Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide/Post-installation"

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#REDIRECT [[General recommendations]]
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
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{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. [[Beginners' Guide|Click here]] if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
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</noinclude>
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== Post-installation ==
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Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready to be built into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. Most people are interested in a desktop system, complete with sound and graphics: this part of the guide provides a brief overview of the procedures to acquire these extras.
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=== User management ===
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Add any user accounts you require besides root, as described in [[Users and Groups#User management|User management]]. It isn't good practice to use the root account for regular use, or expose it via [[SSH]] on a server. The root account should only be used for administrative tasks.
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=== Package management ===
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See [[pacman]] and [[FAQ#Package Management]] for answers regarding installing, updating, and managing packages.
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=== Service management ===
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Arch Linux uses [[systemd]] as init, which is a system and service manager for Linux. For maintaining your Arch Linux installation, it is a good idea to learn the basics about it. Interaction with systemd is done through the {{ic|systemctl}} command. Read [[systemd#Basic systemctl usage]] for more information.
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=== Sound ===
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[[ALSA]] usually works out-of-the-box. It just needs to be unmuted. Install {{Pkg|alsa-utils}} (which contains {{ic|alsamixer}}) and follow [[Advanced Linux Sound Architecture#Unmuting the channels|these]] instructions.
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ALSA is included with the kernel and it is recommended. If it does not work, [[OSS]] is a viable alternative. If you have advanced audio requirements, take a look at [[Sound system]] for an overview of various articles.
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=== '''G'''raphical '''U'''ser '''I'''nterface ===
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==== Install X ====
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The [[Wikipedia:X Window System|X Window System]] (commonly '''X11''', or '''X''') is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
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To install the base [[Xorg]] packages:
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# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils
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Install [[Wikipedia:Mesa (computer graphics)|mesa]] for 3D support:
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# pacman -S mesa
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==== Install a video driver ====
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{{Note|If you installed Arch as a VirtualBox guest, you don't need to install a video driver. See [[VirtualBox#Arch Linux guests|Arch Linux guests]] for installing and setting up Guest Additions, and jump to the [[#Configure X|configuration]] part below.}}
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The Linux kernel includes open-source video drivers and support for hardware accelerated framebuffers. However, userland support is required for OpenGL and 2D acceleration in X11.
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If you don't know which video chipset is available on your machine, run:
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$ lspci | grep VGA
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For a complete list of open-source video drivers, search the package database:
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$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less
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The {{ic|vesa}} driver is a generic mode-setting driver that will work with almost every GPU, but will not provide any 2D or 3D acceleration. If a better driver cannot be found or fails to load, Xorg will fall back to vesa. To install it:
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# pacman -S xf86-video-vesa
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In order for video acceleration to work, and often to expose all the modes that the GPU can set, a proper video driver is required:
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{| class="wikitable"  style="text-align:center"
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|-
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! Brand !! Type !! Driver !! [[Multilib]] Package<br><span style="font-weight: normal;">(for 32-bit applications on Arch x86_64)</span> !! Documentation
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|-
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| rowspan="2" bgcolor=#f7e3e3| '''<span style="color: #e62c2c;">AMD/ATI</span>'''
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| Open source || {{Pkg|xf86-video-ati}} || {{Pkg|lib32-ati-dri}} || [[ATI]]
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|-
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| Proprietary || {{Pkg|catalyst-dkms}} || {{Pkg|lib32-catalyst-utils}} || [[AMD Catalyst]]
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|-
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| bgcolor=#e3ecf7| '''<span style="color: #2a6dc8;">Intel</span>'''
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| Open source
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| {{Pkg|xf86-video-intel}} || {{Pkg|lib32-intel-dri}} || [[Intel Graphics]]
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|-
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| rowspan="4" bgcolor=#e3f7e6| '''<span style="color: #409044;">Nvidia</span>'''
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| rowspan="2"| Open source
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| {{Pkg|xf86-video-nouveau}} || {{Pkg|lib32-nouveau-dri}} || [[Nouveau]]
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|-
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| {{Pkg|xf86-video-nv}} || – || (legacy driver)
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|-
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| rowspan="2"| Proprietary || {{Pkg|nvidia}} || {{Pkg|lib32-nvidia-utils}} || rowspan="2"| [[NVIDIA]]
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|-
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| {{Pkg|nvidia-304xx}} || {{Pkg|lib32-nvidia-304xx-utils}}
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|}
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==== Install input drivers ====
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Udev should be capable of detecting your hardware without problems. The {{ic|evdev}} driver ({{Pkg|xf86-input-evdev}}) is the modern hot-plugging input driver for almost all devices, so in most cases, installing input drivers is not needed. At this point, {{ic|evdev}} has already been installed as a dependency of the {{Pkg|xorg-server}} package.
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Laptop users (or users with a tactile screen) will need the {{Pkg|xf86-input-synaptics}} package for the touchpad/touchscreen to work:
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# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics
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For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad issues, see the [[Touchpad Synaptics]] article.
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==== Configure X ====
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{{Warning|Proprietary drivers usually require a reboot after installation. See [[NVIDIA]] or [[AMD Catalyst]] for details.}}
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Xorg features auto-detection and therefore can function without an {{ic|xorg.conf}}. If you still wish to manually configure X Server, please see the [[Xorg]] wiki page.
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Here you may set a [[Xorg#Setting keyboard layout with hot-plugging|keyboard layout]] if you do not use a standard [[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard.
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{{Note|The {{ic|XkbLayout}} key may differ from the keymap code you used with the {{ic|loadkeys}} command. A list of many keyboard layouts and variants can be found in {{ic|/usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst}} (after the line beginning with {{ic|! layout}}). For instance, the layout {{ic|gb}} corresponds to "English (UK)", whereas for the console it was {{ic|loadkeys uk}}.}}
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==== Test X ====
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{{Tip|These steps are optional. Test only if you're installing Arch Linux for the first time, or if you're installing on new and unfamiliar hardware.}}
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{{Note|If your input devices are not working during this test, install the needed driver from the {{Grp|xorg-drivers}} group, and try again. For a complete list of available input drivers, invoke a pacman search (press {{Keypress|Q}} to exit):
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$ pacman -Ss xf86-input <nowiki>|</nowiki> less
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You only need {{Pkg|xf86-input-keyboard}} or {{Pkg|xf86-input-mouse}} if you plan on disabling [[Wikipedia:Hot-plugging|hot-plugging]], otherwise, {{ic|evdev}} will act as the input driver (recommended).}}
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Install the default environment:
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# pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm
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If Xorg was installed before creating the non-root user, there will be a template {{ic|.xinitrc}} file in your home directory that needs to be either deleted or commented out. Simply deleting it will cause '''X''' to run with the default environment installed above.
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$ rm ~/.xinitrc
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{{Note|X must always be run on the same tty where the login occurred, to preserve the logind session. This is handled by the default {{ic|/etc/X11/xinit/xserverrc}}.}}
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To start the (test) Xorg session, run:
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$ startx
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A few movable windows should show up, and your mouse should work. Once you are satisfied that '''X''' installation was a success, you may exit out of '''X''' by issuing the {{ic|exit}} command into the prompts until you return to the console.
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$ exit
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If the screen goes black, you may still attempt to switch to a different virtual console (e.g. {{Keypress|Ctrl+Alt+F2}}), and blindly log in as root. You can do this by typing "root" (press {{Keypress|Enter}} after typing it) and entering the root password (again, press {{Keypress|Enter}} after typing it).
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You may also attempt to kill the '''X''' server with:
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# pkill X
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If this does not work, reboot blindly with:
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# reboot
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===== Troubleshooting =====
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If a problem occurs, look for errors in {{ic|Xorg.0.log}}. Be on the lookout for any lines beginning with {{ic|(EE)}} which represent errors, and also {{ic|(WW)}} which are warnings that could indicate other issues.
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$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log
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If you are still having trouble after consulting the [[Xorg]] article and need assistance via the Arch Linux forums or the IRC channel, be sure to install and use {{Pkg|wgetpaste}} by providing the links from:
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# pacman -S wgetpaste
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$ wgetpaste ~/.xinitrc
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$ wgetpaste /etc/X11/xorg.conf
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$ wgetpaste /var/log/Xorg.0.log
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{{Note|Please provide all pertinent information (hardware, driver information, etc) when asking for assistance.}}
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==== Fonts ====
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You may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. DejaVu is a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts with good [[Wikipedia:Unicode|Unicode]] coverage:
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# pacman -S ttf-dejavu
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Refer to [[Font Configuration]] for how to configure font rendering and [[Fonts]] for font suggestions and installation instructions.
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==== Choose and install a graphical interface ====
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The X Window System provides the basic framework for building a graphical user interface (GUI).
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{{Note|Choosing your DE or WM is a very subjective and personal decision. Choose the best environment for ''your'' needs. You can also build your own DE with just a WM and the applications of your choice.}}
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* [[Window_Manager|Window Managers]] (WM) control the placement and appearance of application windows in conjunction with the X Window System.
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* [[Desktop_Environment|Desktop Environments]] (DE) work atop and in conjunction with X, to provide a completely functional and dynamic GUI. A DE typically provides a window manager, icons, applets, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, a suite of applications and abilities like drag and drop.
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Instead of starting X manually with {{ic|xorg-xinit}}, see [[Display Manager]] for instructions on using a display manager, or see [[Start X at Login]] for using an existing virtual terminal as an equivalent to a display manager.
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== Appendix ==
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For a list of applications that may be of interest, see [[List of Applications]].
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See [[General Recommendations]] for post-installation tutorials like setting up a touchpad or font rendering.
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<noinclude>{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>
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Latest revision as of 03:25, 12 April 2014