겠다면, /usr/bin/dmesg 명령어로 커널 로그를 보면서 해당 칩셋에 대한 펌웨어 요청이 있는지 확인하십시오.

다음 예는 펌웨어가 필요한 한 인텔 칩셋의 경우에 부팅 시의 커널의 요청을 나타냅니다.

$ dmesg | grep firmware
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode

출력이 없다면, 시스템의 무선 칩셋에 펌웨어가 필요하지 않다는 뜻입니다.

Warning: (CD나 USB 스틱의) 라이브 환경 하에서는 (필요한 카드에 대해) 무선 칩셋 펌웨어 패키지가 /usr/lib/firmware에 미리 설치되어 있지만 재부팅 후에는 직접 따로 시스템에 설치해 줘야 합니다. 패키지 설치는 이 가이드 내에서 나중에 다뤄집니다. 재부팅 하기 전에 무선 모듈과 펌웨어를 꼭 설치하도록 하세요! 특정 칩셋이 펌웨어를 필요로 하는지 잘 모르겠다면 무선 네트워크 설정 페이지를 보세요. 이것은 일어나기 쉬운 실수입니다.
  • 만약 ESSID를 잊어버렸거나 알지 못한다면, iwlist <인터페이스> scan 명령어로 가까운 네트워크를 찾아볼 수 있습니다.
# iwlist wlan0 scan
Cell 01 - Address: 04:25:10:6B:7F:9D
                    Channel:2
                    Frequency:2.417 GHz (Channel 2)
                    Quality=31/70  Signal level=-79 dBm  
                    Encryption key:off
                    ESSID:"dlink"
                    Bit Rates:1 Mb/s; 2 Mb/s; 5.5 Mb/s; 11 Mb/s
                    Bit Rates:6 Mb/s; 9 Mb/s; 12 Mb/s; 18 Mb/s; 24 Mb/s
                              36 Mb/s; 48 Mb/s; 54 Mb/s
  • WPA 암호화를 사용하는 경우

WPA 암호화를 사용하는 경우 키와 ESSID를 하나의 파일 내에 저장한 다음 나중에 wpa_supplicant를 통해 접속해야 합니다. 그러므로, 몇 단계가 더 필요합니다.

절차를 줄이고 백업을 해 두고 싶은 경우, 기본 wpa_supplicant.conf파일의 이름을 다음과 같이 바꿔 두십시오.

# mv /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf.original

wpa_passphrase를 사용해서 /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf에 무선 네트워크 이름과 WPA 키가 암호화되어 쓰여지도록 하십시오.

다음의 예는 "my_secret_passkey"라는 키와 "linksys"라는 무선 네트워크를 사용한다고 가정해서 새로운 설정 파일/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf을 만들어냅니다.

# wpa_passphrase linksys "my_secret_passkey" > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

{{Note|만약 위의 명령어가 bash: event not found라는 에러를 낸다면, 무선 네트워크 이름 내의 !와 같은 특수문자 때문일 수 있습니다. 이런 경우 다음과 같이 해 보십시오.

# sh -c 'wpa_passphrase linksys "my_secret_passkey" > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf'

그래도 특수문자로 인한 문제가 발생한다면, ~/mykey에 임시로 비밀번호를 저장해 두고 다음과 같이 해 보십시오.

# cat ~/mykey | wpa_passphrase linksys > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf

보안상의 문제로 /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf 파일을 설정한 후에는 이 ~/mykey 파일을 삭제하는 것이 좋습니다.

WPA Supplicant페이지에서 더 많은 정보와 해결책을 찾을 수 있습니다.

Note: /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf는 평범한 텍스트 파일 형식입니다. 설치 환경에서는 이것이 상관 없지만, 설치 후에 새로운 시스템에서 WPA를 다시 설정할 때에는 /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf의 권한을 꼭 변경해 두십시오. (예를 들어, chmod 0600 /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf명령어로 루트 권한으로만 읽을 수 있도록 할 수 있습니다.)
  • 여러분의 무선 장치를 사용하고자 하는 AP에 연결시키십시오. 암호화에 따라서(WPA, WEP, 혹은 없음) 절차는 달라질 수 있습니다. 사용하고자 하는 무선 네트워크의 이름(ESSID)를 알고 있어야 합니다.
Encryption Command
암호화 없음 iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys"
WEP (Hex 키) iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "0241baf34c"
WEP (ASCII 비밀번호) iwconfig wlan0 essid "linksys" key "s:pass1"
WPA wpa_supplicant -B -Dwext -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
Note: 네트워크 연결 과정은 이후에 기본 아치 네트워크 데몬, netcfg, wicd 혹은 다른 네트워크 관리자를 사용해서 자동화시킬 수 있습니다.
Note: 무선 연결이 필요하다면, wireless_tools 패키지를 선택해서 설치하는 것을 잊지 마십시오. 몇몇 무선 인터페이스는 ndiswrapper나 특정 펌웨어가 필요할 수 있습니다. 만약 WPA 암호화가 필요하다면, wpa_supplicant가 필요할 것입니다. 무선 네트워크 설정 페이지에서 여러분의 무선 장치에 필요한 패키지를 찾을 수 있을 것입니다. 또한 설치 후 새로운 시스템으로 부팅할 때 네트워크 연결과 프로필을 설정하도록 도와줄 netcfg도 설치하는것을 깊이 고려해 보십시오.
Note: 만약 여러분이 라이브 환경에서 일반 설치로 chroot했다면, 명령줄에서 /etc/rc.d/dbus start/etc/rc.d/networkmanager start를 넣고networkmanager를 시작한 다음, 사용가능한 연결을 nmcli con list로 사용할 수 있는 연결을 나열하고 nmcli con up id NAME(NAME은 연결대상의 이름)을 통해 무선 연결을 설정할 수도 있습니다.
  • 위에서 설명한 방법대로 연결을 마친 뒤, 잠깐 기다리고 나서 AP와 제대로 연결되었다는 것을 다음과 같은 방법으로 확인하십시오.
# iwconfig wlan0

출력에 무선 네트워크가 해당 인터페이스와 연결되었다는 것이 나타나야 합니다.

  • 다음과 같이 /sbin/dhcpcd <interface>를 통해 IP 주소를 요청합니다.
# dhcpcd wlan0
  • 마지막으로, /bin/ping를 통해 라우팅이 제대로 되는 것을 확인합니다.
# ping -c 3 www.google.com
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.224.146) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 74.125.224.146: icmp_req=1 ttl=49 time=87.7 ms
64 bytes from 74.125.224.146: icmp_req=2 ttl=49 time=87.0 ms
64 bytes from 74.125.224.146: icmp_req=3 ttl=49 time=94.6 ms

--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2002ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 87.052/89.812/94.634/3.430 ms

이제 무선 연결이 제대로 연결되어 있을 것입니다. 그렇지 않다면, 무선 네트워크 연결페이지에서 상세한 내용을 확인하십시오.

Prepare hard drive

Warning: Partitioning hard drives can destroy data. You are strongly cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.
Note: Use any partitioning tool you prefer, such as GParted or other available tools. The current install media includes the disk partitioning tools fdisk, cfdisk, gdisk, cgdisk, and parted.

If you have already partitioned your hard disk, verify current disk identities and layout by invoking /sbin/fdisk with the -l (lower-case L) switch.

At the root prompt enter:

# fdisk -l

Take note of the disk(s) and/or partition(s) to utilize for the Arch installation. Each partition is identified with a number suffix. Example: sda1 specifies the first partition of a drive while sda designates the entire drive. You may now proceed to Configure block devices, filesystems, and mountpoints.

Note: If you are installing to a USB flash key, see Installing Arch Linux on a USB key.

The remainder of this section shows an example configuration for a beginner's Arch installation and uses the cfdisk partitioning tool. You are not required to use this configuration or this tool; it is presented here only as an example.

For more information on partitioning your hard disk, see Partitioning.

For more information on possible file system types, see File Systems.

Manually partition hard drives

The current install media includes the disk partitioning tools fdisk, cfdisk, gdisk, cgdisk, and parted. gdisk and cgdisk support only GPT partition tables; fdisk and cfdisk support only MBR partition tables; parted supports both. This example uses cfdisk.

Use cfdisk to open the selected target disk for manual partitioning (if you have an SSD drive other choices like gdisk or GNU Parted may be preferable). This example uses the first hard disk, designated sda:

# cfdisk /dev/sda

The example system will contain a 15GB root (/) partition, a 1GB swap partition, and a /home partition for the remaining disk space. It is emphasized again that partitioning is a personal choice and this example is only for illustration.

Choose New -> 'Primary' and enter the desired size (15.44 GB in this example) for the root (/) filesystem. The partition will be put at the beginning of the disk. Select the Type and designate it as 83 Linux. The created / partition will appear as sda1. Thereafter select "Bootable" to flag root as bootable.

Next, create a second partition for swap. Select an appropriate size (~1 GB here) and specify the Type as 82 (Linux swap / Solaris). The created swap partition will appear as sda2.

The remaining space is used to create a third partition for the /home directory. Identify it as a primary partition and set the size. Select the Type as 83 Linux. The created /home partition will appear as sda3.

This is how the example will look:

Name    Flags     Part Type    FS Type           [Label]         Size (MB)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
sda1    Boot       Primary     Linux                             15440       #root
sda2               Primary     Linux swap / Solaris              1024        #swap
sda3               Primary     Linux                             133000      #/home

Choose Write and type yes. Be aware that this operation may destroy data on your disk. Choose Quit to leave the partitioner.

For more information on partitioning your hard disk, see Partitioning.

Note: Since the latest developments of the Linux kernel which include the libata and PATA modules, all IDE, SATA and SCSI drives have adopted the sdx naming scheme. This is perfectly normal and should not be a concern.
Note: If you are using (U)EFI you will most probably need another partition to host the UEFI System partition. Read this article.

Configure block devices, filesystems, and mountpoints

Use the mkfs utility to format the partitions into filesystems. In this example configuration, we are using the ext4 filesystem for both root and home partitions.

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda3

Format and activate the swap partition:

# mkswap /dev/sda2 && swapon /dev/sda2

For more information on possible file system types, see File Systems.

Mount the partitions

Mount the root partition on /mnt.

# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

Create a directory for the /home partition and mount it:

# mkdir /mnt/home && mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/home

Select installation mirror

Before installing, you may want to edit /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist such that your preferred mirror is first. This copy of the mirrorlist will be installed on your new system by pacstrap as well, so it's worth getting it right.

Note: ftp.archlinux.org is throttled to 50KB/s.

Install the base system

The base system is installed using the pacstrap script. A minimal system requires the base package group; also installing the base-devel package group at this time is highly recommended. If you require other packages at this time, simply add them to the pacstrap command.

# pacstrap /mnt base base-devel
  • base: Software packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment.
  • base-devel: Extra tools from [core] such as make, and automake. Most beginners should choose to install it, as it will likely be needed to expand your new system. The base-devel group will be required to install software from the Arch User Repository.

This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using pacman.

Note: If pacman fails to verify your packages, check your system time. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually, or with ntp client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to Time page for more information on correcting system time.

Install a bootloader

Install either syslinux or GRUB2 (you do not need to install both).

Syslinux

# pacstrap /mnt syslinux

GRUB

For BIOS
# pacstrap /mnt grub-bios
For EFI
# pacstrap /mnt grub-efi-x86_64

(in rare cases you will need grub-efi-i386 instead)

Tip: Do not forget to configure the bootloader before you reboot. This is a common beginner's mistake.

Generate fstab

Generate an fstab file with the following command. (If you prefer to use UUIDs or labels, add the -U or -L option, respectively.)

# genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
Note: It is a good idea to check the auto-generated fstab file (/mnt/etc/fstab) before continuing. If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do not run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file. Also, only the "/" partition needs "1" at the end. Everything else should have "2" or "0" (see #Field definitions).

Chroot into system

Next we chroot into our newly installed system.

# arch-chroot /mnt
Tip: If you forgot to install packages with the pacstrap script, you may install them after the chroot with pacman -S <package>

Configure the system

Tip: Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.

At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system.

Configuration files

/etc/rc.conf is the configuration file for Arch's initscripts, and in the past used to also contain configurations for other parts of the system. /etc/rc.conf configures what daemons to start during boot-up and some networking and storage information.

Note: Using the legacy configuration options in /etc/rc.conf for system configuring still works, but is no longer the official way. The new configuration files take precedence over /etc/rc.conf. This change was made to eliminate trivial differences between Arch Linux and other distros, as well as between initscripts and systemd. The table below indicates the files to edit as well as their corresponding legacy etc/rc.conf configuration, but beginners or users performing new installations should ignore the legacy settings, since they are going to be deprecated in the future. See also systemd and rc.conf for a description of the changes.
Note: You may need to create these files.
Configuration Configuration file(s) Legacy /etc/rc.conf section
Hostname /etc/hostname

/etc/hosts

NETWORKING
Console fonts and Keymap /etc/vconsole.conf LOCALIZATION
Locale /etc/locale.conf

/etc/locale.gen

LOCALIZATION
Timezone /etc/timezone

/etc/localtime

LOCALIZATION
Hardware clock /etc/adjtime LOCALIZATION
Kernel modules /etc/modules-load.d/ HARDWARE
Daemons /etc/rc.conf DAEMONS
Wired Network /etc/rc.conf NETWORKING

Hostname

Add your hostname in /etc/hostname. Example:

myhostname

Set it to your liking. This is the name of your computer.

Add also your hostname in /etc/hosts, coinciding with the one specified in /etc/hostname as an alias, so that it looks like this:

127.0.0.1   localhost.localdomain   localhost myhostname
::1         localhost.localdomain   localhost myhostname
Note: ::1 is the IPv6 equivalent of 127.0.0.1
Warning: This format, including the "localhost" and your actual host name, is required for program compatibility. Errors in this entry may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all. This is a very common error for beginners.

If you use a static IP, add another line using the syntax: <static-IP> <hostname.domainname.org> <hostname> e.g.:

192.168.1.100 myhostname.domain.org myhostname
Tip: For convenience, you may also use /etc/hosts aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web, e.g.:
192.168.1.90 media
192.168.1.88 data
The above example would allow you access a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.

Console fonts and keymap

Edit /etc/vconsole.conf.

KEYMAP
The available keymaps are in /usr/share/kbd/keymaps. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or X.
FONT 
Available alternate console fonts reside in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/. The default (blank) is safe.
FONT_MAP 
Defines the console map to load with the setfont program at boot. Possible maps are found in /usr/share/kbd/consoletrans, if needed. The default (blank) is safe.

Example:

KEYMAP=us
FONT=lat9w-16
FONT_MAP=8859-1_to_uni

Timezone

Edit the file /etc/timezone and write your Zone/Subzone. Available time zones and subzones can be found in the /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> directories. Example:

Europe/Minsk

Read man 5 timezone for more options.

Additionaly, create a symbolic link /etc/localtime to the same /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> using this command:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime

Example:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime

Locale

Enable locales

The /usr/sbin/locale-gen command reads from /etc/locale.gen to generate specific locales. They can then be used by glibc and any other locale-aware program or library for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.

By default /etc/locale.gen is an empty file with commented documentation. Once edited, the file remains untouched. locale-gen runs on every glibc upgrade, generating all the locales specified in /etc/locale.gen.

Choose the locale(s) you need by removing the # in front of the lines you want, e.g.:

en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8

Then run:

# locale-gen
Note: If you fail to choose your locale, this will lead to a "The current locale is invalid..." error. This is perhaps the most common mistake by new Arch users.
Setting up system-wide locale

Set locale preferences in /etc/locale.conf. Example:

/etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.UTF-8

Run source /etc/profile.d/locale.sh to load the locale settings for the current shell, or just log in again.

Hardware clock time

This is set in /etc/adjtime. Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems on the same machine. Otherwise, they will overwrite the time and cause clock shifts (which can cause time drift correction to be miscalibrated).

You can generate /etc/adjtime automatically by using one of the following commands.

Note: Make sure HARDWARECLOCK in /etc/rc.conf is not set when using this method.
  • UTC (recommended)
# hwclock --systohc --utc
Note: Using UTC for the hardware clock does not mean time will be displayed in UTC in software.
  • localtime (discouraged) - Used by default in Windows
# hwclock --systohc --localtime
Warning: Using localtime may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for localtime.
Setting time in a Windows dual boot setup

If you are setting up a dual-boot with Windows on your system, you have two options:

  • Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC (a quick registry fix is needed, see this page for instructions). Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time with the Internet, as it will make the hardware clock use localtime again. If you want such functionality (NTP sync), you should use ntpd on your Arch Linux installation instead.
  • Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to localtime and later (in Configure the system) remove hwclock from the DAEMONS array in /etc/rc.conf (Windows will take care of hardware clock corrections).

Kernel modules

Tip: Normally all needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.

Edit /etc/modules-load.d/ to configure kernel modules to load during boot in a static list. Each configuration file is named in the style of /etc/modules-load.d/<program>.conf. The configuration files should simply contain a list of kernel module names to load, separated by newlines. Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is # or ; are ignored. Example:

/etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf
# Load virtio-net.ko at boot
virtio-net

Daemons

Tip: The daemons line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide.

Daemons are programs that run in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A good example is a web server that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g.: httpd) or an SSH server waiting for a user login (e.g.: sshd). While these are full-featured applications, there are also daemons whose work is not that visible. Examples are a daemon which writes messages into a log file (e.g. syslog, metalog), and a daemon which provides a graphical login (e.g.: gdm, kdm).

These programs can be added to the DAEMONS line in /etc/rc.conf and will be started when the system boots. The DAEMONS array simply list the names of those scripts contained in /etc/rc.d/ which are to be started during the boot process, and the order in which they start. Asynchronous initialization by backgrounding is also supported and useful for speeding up boot:

DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)
  • If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed.
  • If a script is prefixed with an "at" symbol (@), it shall be executed in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of each daemon before continuing to the next. (Useful for speeding up system boot). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example mpd depends on network, therefore backgrounding network may cause mpd to break.
  • Edit this array whenever new system services are installed, if starting them automatically during boot is desired.
Tip: A list of available services (and their running status) can be found using this command: rc.d list.

Configure the network

You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described above, except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.

Note: For more in-depth information on network configration, visit configuring network and Wireless setup.

Wired Network

If you only use a single wired network connection, you can use the network daemon, a simple solution for both dynamic and static IP addressing. First, insure that the daemon is listed in the DAEMONS array:

/etc/rc.conf
DAEMONS=(... network ...)

Then configure the NETWORKING section of /etc/rc.conf as follows, depending on your IP addressing type.

Dynamic IP (DHCP)

Assuming the network interface to activate at start is eth0, use this configuration:

interface=eth0
address=
netmask=
gateway=

Your DNS server addresses will be automatically filled in by the dhcpcd daemon.

Static IP

If you need to use a static IP address, use this configuration:

interface=eth0
address=192.168.0.2
netmask=255.255.255.0
broadcast=192.168.0.255
gateway=192.168.0.1

You will also need to add your name servers' (DNS) IP addresses and your local domain name to your /etc/resolv.conf like this:

nameserver 61.23.173.5
nameserver 61.95.849.8
search example.com
Tip: The network daemon is suitable for systems connecting wired to a single network. For multiple network configurations (e.g. using a laptop), it is recommended to use a network manager program, such as netcfg, which has been designed to manage both wired and wireless connections.

Wireless network

The network daemon is not sufficient to handle Wireless networking, which requires additional configuration. You will need to install other programs to configure and manage wireless network profiles, such as netcfg. NetworkManager and Wicd are popular alternatives.

  • Exit the chroot environment:
# exit
  • Install the required packages:
# pacstrap /mnt wireless_tools netcfg
  • If you use WPA/WPA2 wireless encryption, install:
# pacstrap /mnt wpa_supplicant wpa_actiond
# pacstrap /mnt zd1211-firmware
  • Chroot back:
# arch-chroot /mnt
  • Create a network profile for your wireless connection in the /etc/network.d directory:
    • Copy and rename a configuration template from /etc/network.d/examples/ to /etc/network.d/mynetwork (mynetwork being an example; the name is not a network setting and does not need to match the wireless network name (SSID)). These templates are adapted to the type of your wireless connection, such as wireless-wep or wireless-wpa. See Netcfg#Configuration for a list of available templates and their usage.
    • Set INTERFACE to the correct wireless interface. This can be checked with iwconfig.
    • Ensure the ESSID and KEY (passkey) are set correctly for wireless connections. Typos in these fields are common errors.
      • Note that WEP string keys (not hex keys) must be specified with a leading s: (e.g. KEY="s:somepasskey").
      • For WPA-Personal, it is possible to specify the passkey in plain text or as an encoded hex.
  • Add net-auto-wireless to the DAEMONS array in /etc/rc.conf:
/etc/rc.conf
DAEMONS=(... net-auto-wireless ...)

And specify the desired wireless interface with the WIRELESS_INTERFACE variable in /etc/conf.d/netcfg:

/etc/conf.d/netcfg
WIRELESS_INTERFACE="wlan0"

It is also possible to define a list of network profiles that should be automatically connected with the AUTO_PROFILES variable in /etc/conf.d/netcfg. If AUTO_PROFILES is not set, all wireless networks will be tried.

Note: Netcfg also provides other daemons to connect automatically. Refer to the netcfg article for more information.

Create an initial ramdisk environment

Configure /etc/mkinitcpio.conf as needed (see mkinitcpio) and create an initial RAM disk with

# mkinitcpio -p linux
Tip: Most users can simply accept the defaults provided in the /etc/mkinitcpio.conf file.

Configure the bootloader

Note: This step is very important. Forgetting it is a common beginner's mistake.

Syslinux

If you installed syslinux, edit the /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg to point to the right / partition. Then type the following command to install (-i), set boot flag (-a) and install the MBR (-m).

# /usr/sbin/syslinux-install_update -iam

For more information on configuring and using syslinux, see Syslinux.

Grub

If you installed GRUB2, install it to the hard disk containing your boot partition.

# grub-install /dev/sda

To prevent a (harmless) error message at boot time:

# mkdir -p /boot/grub/locale
# cp /usr/share/locale/en\@quot/LC_MESSAGES/grub.mo /boot/grub/locale/en.mo

Create the grub.cfg file.

 # grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

For more information on configuring and using GRUB2, see GRUB2.

Root password

Set a root password with passwd.

Unmount the partitions and reboot

If you are still in the chroot environment then type exit or Ctrl+D in order to exit chroot. Since the partitions are mounted under /mnt, we use the following command to unmount them.

# umount /mnt/{boot,home,}

Exit the install, and reboot:

# reboot
Tip: Be sure to remove the installation media and change the boot preference in your BIOS (if you changed it to install); otherwise you may boot back into the installation media!

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