Congratulations, and welcome to your new Arch Linux system!
Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready for customization. From here, you may build this elegant set of tools into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. Most people are interested in a desktop system, complete with sound and graphics: this part of the guide provides a brief overview of the procedures to acquire these extras.
Go ahead and login with your user account.
Arch Linux uses systemd as init, which is a system and service manager for Linux. For maintaining your Arch Linux installation, it is a good idea to learn the basics about it. Interaction with systemd is done through the
systemctl command. Read systemd#Basic systemctl usage for more information.
ALSA is included with the kernel and it is recommended to try it first. However, if it does not work, or if you are not satisfied with the quality, OSS is a viable alternative. If you have advanced audio requirements, take a look at Sound system for an overview of various articles.
Graphical User Interface
The X Window System (commonly X11, or X) is a networking and display protocol which provides windowing on bitmap displays. It provides the standard toolkit and protocol to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
To install the base Xorg packages:
# pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-server-utils
Install mesa for 3D support:
# pacman -S mesa
Install a video driver
If you don't know which video chipset is available on your machine, run:
$ lspci | grep VGA
For a complete list of open-source video drivers, search the package database:
$ pacman -Ss xf86-video | less
vesa driver is a generic mode-setting driver that will work with almost every GPU, but will not provide any 2D or 3D acceleration. If a better driver cannot be found or fails to load, Xorg will fall back to vesa. To install it:
# pacman -S xf86-video-vesa
In order for video acceleration to work, and often to expose all the modes that the GPU can set, a proper video driver is required:
|Brand||Type||Driver|| Multilib Package
(for 32-bit applications on Arch x86_64)
|Intel||Open source||Intel Graphics|
(+ for 3D support)
Install input drivers
Udev should be capable of detecting your hardware without problems. The
evdev driver ( ) is the modern hot-plugging input driver for almost all devices, so in most cases, installing input drivers is not needed. At this point,
evdev has already been installed as a dependency of the package.
Laptop users (or users with a tactile screen) will need thepackage for the touchpad/touchscreen to work:
# pacman -S xf86-input-synaptics
For instructions on fine tuning or troubleshooting touchpad issues, see the Touchpad Synaptics article.
Xorg features auto-detection and therefore can function without an
xorg.conf. If you still wish to manually configure X Server, please see the Xorg wiki page.
# pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm
若您在安裝 Xorg 前新增了非 root 的使用者帳號，該帳號的家目錄下會出現
.xinitrc 模版檔，必須將它刪除或註解掉。若選擇刪除，X 將以上述安裝的預設環境啟動。
$ rm ~/.xinitrc
執行下列指令，啟動(測試) Xorg 階段：
螢幕將出現幾個可移動的視窗，且您的滑鼠應該可以使用。如果您認為 X 執行的可圈可點、沒有問題，可以在 X 下的終端機輸入
exit 離開 X 環境，回到文字模式。
您可以試著殺掉 X 伺服器程序：
# pkill X
$ grep EE /var/log/Xorg.0.log
若看過 Xorg 文章後仍無法解決問題，需要到 Arch Linux 論壇或 IRC 頻道尋求協助的話，記得安裝 ，讓熱心的網友能透過連結了解您的問題：
# pacman -S wgetpaste $ wgetpaste ~/.xinitrc $ wgetpaste /etc/X11/xorg.conf $ wgetpaste /var/log/Xorg.0.log
At this point, you may wish to install a set of TrueType fonts, as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. DejaVu is a set of high quality, general-purpose fonts with good Unicode coverage:
# pacman -S ttf-dejavu
Choose and install a graphical interface
The X Window System provides the basic framework for building a graphical user interface (GUI).
- Window Managers (WM) control the placement and appearance of application windows in conjunction with the X Window System.
- Desktop Environments (DE) work atop and in conjunction with X, to provide a completely functional and dynamic GUI. A DE typically provides a window manager, icons, applets, windows, toolbars, folders, wallpapers, a suite of applications and abilities like drag and drop.
Instead of starting X manually with
xorg-xinit, see Display Manager for instructions on using a display manager, or see Start X at Login for using an existing virtual terminal as an equivalent to a display manager.
For a list of applications that may be of interest, see List of Applications.
See General Recommendations for post-installation tutorials like setting up a touchpad or font rendering.