Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide/Post-installation"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
m (fixed broken template)
(better redirect)
(56 intermediate revisions by 12 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
#REDIRECT [[General recommendations]]
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
[[Category:About Arch]]
[[ar:Beginners' Guide/Post-installation]]
[[es:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[hr:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[hu:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[it:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[ja:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[ko:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[pl:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[pt:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor/Extra]]
[[ru:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[sr:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
[[zh-CN:Beginners' Guide/Post-installation]]
[[zh-TW:Beginners' Guide/Extra]]
{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. [[Beginners' Guide|Click here]] if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
== Post-installation ==
Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready to be built into whatever you wish or require for your purposes.
=== User management ===
Add any user accounts you require besides root, as described in [[Users and Groups#User management|User management]]. It is not good practice to use the root account for regular use, or expose it via [[SSH]] on a server. The root account should only be used for administrative tasks.
=== Package management ===
Pacman is the Arch Linux '''pac'''kage '''man'''ager. See [[pacman]] and [[FAQ#Package Management]] for answers regarding installing, updating, and managing packages.
Because of [[The Arch Way#Code-correctness over convenience]] it is imperative to keep up to date with changes in Arch Linux that require manual intervention  '''before''' upgrading your system.
Check the front page [https://www.archlinux.org/ Arch news] and subscribe to the [https://mailman.archlinux.org/mailman/listinfo/arch-announce/ arch-announce mailing list].  Alternatively, you may find it useful to subscribe to [https://www.archlinux.org/feeds/news/ this RSS feed] or follow [https://twitter.com/archlinux @archlinux] on Twitter.
If you installed Arch Linux x86_64, you may want to [[multilib|enable the [multilib] repository]] if you plan on using 32-bit applications.
See [[Official Repositories]] for details about the purpose of each repository.
=== Service management ===
Arch Linux uses [[systemd]] as init, which is a system and service manager for Linux. For maintaining your Arch Linux installation, it is a good idea to learn the basics about it. Interaction with systemd is done through the {{ic|systemctl}} command. Read [[systemd#Basic systemctl usage]] for more information.
=== Sound ===
[[ALSA]] usually works out-of-the-box. It just needs to be unmuted. Install {{Pkg|alsa-utils}} (which contains {{ic|alsamixer}}) and follow [[Advanced Linux Sound Architecture#Unmuting the channels|these]] instructions.
ALSA is included with the kernel and it is recommended. If it does not work, [[OSS]] is a viable alternative. If you have advanced audio requirements, take a look at [[Sound system]] for an overview of various articles.
=== '''G'''raphical '''U'''ser '''I'''nterface ===
==== Install X ====
The [[Wikipedia:X Window System|X Window System]] (commonly '''X11''', or '''X''') is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
To install the base [[Xorg]] packages:
# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-server-utils xorg-xinit
Install [[Wikipedia:Mesa (computer graphics)|mesa]] for 3D support:
# pacman -S mesa
==== Install a video driver ====
{{Note|If you installed Arch as a VirtualBox guest, you do not need to install a video driver. See [[VirtualBox#Arch Linux guests|Arch Linux guests]] for installing and setting up Guest Additions, and jump to the [[#Configure X|configuration]] part below.}}
The Linux kernel includes open-source video drivers and support for hardware accelerated framebuffers. However, userland support is required for OpenGL and 2D acceleration in X11.
If you do not know which video chipset is available on your machine, run:
$ lspci | grep VGA
For a complete list of open-source video drivers, search the package database:
$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less
The {{ic|vesa}} driver is a generic mode-setting driver that will work with almost every GPU, but will not provide any 2D or 3D acceleration. If a better driver cannot be found or fails to load, Xorg will fall back to vesa. To install it:
# pacman -S xf86-video-vesa
In order for video acceleration to work, and often to expose all the modes that the GPU can set, a proper video driver is required:
{| class="wikitable"  style="text-align:center"
! Brand !! Type !! Driver !! [[Multilib]] Package<br><span style="font-weight: normal; font-size: 0.8em;">(for 32-bit applications on Arch x86_64)</span> !! &nbsp;Documentation&nbsp;
| rowspan="2" bgcolor=#f7e3e3| '''<span style="color: #e62c2c;">&nbsp;AMD/ATI&nbsp;</span>'''
| &nbsp;Open source&nbsp; || {{Pkg|xf86-video-ati}} || {{Pkg|lib32-ati-dri}} || [[ATI]]
| Proprietary || {{Pkg|catalyst-dkms}} || {{Pkg|lib32-catalyst-utils}} || [[AMD Catalyst]]
| bgcolor=#e3ecf7| '''<span style="color: #2a6dc8;">Intel</span>'''
| Open source
| {{Pkg|xf86-video-intel}} || {{Pkg|lib32-intel-dri}} || [[Intel Graphics]]
| rowspan="4" bgcolor=#e3f7e6| '''<span style="color: #409044;">Nvidia</span>'''
| rowspan="2"| Open source
| {{Pkg|xf86-video-nouveau}} || {{Pkg|lib32-nouveau-dri}} || [[Nouveau]]
| {{Pkg|xf86-video-nv}} || – || <span style="font-size: 0.9em;">(legacy driver)</span>
| rowspan="2"| Proprietary || {{Pkg|nvidia}} || {{Pkg|lib32-nvidia-libgl}} || rowspan="2"| [[NVIDIA]]
| {{Pkg|nvidia-304xx}} || {{Pkg|lib32-nvidia-304xx-utils}}
==== Install input drivers ====
Udev should be capable of detecting your hardware without problems. The {{ic|evdev}} driver ({{Pkg|xf86-input-evdev}}) is the modern hot-plugging input driver for almost all devices, so in most cases, installing input drivers is not needed. At this point, {{ic|evdev}} has already been installed as a dependency of the {{Pkg|xorg-server}} package.
Laptop users (or users with a tactile screen) will need the {{Pkg|xf86-input-synaptics}} package for the touchpad/touchscreen to work:
# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics
For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad issues, see the [[Touchpad Synaptics]] article.
==== Configure X ====
{{Warning|Proprietary drivers usually require a reboot after installation. See [[NVIDIA]] or [[AMD Catalyst]] for details.}}
Xorg features auto-detection and therefore can function without an {{ic|xorg.conf}}. If you still wish to manually configure X Server, please see the [[Xorg]] wiki page.
Here you may set a [[Xorg#Setting keyboard layout with hot-plugging|keyboard layout]] if you do not use a standard [[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard.
{{Note|The {{ic|XkbLayout}} key may differ from the keymap code you used with the {{ic|loadkeys}} command. A list of many keyboard layouts and variants can be found in {{ic|/usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst}} (after the line beginning with {{ic|! layout}}). For instance, the layout {{ic|gb}} corresponds to "English (UK)", whereas for the console it was {{ic|loadkeys uk}}.}}
==== Test X ====
{{Tip|These steps are optional. Test only if you are installing Arch Linux for the first time, or if you are installing on new and unfamiliar hardware.}}
{{Note|If your input devices are not working during this test, install the needed driver from the {{Grp|xorg-drivers}} group, and try again. For a complete list of available input drivers, invoke a pacman search (press {{ic|Q}} to exit):
$ pacman -Ss xf86-input <nowiki>|</nowiki> less
You only need {{Pkg|xf86-input-keyboard}} or {{Pkg|xf86-input-mouse}} if you plan on disabling [[Wikipedia:Hot-plugging|hot-plugging]], otherwise, {{ic|evdev}} will act as the input driver (recommended).}}
Install the default environment:
# pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm
If Xorg was installed before creating the non-root user, there will be a template {{ic|.xinitrc}} file in your home directory that needs to be either deleted or commented out. Simply deleting it will cause '''X''' to run with the default environment installed above.
$ rm ~/.xinitrc
{{Note|X must always be run on the same tty where the login occurred, to preserve the logind session. This is handled by the default {{ic|/etc/X11/xinit/xserverrc}}.}}
To start the (test) Xorg session, run:
$ startx
A few movable windows should show up, and your mouse should work. Once you are satisfied that '''X''' installation was a success, you may exit out of '''X''' by issuing the {{ic|exit}} command into the prompts until you return to the console.
$ exit
If the screen goes black, you may still attempt to switch to a different virtual console (e.g. {{ic|Ctrl+Alt+F2}}), and blindly log in as root. You can do this by typing "root" (press {{ic|Enter}} after typing it) and entering the root password (again, press {{ic|Enter}} after typing it).
You may also attempt to kill the '''X''' server with:
# pkill X
If this does not work, reboot blindly with:
# reboot
===== Troubleshooting =====
If a problem occurs, look for errors in {{ic|Xorg.0.log}}. Be on the lookout for any lines beginning with {{ic|(EE)}} which represent errors, and also {{ic|(WW)}} which are warnings that could indicate other issues.
$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log
If you are still having trouble after consulting the [[Xorg]] article and need assistance via the Arch Linux forums or the IRC channel, be sure to install and use {{Pkg|wgetpaste}} by providing the links from:
# pacman -S wgetpaste
$ wgetpaste ~/.xinitrc
$ wgetpaste /etc/X11/xorg.conf
$ wgetpaste /var/log/Xorg.0.log
{{Note|Please provide all pertinent information (hardware, driver information, etc) when asking for assistance.}}
==== Fonts ====
You may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. DejaVu is a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts with good [[Wikipedia:Unicode|Unicode]] coverage:
# pacman -S ttf-dejavu
Refer to [[Font Configuration]] for how to configure font rendering and [[Fonts]] for font suggestions and installation instructions.
==== Choose and install a graphical interface ====
The X Window System provides the basic framework for building a graphical user interface (GUI).
{{Note|Choosing your DE or WM is a very subjective and personal decision. Choose the best environment for ''your'' needs. You can also build your own DE with just a WM and the applications of your choice.}}
* [[Window_Manager|Window Managers]] (WM) control the placement and appearance of application windows in conjunction with the X Window System.
* [[Desktop_Environment|Desktop Environments]] (DE) work atop and in conjunction with X, to provide a completely functional and dynamic GUI. A DE typically provides a window manager, icons, applets, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, a suite of applications and abilities like drag and drop.
Instead of starting X manually with {{ic|startx}} from {{Pkg|xorg-xinit}}, see [[Display Manager]] for instructions on using a display manager, or see [[Start X at Login]] for using an existing virtual terminal as an equivalent to a display manager.
== Appendix ==
For a list of applications that may be of interest, see [[List of Applications]].
See [[General Recommendations]] for post-installation tutorials like setting up a touchpad or font rendering.
<noinclude>{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>

Latest revision as of 03:25, 12 April 2014