Difference between revisions of "Beginners' Guide/Installation (Hrvatski)"

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Particioniranje tvrdog diska definira specifična područja (particije) unutar diska koja će se pojedinačno ponašati kao odvojeni diskovi i unutar kojih može biti stvoren (formatiran) datotečni sustav.
 
Particioniranje tvrdog diska definira specifična područja (particije) unutar diska koja će se pojedinačno ponašati kao odvojeni diskovi i unutar kojih može biti stvoren (formatiran) datotečni sustav.
  
Postoje tri trip diskovnih particija:
+
Postoje tri tipa diskovnih particija:
  
 
* Primarna (Primary)
 
* Primarna (Primary)
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Proširene particije nisu iskoristive same po sebi; one su jednostavno ogrtač oko skupine logičkih particija. Tvrdi disk može sadržavati samo jednu proširenu particiju, koja zatim može biti podijeljena na logičke particije. Primijeti da se '''proširena''' particija smatra i '''primarnom''' particijom, tako da stvaranje proširene particije znači da su dostupne još samo tri primarne na tom istom disku. Ipak, najveći broj logičkih particija unutar proširene ne postoji: može ih biti koliko god želiš.
 
Proširene particije nisu iskoristive same po sebi; one su jednostavno ogrtač oko skupine logičkih particija. Tvrdi disk može sadržavati samo jednu proširenu particiju, koja zatim može biti podijeljena na logičke particije. Primijeti da se '''proširena''' particija smatra i '''primarnom''' particijom, tako da stvaranje proširene particije znači da su dostupne još samo tri primarne na tom istom disku. Ipak, najveći broj logičkih particija unutar proširene ne postoji: može ih biti koliko god želiš.
  
=====Swap partition=====
+
=====Swap particija=====
  
A swap partition is a place on the drive where virtual RAM resides, allowing the kernel to easily use disk storage for data that does not fit into physical RAM.
+
Swap particija je mjesto na disku gdje se sprema virtualni RAM, što dopušta kernelu da lako koristi diskovnu pohranu za podatke koji ne stranu u fizički RAM.
  
Historically, the general rule for swap partition size was 2x the amount of physical RAM. Over time, as computers have gained ever larger memory capacities, this rule has become increasingly deprecated. Generally, on machines with up to 512MB RAM, the 2x rule is usually quite sufficient. If the installation machine provides gratuitous amounts of RAM (more than 1024MB) it may be possible to have a smaller swap partition than what the 2x rule indicates, or even to completely forget a swap partition altogether, since the option to create a [[HOW TO: Create swap file|swap file]] is always available later. So, on machines with 2GB RAM or more, you will not normally need to create a swap partition at all.
+
Povijesno, opće pravilo za swap particije je bilo "dva puta veći kapacitet od fizičkog RAM-a". Danas, nakon što su računala poprimila mnogo veće memorijske kapacitete, to pravilo je sve manje i manje korišteno. Na računalima s manje od 512 MB RAM-a, to 2x pravilo je u redu. Ako pak računalo pruža velike količine RAM-a (preko 1024 MB), moguće je imati manju swap particiju ili čak u potpunosti zanemariti stvaranje i korištenje swap particije, pošto je opcija stvaranja [[HOW TO: Create swap file (Hrvatski)|swap datoteke]] uvijek moguća. Na računalima s više od 2 GB RAM-a u pravilu nije uopće potrebno stvarati swap particiju.
  
A 1GB swap partition will be used in this example.
+
U ovom primjeru ćemo koristiti swap particiju kapaciteta 1 GB.
  
{{Note|If using suspend-to-disk (hibernate), a swap partition at least '''equal''' in size to the amount of physical RAM is required. Some Arch users even recommend oversizing it beyond the amount of physical RAM by 10-15%, to allow for possible bad sectors.}}
+
{{Note|Ako koristiš opciju hiberniranja računala, potrebna ti je swap particija barem jednake veličine kao i fizički RAM. Neki Arčeri čak preporučaju učiniti je 10-15% većom, u slučaju loših sektora.}}
  
=====Partition scheme=====
+
=====Particijski raspored=====
  
A disk partitioning scheme is a very personalized preference. Each user's choices will be unique to their own computing habits and requirements. If you would like to dual boot Arch Linux and a Windows operating system please see [[Windows and Arch Dual Boot]].
+
Raspored particija na disku je jedna vrlo osobna stvar koja varira od jednog naprednog korisnika do drugog. Nečiji izbor može ovisiti o potrebama i zahtjevima. Ako želiš dual-bootati Arch Linux i Windows pogledaj [[Windows and Arch Dual Boot (Hrvatski)|Windows i Arch dual-boot]].
  
Filesystem candidates for separate partitions include:
+
Kandidati za posebne particije:
  
 
'''/''' (root) ''The root filesystem is the primary filesystem from which all other filesystems stem; the top of the hierarchy. All files and directories appear under the root directory "/", even if they are stored on different physical devices. The contents of the root filesystem must be adequate to boot, restore, recover, and/or repair the system. Therefore, certain directories under / are not themselves candidates for separate partitions. (See warning below).''
 
'''/''' (root) ''The root filesystem is the primary filesystem from which all other filesystems stem; the top of the hierarchy. All files and directories appear under the root directory "/", even if they are stored on different physical devices. The contents of the root filesystem must be adequate to boot, restore, recover, and/or repair the system. Therefore, certain directories under / are not themselves candidates for separate partitions. (See warning below).''

Revision as of 10:27, 10 October 2011

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Tip: Ovo je dio višestraničnog članka vodiča za početnike. Klikni ovdje ukoliko želiš čitati članak u cijelosti.

Instalacija

Note: Ukoliko pristupaš Internetu putem HTTP ili FTP posrednika te istovremeno želiš koristiti DHCP za konfiguraciju mrežnog sučelja, možda ćeš unutar ljuske morati postaviti varijable okruženja Template:Codeline i/ili Template:Codeline prije pokretanja Template:Codeline kao što je navedeno niže:
export http_proxy=http://<http_adresa_posrednika>:<port_posrednika>
export ftp_proxy=ftp://<ftp_adresa_posrednika>:<port_posrednika>

Kao root, pokreni instalacijsku skriptu s početne virtualne konzole tty1: Template:Cli Na ekranu bi se trebalo prikazati instalacijsko okruženje Arch Linuxa.

Odaberi instalacijski izvor

Nakon pozdrava dobrodošlice, od tebe će se tražiti instalacijski izvor. Odaberi prikladan izvor za željeni tip instalacije. Ukoliko koristiš medij za mrežnu instalaciju (Netinstall), brzine i stanja zrcalnih repozitorija možeš provjeriti ovdje.

  • Ukoliko odabereš jezgrenu instalaciju i želiš koristiti pakete s CD-a, odaberi CD-ROM kao izvor instalacije.
  • Alternativno, ili ukoliko koristiš medij za mrežnu instalaciju, odaberi NET i pogledaj sekciju Konfiguriraj mrežu.

Dijalog odabira izvora će te zatražiti da odabereš repozitorije koje želiš koristiti. U slučaju nedoumice, uz 'core' odaberi 'extra' i 'community' repozitorije. U slučaju da koristiš 64-bitnu instalaciju Archa, za kompatibilnost s nekim 32-bitnim softverom ćeš možda još htjeti uključiti i 'multilib' repozitorij.

Warning: Samo uključi 'testing' repozitorije ukoliko znaš što radiš - korištenje tih repozitorija često stvara probleme. U tom slučaju moraš znati kako unazaditi verzije paketa i ući u svoju Arch instalaciju koristeći interaktivni CD.

Konfiguriraj mrežu (mrežna instalacija)

Imat ćeš priliku ručno učitati mrežne drivere, ukoliko to želiš. UDev je sposoban učitati potrebne module, pa možeš prepostaviti da je to već učinio. Možeš to provjeriti pritiskanjem <Alt>+F3 i pokretanjem ip addr. Kada je to gotovo, vrati se na početnu virtualnu konzolu tty1 pritiskom na <Alt>+F1.

Na idućem ekranu odaberi postavljanje mrežnih opcija Setup Network. Bit će prikazana dostupna sučelja. Ukoliko je navedeno sučelje i HWaddr (HardWare address), tada je tvoj modul već učitan. Ukoliko sučelje nije navedeno, možeš ga pokrenuti unutar instalacije ili ručno putem druge virtualne konzole. Odaberi svoje sučelje za nastavak.

Instalacija će te zatim upitati želiš li koristiti DHCP. Odabiranjem "Yes" će se pokrenuti dhcpcd da otkrije dostupan gateway i zatraži IP-adresu; odabiranjem "No" ćeš morati ručno upisati mrežne postavke poput IP-adrese, maske i DNS-servera. Nakon toga se vraćaš u instalacijski meni mrežne instalacije Net Installation Menu.

Odaberi Choose Mirror te odaberi FTP ili HTTP zrcalni repozitorij. Zatim se vrati na glavni meni.

Tip: Za postizanje najvećih brzina skidanja podataka, valja odabrati zrcalne repozitorije koji su unutar zemlje u kojoj se nalaziš i koji se serviraju putem poslužitelja za koje znaš da su pouzdani (poput sveučilišta).
Note: ftp.archlinux.org je ograničen na 50KB/s i stoga ga valja izbjegavati.
Postavi ADSL most u interaktivnom okruženju (neobavezno)

(Samo ukoliko imaš modem ili usmjeritelj u mostovnom modu rada za spajanje na svog Internet-poslužitelja.)

Skoči na drugu virtualnu konzolu (<Alt>+F2), ulogiraj se kao root i pokreni: Template:Cli

Ako je sve dobro konfigurirano, na kraju ćeš se moći spojiti na svojeg Internet-poslužitelja idućim programom: Template:Cli

Vrati se na prvu virtualnu konzolu (<ALT>+F1) te nastavi s postavljanjem vremena.

Postavi bežičnu mrežu unutar interaktivnog okruženja (neobavezno)

(Samo ukoliko ti je potrebna bežična mreža za nastavak instalacijskog procesa.)

Driveri i uslužni programi za bežičnu mrežu su sada dostupni unutar interaktivnog okruženja instalacijskog medija. Dobro poznavanje bežičnog hardvera će biti ključno za uspješnu konfiguraciju. Primijeti da će iduća brzinska procedura, pokrenuta na ovoj točci instalacije, inicijalizirati tvoj bežični hardver samo tako da bude mogao biti korišten tijekom instalacijskog procesa. Čitavu ćeš proceduru (ili neku sličnu njoj) morati ponoviti jednom kada zaista instaliraš i pokreneš lokalni sustav.

Primijeti i da su ovi koraci neobavezni ukoliko bežična konekcija nije potrebna: bežičnu funkcionalnost uvijek možeš uključiti kasnije.

Note: Idući primjeri koriste wlan0 kao sučelje i "linksys" kao ESSID. Nemoj ih zaboraviti izmijeniti ovisno o svojoj konkretnoj situaciji.

Osnovna je procedura ovakva:

  • Prebaci se na slobodnu virtualnu konzolu, npr. <ALT>+F3
  • Ulogiraj se kao root
  • (neobavezno) Saznaj koje bežično sučelje koristiš:

Template:Cli

  • Pobrini se da je udev učitao driver i da je driver stvorio iskoristivo bežično kernel-sučelje Template:Filename:

Template:Command Template:Codeline je dostupno bežično sučelje u ovom primjeru.

Note: Ako ne vidiš ispis sličan ovome, tada tvoj bežični driver nije učitan. Ako je to slučaj, morat ćeš učitati driver ručno. Pogledaj postavljanje bežične mreže za više informacija.
  • Pokreni sučelje s:

Template:Cli

Malen postotak bežičnih čipseta zahtijevaju i firmware zajedno s odgovarajućim driverom. Ako bežični čipset zahtijeva firmware, vjerojatno ćeš prilikom pokretanja sučelja primiti ovakvu grešku:

Template:Command

U slučaju nedoumice, pokreni Template:Filename da bi potražio zahtjev za firmwareom unutar dnevnika kernela. Primjer ispisa od Intelovog čipseta koji zahtijeva firmware od kernela prilikom pokretanja sustava:

Template:Command

Ako nema takvog ispisa, može se zaključiti da bežični čipset sustava ne zahtijeva firmware.

Note: Paketi firmwarea bežičnih čipseta (za kartice koje ih zahtijevaju) su već instalirane u /lib/firmware unutar interaktivne CD-okoline ali moraju biti eksplicitno instalirani na tvoj stvarni sustav kako bi pružili bežičnu funkcionalnost nakon što ga resetiraš! Izbor paketa i instalacija je obrađena kasnije u ovom vodiču. Pobrini se da instaliraš i bežični modul i bežični firmware prilikom koraka odabiranja paketa! Pogledaj postavljanje bežične mreže u slučaju nedoumica o tome zahtijeva li tvoj čipset instalaciju firmwarea ili ne. To je vrlo čest izvor greški.
  • Ako je ESSID zaboravljen ili nepoznat, iskoristi Template:Filename da bi pretražio obližnje mreže:

Template:Command

  • Ako koristiš WPA enkripciju:

Koristiti WPA enkripciju zahtijeva da ključ bude kriptiran i spremljen u datoteku zajedno s ESSID-om, za kasnije korištenje putem aplikacije Template:Codeline. Zato je potrebno napraviti par dodatnih koraka:

Pošto želimo pojednostaviti i napraviti sigurnosnu pohranu bivših postavki, preimenuj postojeću datoteku Template:Filename: Template:Cli

Koristeći Template:Codeline, upiši ime svoje bežične mreže i WPA ključ koji će biti kriptiran i spremljen u Template:Filename.

Idući primjer kriptira ključ "my_secret_passkey" bežične mreže "linksys", generira novu konfiguracijsku datoteku (Template:Filename) i zapisuje kriptirani ključ u datoteku: Template:Cli

Provjeri WPA Supplicant za više informacija.

Note: Template:Filename je spremljen u obliku običnog teksta. Ovo nije rizik u instalacijskom okruženju, ali nakon pokretanja instaliranog sustava i rekonfiguracije WPA, nemoj zaboraviti promijeniti dopuštenja datoteke Template:Filename (npr. Template:Codeline da je učiniš čitljivom samo administratorskom računu root).
  • Asociraj svoju bežičnu karticu s uređajem pristupne točke kojeg želiš koristiti. Ovisno o tipu enkripcije (bez enkripcije, WEP ili WPA), procedura je drugačija. Moraš znati ime odabrane bežične mreže (ESSID).
Enkripcija Naredba
Bez enkripcije Template:Codeline
WEP s hex ključem Template:Codeline
WEP s ASCII lozinkom Template:Codeline
WPA Template:Codeline
Note: Proces mrežne konekcije može biti automatiziran kasnije koristeći Archev network daemon, netcfg, wicd, ili neki drugi mrežni upravitelj po tvome izboru.
  • Nakon korištenja odgovarajuće metode asocijacije, pričekaj par trenutaka i potvrdi da je asocijacija s uređajem pristupne točke uspješna koristeći iduću naredbu:

Template:Cli Ispis bi trebao pokazati bežičnu mrežu asociranu sa sučeljem.

Template:Cli

  • Za kraj, pobrini se da možeš komunicirati s ostatkom Interneta koristeći Template:Filename:

Template:Command

Sada bi trebala postojati ispravna mrežna konekcija. U slučaju problema pogledaj detaljnu stranicu postavljanja bežične mreže.

Vrati se na tty1 s <ALT>+F1 te nastavi sa postavljanjem hardverskog vremena.

Postavi hardversko vrijeme

Postavi mod rada harverskog sata. Ako odabrani mod ne odgovara postavci drugih postojećih instaliranih operacijskih sustava, prebrisat će ih i uzrokovati pomicanje vremena na tim sustavima.

  • UTC (preporučeno)
Note: Korištenje UTC-a za hardverski sat ne znači da će vrijeme biti prikazano kao UTC u softveru.
  • localtime (ne preporuča se) - Korišteno u Windowsima. Ako je vrijeme postavljeno na localtime, Linux neće primijetiti periode ljetnog računanja vremena.
Warning: Ako koristiš localtime, postoji šansa pojavljivanja nekih poznatih i nepopravljivih bugova.
Note: Bilo koja druga vrijednost rezultirat će u ostavljanju hardverskog sata onakvim kakav jest (što je korisno za virtualizaciju).

Dual boot

Ako dual-bootaš Windowse na svom računalu, imaš dvije opcije:

  • Postavi Arch Linux na localtime, a zatim kasnije (u konfiguraciji sustava) izbaci Template:Codeline iz Template:Filename liste u Template:Filename (Windowsi će se pobrinuti o izmjenama hardverskog sata). Ne preporuča se.
  • Postavi Arch Linux na UTC i natjeraj Windowse da isto koriste UTC (potreban je brza izmjena registryja, pogledaj ovu stranicu za upute). Također, ne dozvoli Windowsima da sinkroniziraju svoje vrijeme s Internetom, jer će to ponovno promijeniti hardverski sat u localtime mod. Ako želiš takvu funkcionalnost (sinkronizaciju s NTP-serverima), možeš koristiti openntpd na svom Arch-sustavu. Preporučeno.

Pripremi tvrdi disk

Warning: Particioniranje tvrdih diskova može uništiti podatke. Strogo je preporučeno da se prije ikakvih daljnjih koraka napravi sigurnosna pohrana svih važnih podataka.
Note: Particioniranje može biti učinjeno prije inicijalizacije instalacije Archa, koristeći GParted ili druge dostupne alate. Ako je ciljni disk već bo particioniran na željeni način, nastavi s postavljanjem montažnih točaka datotečnog sustava.

Verificiraj trenutni disk koristeći Template:Filename s Template:Codeline (malo slovo L) zastavicom.

Otvori novu virtualnu konzolu (<ALT>+F3) i upiši: Template:Cli Zapamti koje ćeš diskove i particije koristiti prilikom instalacije Archa.

Skoči natrag na instalacijsku skriptu (<ALT>+F1).

Odaberi prvi unos u meniju "Prepare Hard Drive".

  • Opcija 1: Automatska priprema (Izbriše ČITAV tvrdi disk i automatski postavi particije)

Automatska priprema dijeli disk prema idućoj konfiguraciji:

  • ext2 /boot particija preporučene veličine 100MB.
  • swap particija preporučene veličine 256MB.
  • Različite / i /home particije, gdje su dostupni datotečni sustavi među ext2, ext3, ext4, reiserfs, xfs i jfs, ali svakako primijeti da i / i /home dijele identičan tip datotečnog sustava ukoliko odabereš automatsku pripremu diska.

Ponavljamo upozorenje: automatska će priprema u potpunosti izbrisati sadržaj odabranog diska. Pažljivo pročitaj upozorenje prikazano u instalacijskom procesu i pobrini se da zaista odabireš željen uređaj.

  • Opcija 2: Ručno particioniranje tvrdih diskova (s cfdisk) - preporučeno.

Ova će opcija dopustiti najdetaljnije rješenje particioniranja za tvoje osobne potrebe.

  • Opcija 3: Ručno konfiguriraj block uređaje, datotečne sustave i montažne točke

Ako je ovo odabrtano, sustav će ispisati koje je datotečne sustave i montažne točke pronašao, a zatim te pitati želiš li ih koristiti.

  • Opcija 4: Obrat zadnjih promjena datotečnog sustava

Na ovoj točci, napredniji korisnici GNU/Linuxa koji su upoznati s ručnim particioniranjem mogu preskočiti niže na odabir paketa.

Note: Ako instaliraš sustav na USB-memoriju, pogledaj ovu stranicu.

Particioniranje tvrdih diskova (opće informacije)

Tip particije

Particioniranje tvrdog diska definira specifična područja (particije) unutar diska koja će se pojedinačno ponašati kao odvojeni diskovi i unutar kojih može biti stvoren (formatiran) datotečni sustav.

Postoje tri tipa diskovnih particija:

  • Primarna (Primary)
  • Proširena (Extended)
    • Logička (Logical)

Primarne particije mogu biti bootabilne i limitirane su na četiri particije po disku ili raid jedinici. Ako shema particioniranja zahtijeva više od četiri particije, potrebno je stvoriti jednu proširenu particiju koja će sadržavati proizvoljan broj logičkih particija.

Proširene particije nisu iskoristive same po sebi; one su jednostavno ogrtač oko skupine logičkih particija. Tvrdi disk može sadržavati samo jednu proširenu particiju, koja zatim može biti podijeljena na logičke particije. Primijeti da se proširena particija smatra i primarnom particijom, tako da stvaranje proširene particije znači da su dostupne još samo tri primarne na tom istom disku. Ipak, najveći broj logičkih particija unutar proširene ne postoji: može ih biti koliko god želiš.

Swap particija

Swap particija je mjesto na disku gdje se sprema virtualni RAM, što dopušta kernelu da lako koristi diskovnu pohranu za podatke koji ne stranu u fizički RAM.

Povijesno, opće pravilo za swap particije je bilo "dva puta veći kapacitet od fizičkog RAM-a". Danas, nakon što su računala poprimila mnogo veće memorijske kapacitete, to pravilo je sve manje i manje korišteno. Na računalima s manje od 512 MB RAM-a, to 2x pravilo je u redu. Ako pak računalo pruža velike količine RAM-a (preko 1024 MB), moguće je imati manju swap particiju ili čak u potpunosti zanemariti stvaranje i korištenje swap particije, pošto je opcija stvaranja swap datoteke uvijek moguća. Na računalima s više od 2 GB RAM-a u pravilu nije uopće potrebno stvarati swap particiju.

U ovom primjeru ćemo koristiti swap particiju kapaciteta 1 GB.

Note: Ako koristiš opciju hiberniranja računala, potrebna ti je swap particija barem jednake veličine kao i fizički RAM. Neki Arčeri čak preporučaju učiniti je 10-15% većom, u slučaju loših sektora.
Particijski raspored

Raspored particija na disku je jedna vrlo osobna stvar koja varira od jednog naprednog korisnika do drugog. Nečiji izbor može ovisiti o potrebama i zahtjevima. Ako želiš dual-bootati Arch Linux i Windows pogledaj Windows i Arch dual-boot.

Kandidati za posebne particije:

/ (root) The root filesystem is the primary filesystem from which all other filesystems stem; the top of the hierarchy. All files and directories appear under the root directory "/", even if they are stored on different physical devices. The contents of the root filesystem must be adequate to boot, restore, recover, and/or repair the system. Therefore, certain directories under / are not themselves candidates for separate partitions. (See warning below).

/boot This directory contains the kernel and ramdisk images as well as the bootloader configuration file, and bootloader stages. /boot also stores data that is used before the kernel begins executing userspace programs. This may include saved master boot sectors and sector map files. /boot is essential for booting, but is unique in that it may still be kept on its own separate partition (if required).

/home Provides subdirectories, each named for a system user, for miscellaneous personal data storage as well as user-specific configuration files for applications.

/usr While root is the primary filesystem, /usr is the secondary hierarchy for all system users' data, including the majority of multi-user utilities and applications. /usr is shareable, read-only data. This means that /usr shall be shareable between various hosts and must not be written to, except in the case of system update/upgrade. Any information that is host-specific or varies with time is stored elsewhere.

Warning: A separate /usr partition will cause some silent failures in udev and will break systemd. source

/tmp directory for programs that require temporary files such as '.lck' files, which can be used to prevent multiple instances of their respective program until a task is completed, at which point the '.lck' file will be removed. Programs must not assume that any files or directories in /tmp are preserved between invocations of the program and files and directories located under /tmp will typically be deleted whenever the system is booted.

/var contains variable data; spool directories and files, administrative and logging data, pacman's cache, the ABS tree, etc. /var exists in order to make it possible to mount /usr as read-only. Everything that historically went into /usr that is written to during system operation (as opposed to installation and software maintenance) must reside under /var.

Warning: Besides /boot, directories essential for booting are: '/bin', '/etc', '/lib', and '/sbin'. Therefore, they must not reside on a separate partition from /.

There are several advantages for using discrete filesystems, rather than combining all into one partition:

  • Security: Each filesystem may be configured in Template:Filename as 'nosuid', 'nodev', 'noexec', 'readonly', etc.
  • Stability: A user, or malfunctioning program can completely fill a filesystem with garbage if they have write permissions for it. Critical programs, which reside on a different filesystem remain unaffected.
  • Speed: A filesystem which gets written too frequently may become somewhat fragmented. (An effective method of avoiding fragmentation is to ensure that each filesystem is never in danger of filling up completely.) Separate filesystems remain unaffected, and each can be defragmented separately as well.
  • Integrity: If one filesystem becomes corrupted, separate filesystems remain unaffected.
  • Versatility: Sharing data across several systems becomes more expedient when independent filesystems are used. Separate filesystem types may also be chosen based upon the nature of data and usage.

In this example, we shall use separate partitions for /, /var, /home, and a swap partition.

Note: Template:Filename contains many small files. This should be taken into consideration when choosing a filesystem type for it (if creating its own separate partition).
How big should my partitions be?

This question is best answered based upon individual needs. You may wish to simply create one partition for root and one partition for swap or only one root partition without swap or refer to the following examples and consider these guidelines to provide a frame of reference:

  • The root filesystem (/) in the example will contain the /usr directory, which can become moderately large, depending upon how much software is installed. 15-20 GB should be sufficient for most users.
  • The /var filesystem will contain, among other data, the ABS tree and the pacman cache. Keeping cached packages is useful and versatile; it provides the ability to downgrade packages if needed. /var tends to grow in size; the pacman cache can grow large over long periods of time, but can be safely cleared if needed. If you are using an SSD, you may wish to locate your /var on an HDD and keep the / and /home partitions on your SSD to avoid needless read/writes to the SSD. 8-12 Gigs on a desktop system should be sufficient for /var, depending largely upon how much software you intend to install. Servers tend to have relatively larger /var filesystems.
  • The /home filesystem is typically where user data, downloads, and multimedia reside. On a desktop system, /home is typically the largest filesystem on the drive by a large margin. Remember that if you chose to reinstall Arch, all the data on your /home partition will be untouched (so long as you have a separate /home partition).
  • An extra 25% of space added to each filesystem will provide a cushion for unforeseen occurrence, expansion, and serve as a preventive against fragmentation.

From the guidelines above, the example system shall contain a ~15GB root (/) partition, ~10GB /var, 1GB swap, and a /home containing the remaining disk space.

Manually Partition Hard Drives (with cfdisk)

Start by creating the primary partition that will contain the root, (/) filesystem.

Choose New -> 'Primary' and enter the desired size for root (/). Put the partition at the beginning of the disk.

Also choose the Type by designating it as '83 Linux'. The created / partition shall appear as sda1 in our example.

Now create a primary partition for /var, designating it as Type '83 Linux'. The created /var partition shall appear as sda2.

Next, create a partition for swap. Select an appropriate size and specify the Type as '82 (Linux swap / Solaris)'. The created swap partition shall appear as sda3.

Lastly, create a partition for your /home directory. Choose another primary partition and set the desired size.

Likewise, select the Type as '83 Linux'. The created /home partition shall appear as sda4.

Example:

Name    Flags     Part Type    FS Type           [Label]         Size (MB)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
sda1               Primary     Linux                             15440 #root
sda2               Primary     Linux                             10256 #/var
sda3               Primary     Linux swap / Solaris              1024  #swap
sda4               Primary     Linux                             140480 #/home

Choose Write and type 'yes'. Beware that this operation may destroy data on your disk. Choose Quit to leave the partitioner. Choose 'Done' to leave this menu and continue with "Set Filesystem Mountpoints".

Note: Since the latest developments of the Linux kernel which include the libata and PATA modules, all IDE, SATA and SCSI drives have adopted the sdx naming scheme. This is perfectly normal and should not be a concern.

Creating filesystems (general information)

Filesystem types

Again, a filesystem type is a very subjective matter which comes down to personal preference. Each has its own advantages, disadvantages, and unique idiosyncrasies. Here is a very brief overview of supported filesystems:

  1. ext2 Second Extended Filesystem- Old, mature GNU/Linux filesystem. Very stable, but without journaling support or barriers, which can result in data loss in a power loss or system crash. May be inconvenient for root (/) and /home, due to very long fsck's. An ext2 filesystem can easily be converted to ext3.
  2. ext3 Third Extended Filesystem- Essentially the ext2 system, but with journaling support and write barriers. ext3 is backward compatible with ext2. Extremely stable and mature.
  3. ext4 Fourth Extended Filesystem- Backward compatible with ext2 and ext3. Introduces support for volumes with sizes up to 1 exabyte and files with sizes up to 16 terabytes. Increases the 32,000 subdirectory limit in ext3 to 64,000. Offers online defragmentation ability.
  4. ReiserFS (V3)- Hans Reiser's high-performance journaling FS uses a very interesting method of data throughput based on an unconventional and creative algorithm. ReiserFS is touted as very fast, especially when dealing with many small files. ReiserFS is fast at formatting, yet comparatively slow at mounting. Quite mature and stable. ReiserFS (V3) is not actively developed at this time. Generally regarded as a good choice for /var.
  5. JFS - IBM's Journaled FileSystem- The first filesystem to offer journaling. JFS had many years of use in the IBM AIX® OS before being ported to GNU/Linux. JFS currently uses the least CPU resources of any GNU/Linux filesystem. Very fast at formatting, mounting and fsck's, and very good all-around performance, especially in conjunction with the deadline I/O scheduler. (See JFS.) Not as widely supported as ext or ReiserFS, but very mature and stable.
  6. XFS - Another early journaling filesystem originally developed by Silicon Graphics for the IRIX OS and ported to GNU/Linux. XFS offers very fast throughput on large files and large filesystems. Very fast at formatting and mounting. Generally benchmarked as slower with many small files, in comparison to other filesystems. XFS is very mature and offers online defragmentation ability.
  7. Btrfs - Also known as "Better FS" is a new filesystem with substantial new and powerful features similar to Sun/Oracle's excellent ZFS. These include snapshots, multi-disk striping and mirroring (basically software raid without mdadm), checksums, incremental backup, and on-the-fly compression (which can give a significant performance boost as well as save space), and more. It is still considered "unstable" as of January 2011, but has been merged into the mainline kernel under experimental status. Btrfs looks to be the future of linux filesystems, and is now offered as a root filesystem choice in all major distribution installers.
Warning: Btrfs has no fsck utility yet, so if any corruption occurs you cannot repair the filesystem.
  • JFS and XFS filesystems cannot be shrunk by disk utilities (such as gparted or parted magic)
A note on journaling

All above filesystems, except ext2, utilize journaling. Journaling file systems are fault-resilient file systems that use a journal to log changes before they are committed to the file system to avoid metadata corruption in the event of a crash. Note that not all journaling techniques are alike; specifically, only ext3 and ext4 offer data-mode journaling, (though, not by default), which journals both data and meta-data (but with a significant speed penalty). The others only offer ordered-mode journaling, which journals meta-data only. While all will return your filesystem to a valid state after recovering from a crash, data-mode journaling offers the greatest protection against file system corruption and data loss but can suffer from performance degradation, as all data is written twice (first to the journal, then to the disk). Depending upon how important your data is, this may be a consideration in choosing your filesystem type.

Manually configure block devices, filesystems and mountpoints

Specify each partition and corresponding mountpoint to your requirements. Recall that partitions end in a number. Therefore, sda is not itself a partition, but rather, signifies an entire drive.

Choose and create the filesystem (format the partition) for / by selecting yes. You will now be prompted to add any additional partitions. In our example, sda2 and sda4 remain. For sda2, choose a filesystem type and mount it as /var. Finally, choose the filesystem type for sda4, and mount it as /home.

Template:Box Note

Return to the Main Menu.

Select Packages

All packages during installation are from the [core] repository. They are further divided into base, and base-devel. Package information and brief descriptions are available here.

First, select the package category:

Note: For expedience, all packages in base are selected by default. Use the space-bar to select and de-select packages.
  • base: Packages from the [core] repo to provide the minimal base environment. Always select this and do not remove any packages from it, as all packages in Arch Linux assume that base is always installed.
  • base-devel: Extra tools from [core] such as Template:Codeline, and Template:Codeline. Most beginners should choose to install it, as many will probably need it later.

After category selection, you will be presented with the full lists of packages, allowing you to fine-tune your selections. Use the space bar to select and unselect.

Note: If connection to a wireless network is required, remember to select and install the wireless_tools package. Some wireless interfaces also need ndiswrapper and/or a specific firmware. If you plan to use WPA encryption, you will need wpa_supplicant. The Wireless Setup page will help you choose the correct packages for your wireless device. Also strongly consider installing netcfg, which will help you set up your network connection and profiles after you reboot into your new system.

After selecting the needed packages, leave the selection screen and continue to the next step, Install Packages.

Install Packages

Install Packages will install the selected packages to your new system. If you selected a CD-ROM/USB as the source, package versions from the CD-ROM/USB will be installed. If you opted for a netinstall, fresh packages will be downloaded from the Internet and installed.

Note: In some installers, you will be asked if you wish to keep the packages in the pacman cache. If you choose "yes", you will have the flexibility to downgrade packages to previous versions in the future, so this is recommended (you can always clear the cache in the future).

Configure the System

Tip: Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.

At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system.

Now you will be asked which text editor you want to use; choose nano, joe or vi. Template:Codeline is generally considered the easiest of the three. Please see the related wiki pages of the editor you wish to use for instructions on how to use them. You will be presented with a menu including the main configuration files for your system.

Note: It is very important at this point to edit, or at least verify by opening, every configuration file. The installer script relies on your input to create these files on your installation. A common error is to skip over these critical steps of configuration.

Can the installer handle this more automatically?

Hiding the process of system configuration is in direct opposition to The Arch Way. While it is true that recent versions of the kernel and hardware probing tools offer excellent hardware support and auto-configuration, Arch presents the user all pertinent configuration files during installation for the purposes of transparency and system resource control. By the time you have finished modifying these files to your specifications, you will have learned the simple method of manual Arch Linux system configuration and become more familiar with the base structure, leaving you better prepared to use and maintain your new installation productively.

/etc/rc.conf

Arch Linux uses the file Template:Filename as the principal location for system configuration. This one file contains a wide range of configuration information, principally used at system startup. As its name directly implies, it also contains settings for and invokes the Template:Filename files, and is, of course, sourced by these files.

LOCALIZATION section
LOCALE
This sets your system locale, which will be used by all i18n-aware applications and utilities. You can get a list of the available locales by running Template:Codeline from the command line. This setting's default is usually fine for US English users. However if you experience any problems such as some characters not printing right and being replaced by squares you may want to go back and replace "en_US.utf8" with just "en_US".
DAEMON_LOCALE
Specifies whether or not to use the daemon locale (with "yes" or "no"). Will use the environment variable $LOCALE as the value of the locale if specified as "yes", otherwise will use the C locale (if left at the default value of "no").
HARDWARECLOCK
Specifies whether the hardware clock, which is synchronized on boot and on shutdown, stores UTC time, or local time. See Set Clock.
TIMEZONE
Specify your time zone. (All available zones are under Template:Filename).
KEYMAP
The available keymaps are in Template:Filename. Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or X.
CONSOLEFONT 
Available console fonts reside under Template:Filename if you must change. The default (blank) is safe.
CONSOLEMAP 
Defines the console map to load with the setfont program at boot. Possible maps are found in Template:Filename, if needed. The default (blank) is safe.
USECOLOR 
Select "yes" if you have a color monitor and wish to have colors in your consoles.

Example for LOCALIZATION:

LOCALE="en_US.utf8"
DAEMON_LOCALE="no"
HARDWARECLOCK="UTC"
TIMEZONE="US/Eastern"
KEYMAP="us"
CONSOLEFONT=
CONSOLEMAP=
USECOLOR="yes"
HARDWARE section
MODULES 
Specify additional MODULES if you know that an important module is missing. For example, if you will be using loopback filesystems, add "loop". Note that normally all needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here.

Example for HARDWARE:

# Scan hardware and load required modules at boot
MODULES=()
NETWORKING section
HOSTNAME
Set your hostname to your liking. This is the name of your computer. Whatever you put here, also put it in Template:Filename.

Example:

HOSTNAME="arch"
interface
Specify the ethernet interface you want to be used for connecting to your local network.
address
If you want to use a static IP for your computer, specify it here. Leave this blank for DHCP.
netmask
Optional, defaults to 255.255.255.0. If you want to use a custom netmask, specify it here. Leave this blank for DHCP.
broadcast
Optional. If you want to use a custom broadcast address, specify it here. Leave this blank for DHCP.
gateway
If you set a static IP in "address", enter the IP address of the default gateway (eg. your modem/router) here. Leave this blank for DHCP.
NETWORK_PERSIST 
Setting this to "yes" will skip network shutdown. This is required if your root device is on NFS.
NETWORKS
This is an optional setting to be enabled only if using the netcfg package with optional dialog package. Enable these netcfg profiles at boot-up. These are useful if you happen to need more advanced network features than the simple network service supports, such as multiple network configurations (ie, laptop users).

Example with Static IP:

HOSTNAME=arch
interface=eth0
address=192.168.1.100
netmask=255.255.255.0
broadcast=192.168.1.255
gateway=192.168.1.1
#NETWORKS=(main)

Example with Dynamic IP (DHCP):

HOSTNAME=arch
interface=eth0
address=
netmask=
broadcast=
gateway=
#NETWORKS=(main)

Other notes

When using a static IP, modify Template:Filename to specify the DNS servers of choice. Please see the section below regarding this file.

Note: Connecting to a wireless network automatically requires a few more steps and may require you to set up a network manager such as netcfg or wicd. Please see the Wireless Setup page for more information
Tip: If using a non-standard MTU size (a.k.a. jumbo frames) is desired AND the installation machine hardware supports them, see the Jumbo Frames wiki article for further configuration.
DAEMONS section

This array simply lists the names of those scripts contained in Template:Filename which are to be started during the boot process, and the order in which they start. Asynchronous initialization by backgrounding is also supported and useful for speeding up boot:

DAEMONS=(network @syslog-ng netfs @crond)
  • If a script name is prefixed with a bang (!), it is not executed.
  • If a script is prefixed with an "at" symbol (@), it shall be executed in the background; the startup sequence will not wait for successful completion of each daemon before continuing to the next. (Useful for speeding up system boot). Do not background daemons that are needed by other daemons. For example "mpd" depends on "network", therefore backgrounding network may cause mpd to break.
  • Edit this array whenever new system services are installed, if starting them automatically during boot is desired.
Note: This "BSD-style" init, is the Arch way of handling what other distributions handle with various symlinks to an /etc/init.d/ directory.
General information

The daemons line need not be changed at this time, but it is useful to explain what daemons are, as they will be addressed later in this guide.

A daemon is a program that runs in the background, waiting for events to occur and offering services. A good example is a web server that waits for a request to deliver a page (e.g.: httpd) or an SSH server waiting for a user login (e.g.: sshd). While these are full-featured applications, there are also daemons whose work is not that visible. Examples are a daemon which writes messages into a log file (e.g. syslog, metalog), and a daemon which provides a graphical login (e.g.: gdm, kdm). All these programs can be added to the daemons line and will be started when the system boots. Useful daemons will be presented during this guide.

Tip: All Arch daemon scripts reside under /etc/rc.d/

/etc/fstab

The fstab (for file systems table) is part of the system configuration listing all available disks and disk partitions, and indicating how they are to be initialized or otherwise integrated into the overall system's filesystem. The Template:Filename file is most commonly used by the mount command. The mount command takes a filesystem on a device, and adds it to the main system hierarchy that you see when you use your system. mount -a is called from Template:Filename, about 3/4 of the way through the boot process, and reads Template:Filename to determine which options should be used when mounting the specified devices therein. If noauto is appended to a filesystem in Template:Filename, mount -a will not mount it at boot.

An example of Template:Filename

# <file system>                            <dir>     <type>  <options>            <dump> <pass>
shm                                        /dev/shm  tmpfs   nodev,nosuid         0      0
tmpfs                                      /tmp      tmpfs   nodev,noexec,nosuid  0      0
UUID=0ddfbb25-9b00-4143-b458-bc0c45de47a0  /         ext4    defaults             0      1
UUID=da6e64c6-f524-4978-971e-a3f5bd3c2c7b  /var      ext4    defaults             0      2
UUID=440b5c2d-9926-49ae-80fd-8d4b129f330b  none      swap    defaults             0      0
UUID=95783956-c4c6-4fe7-9de6-1883a92c2cc8  /home     ext4    defaults             0      2
Note: See the fstab article for more information and performance tweaks such as "noatime" or "relatime".
<file system>
Describes the block device or remote filesystem to be mounted. For regular mounts, this field will contain a link to a block device node (as created by mknod which is called by udev at boot) for the device to be mounted; for instance, Template:Filename or Template:Filename.
Note: If your system has more than one hard drive, the installer will default to using UUID rather than the sdx naming scheme, for consistent device mapping. Utilizing UUID has several advantages and may also be preferred to avoid issues if hard disks are added to the system in the future. Due to active developments in the kernel and also udev, the ordering in which drivers for storage controllers are loaded may change randomly, yielding an unbootable system/kernel panic. Nearly every motherboard has several controllers (onboard SATA, onboard IDE), and due to the aforementioned development updates, Template:Filename may become Template:Filename on the next reboot. For more information, see Persistent block device naming.
<dir>
Describes the mount point for the filesystem. For swap partitions, this field should be specified as 'none'; (Swap partitions are not actually mounted.)
<type>
Describes the type of the filesystem. The Linux kernel supports many filesystem types. (For the filesystems currently supported by the running kernel, see Template:Filename). An entry 'swap' denotes a file or partition to be used for swapping. An entry 'ignore' causes the line to be ignored. This is useful to show disk partitions which are currently unused.
<options>
Describes the mount options associated with the filesystem. It is formatted as a comma-separated list of options with no intervening spaces. It contains at least the type of mount plus any additional options appropriate to the filesystem type. For documentation on the available options for non-nfs file systems, see mount(8).
<dump>
Used by the dump(8) command to determine which filesystems are to be dumped. dump is a backup utility. If the fifth field is not present, a value of zero is returned and dump will assume that the filesystem does not need to be backed up. Note that dump is not installed by default.
<pass>
Used by the fsck(8) program to determine the order in which filesystem checks are done at boot time. The root filesystem should have the highest priority with <pass> of 1, and other filesystems you want to have checked should have a <pass> of 2. Filesystems with 0 <pass> will not be checked. Filesystems within a drive will be checked sequentially, but filesystems on different drives will be checked at the same time to utilize parallelism available in the hardware. If the sixth field is not present or zero, a value of zero is returned and fsck will assume that the filesystem does not need to be checked.
  • For more information, see fstab.

/etc/mkinitcpio.conf

Note: Most users will not need to modify this file at this time, but please read the following explanatory information.

This file allows further fine-tuning of the initial ram filesystem, or initramfs, (also historically referred to as the initial ramdisk or "initrd") for your system. The initramfs is a gzipped image that is read by the kernel during boot. The purpose of the initramfs is to bootstrap the system to the point where it can access the root filesystem. This means it has to load any modules that are required for devices like IDE, SCSI, or SATA drives (or USB/FW, if you are booting from a USB/FW drive). Once the initrramfs loads the proper modules, either manually or through udev, it passes control to the kernel and your boot continues. For this reason, the initramfs only needs to contain the modules necessary to access the root filesystem. It does not need to contain every module you would ever want to use. The majority of common kernel modules will be loaded later on by udev, during the init process.

mkinitcpio is the next generation of initramfs creation. It has many advantages over the old mkinitrd and mkinitramfs scripts.

  • It uses glibc and busybox to provide a small and lightweight base for early userspace.
  • It can use udev for hardware autodetection at runtime, thus preventing numerous unnecessary modules from being loaded.
  • Its hook-based init script is easily extendable with custom hooks, which can easily be included in pacman packages without having to modifiy mkinitcpio itself.
  • It already supports lvm2, dm-crypt for both legacy and luks volumes, raid, swsusp and TuxOnIce resuming and booting from usb mass storage devices.
  • Many features can be configured from the kernel command line without having to rebuild the image.
  • The mkinitcpio script makes it possible to include the image in a kernel, thus making a self-contained kernel image is possible.
  • Its flexibility makes recompiling a kernel unnecessary in many cases.

If using RAID or LVM on the root filesystem, the appropriate HOOKS must be configured. See the wiki pages for LVM/RAID and Configuring mkinitcpio for more information. If using a non-US keyboard. add the Template:Codeline hook to load your local keymap during boot. Add the Template:Codeline hook if using a USB keyboard (otherwise, if boot fails for some reason you will be asked to enter root's password for system maintenance but will be unable to do so). Remember to add the Template:Codeline hook when installing arch on an external hard drive, Comfact Flash, or SD card, which is connected via usb, e.g.:

HOOKS="base udev autodetect pata scsi sata usb filesystems keymap usbinput"

If you need support for booting from USB devices, FireWire devices, PCMCIA devices, NFS shares, software RAID arrays, LVM2 volumes, encrypted volumes, or DSDT support, configure your HOOKS accordingly.

/etc/modprobe.d/modprobe.conf

This file can be used to set special configuration options for the kernel modules. It is unnecessary to configure this file in the example. The article on kernel modules has more information.

/etc/resolv.conf

Note: If you are using DHCP, you may safely ignore this file, as by default, it will be dynamically created and destroyed by the dhcpcd daemon. You may change this default behavior if you wish. See the network and resolv.conf pages for more information.

The resolver is a set of routines in the C library that provide access to the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). One of the main functions of DNS is to translate domain names into IP addresses, to make the Web a friendlier place. The resolver configuration file, or Template:Filename, contains information that is read by the resolver routines the first time they are invoked by a process.

If you use a static IP, set your DNS servers in Template:Filename (nameserver <ip-address>). You may have as many as you wish.

An example, using OpenDNS:

nameserver 208.67.222.222
nameserver 208.67.220.220

If you are using a router, you may specify your DNS servers in the router itself, and merely point to it from your Template:Filename, using your router's IP (which is also your gateway from Template:Filename). Example:

nameserver 192.168.1.1

If using DHCP, you may also specify your DNS servers in the router, or allow automatic assignment from your ISP, if your ISP is so equipped.

/etc/hosts

This file associates IP addresses with hostnames and aliases, one line per IP address. For each host a single line should be present with the following information:

<IP-address> <hostname> [aliases...]

Add your hostname, coinciding with the one specified in Template:Filename, as an alias, so that it looks like this:

127.0.0.1   localhost.localdomain   localhost yourhostname
Warning: This format, including the "localhost" and your actual host name, is required for program compatibility! So, if you have named your computer "arch", then that line above should look like this:
127.0.0.1   localhost.localdomain   localhost arch
Errors in this entry may cause poor network performance and/or certain programs to open very slowly, or not work at all. This is a very common error for beginners.
Note: Recent versions of the Arch Linux Installer automatically add your hostname to this file once you edit Template:Filename with such information. If, for whatever reason, this is not the case, you may add it yourself with the given instructions.

If you use a static IP, add another line using the syntax: <static-IP> <hostname.domainname.org> <hostname> e.g.:

192.168.1.100 yourhostname.domain.org  yourhostname
Tip: For convenience, you may also use Template:Filename aliases for hosts on your network, and/or on the Web, e.g.:
192.168.1.90 media
192.168.1.88 data
The above example would allow you access a media and data server on your network by name and without the need for typing out their respective IP addresses.

/etc/locale.gen

The Template:Filename command reads from Template:Filename to generate specific locales. They can then be used by glibc and any other locale-aware program or library for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.

By default Template:Filename is an empty file with commented documentation. Once edited, the file remains untouched. Template:Codeline runs on every glibc upgrade, generating all the locales specified in Template:Filename.

Choose the locale(s) you need by removing the # in front of the lines you want, e.g.:

en_US ISO-8859-1
en_US.UTF-8

The installer will now run the locale-gen script, which will generate the locales you specified. You may change your locale in the future by editing Template:Filename and subsequently running Template:Codeline as root.

Note: If you fail to choose your locale, this will lead to a "The current locale is invalid..." error. This is perhaps the most common mistake by new Arch users.

Pacman Mirror

Choose a mirror repository for Template:Codeline. Remember that archlinux.org is throttled, limiting downloads to 50KB/s. Check Mirrors for more details about selecting a pacman mirror. Note that the mirror chosen here will carry over into your installation.

Root password

Finally, set a root password and make sure that you remember it later. Return to the Main Menu and continue with Installing Bootloader.

Done

When you select "Done", the system will rebuild the images and put you back to the Main Menu. This may take some time.

Install Bootloader

Because we have no secondary operating system in our example, we will need a bootloader. GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader) will be used in the following examples. Alternatively, you may choose LILO, Syslinux or GRUB2. Please see the related wiki and documentation pages if you choose to use a bootloader other than GRUB.

The provided GRUB configuration (Template:Filename) should be sufficient, but verify its contents to ensure accuracy (specifically, ensure that the root (/) partition is specified by UUID on line 3). You may want to alter the resolution of the console by adding a vga=<number> kernel argument corresponding to your desired virtual console resolution. (A table of resolutions and the corresponding numbers is printed in the Template:Filename.)

Explanation:

title
A printed menu selection. "Arch Linux (Main)" will be printed on the screen as a menu selection.
root
GRUB's root; the drive and partition where the kernel (/boot) resides, according to system BIOS. (More accurately, where GRUB's stage2 file resides). NOT necessarily the root (/) file system, as they can reside on separate partitions. GRUB's numbering scheme starts at 0, and uses an hdx,x format regardless of IDE or SATA, and enclosed within parentheses. The example indicates that /boot is on the first partition of the first drive, according to the BIOS, so (hd0,0).
kernel
This line specifies:
  • The path and filename of the kernel relative to GRUB's root. In the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and vmlinuz-linux is the kernel filename; Template:Filename. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply Template:Filename, being relative to GRUB's root.
  • The Template:Codeline argument to the kernel statement specifies the partition containing the root (/) directory in the booted system, (more accurately, the partition containing Template:Filename). An easy way to distinguish the 2 appearances of "root" in Template:Filename is to remember that the first root statement informs GRUB where the kernel resides, whereas the second Template:Codeline kernel argument tells the kernel where the root filesystem (/) resides.
  • Kernel options: In our example, ro mounts the filesystem as read-only during startup, which is usually a safe default; you may wish to change this in case it causes problems booting. quiet sets the default kernel log level so that all messages during boot are suppressed except serious ones. Depending on hardware, rootdelay=8 may need to be added to the kernel options in order to be able to boot from an external usb hard drive.
initrd
The path and filename of the initial RAM filesystem relative to GRUB's root. Again, in the example, /boot is merely a directory residing on the same partition as / and initramfs-linux.img is the initrd filename; Template:Filename. If /boot were on a separate partition, the path and filename would be simply /initramfs-linux.img, being relative to GRUB's root.

Example:

title  Arch Linux (Main)
root   (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda1 ro quiet
initrd /boot/initramfs-linux.img

Example for /boot on a separate partition:

title  Arch Linux (Main)
root   (hd0,0)
kernel /vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/sda3 ro quiet
initrd /initramfs-linux.img

Install the GRUB bootloader to the Master Boot Record (/dev/sda in our example).

Warning: Make sure to install GRUB on /dev/sdX and not /dev/sdX#! This is a common mistake.
Tip: For more details, see the GRUB wiki page.

Reboot

That is it; You have configured and installed your Arch Linux base system. Exit the install, and reboot: Template:Cli

Tip: Be sure to remove the installation media and perhaps change the boot preference in your BIOS; otherwise you may boot back into the installation!