Difference between revisions of "Beginners' guide"

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(Gummiboot: try to clarify/simplify instructions as users with English as an (n+1)th language (n>0) are having a little difficulty following them)
(already mentioned in Swap)
 
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[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
 
[[Category:Getting and installing Arch]]
[[Category:About Arch]]
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[[ar:Beginners' guide]]
[[ar:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[bg:Installation guide]]
[[da:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[cs:Installation guide]]
[[es:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[hr:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[de:Anleitung für Einsteiger]]
[[hu:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[el:Installation guide]]
[[it:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[es:Beginners' guide]]
[[ja:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[fa:راهنمای تازه‌کاران]]
[[ko:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[fr:Installation]]
[[nl:Beginners' Guide/Installatie]]
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[[hr:Installation guide]]
[[pl:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[hu:Installation guide]]
[[pt:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[id:Installation guide]]
[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor/Instalare]]
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[[it:Installation guide]]
[[ru:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[ja:ビギナーズガイド]]
[[sr:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[ko:Installation guide]]
[[zh-CN:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[lt:Installation guide]]
[[zh-TW:Beginners' Guide/Installation]]
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[[nl:Installation guide]]
{{Tip|This is part of a multi-page article for The Beginners' Guide. '''[[Beginners' Guide|Click here]]''' if you would rather read the guide in its entirety.}}
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[[pl:Installation guide]]
</noinclude>
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[[pt:Installation guide]]
== Installation ==
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[[ro:Ghidul începătorilor]]
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[[ru:Beginners' guide]]
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[[sk:Installation guide]]
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[[sr:Installation guide]]
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[[sv:Nybörjarguiden]]
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[[tr:Yeni başlayanlar rehberi]]
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[[uk:Installation guide]]
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[[zh-cn:Beginners' guide]]
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[[zh-tw:Installation guide]]
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{{Related articles start}}
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{{Related|:Category:Accessibility}}
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{{Related|Help:Reading}}
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{{Related|Installation guide}}
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{{Related|General recommendations}}
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{{Related|General troubleshooting}}
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{{Related articles end}}
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This document will guide you through the process of installing [[Arch Linux]] using the [https://projects.archlinux.org/arch-install-scripts.git/ Arch Install Scripts]. Before installing, you are advised to skim over the [[FAQ]].
  
You are now presented with a shell prompt, automatically logged in as root.
+
The community-maintained [[Main page|ArchWiki]] is the primary resource that should be consulted if issues arise. The [[IRC channel]] (irc://irc.freenode.net/#archlinux) and the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ forums] are also excellent resources if an answer cannot be found elsewhere. In accordance with [[the Arch Way]], you are encouraged to type {{ic|man ''command''}} to read the [[man page]] of any command you are unfamiliar with.
  
=== Change the language ===
+
{{Tip|This guide is accessible from the live installation with the [[ELinks]] browser, after the [[#Connect to the Internet]] step. This can be done in a new [[w:Virtual console|virtual console]], switching ({{ic|Alt+arrow}}) between the console containing the web page, and the console where you are performing the installation. Similarly, the {{ic|#archlinux}} [[IRC]] can be accessed using [[irssi]].}}
  
{{Tip|These are optional for the majority of users. Useful only if you plan on writing in your own language in any of the configuration files, if you use diacritical marks in the Wi-Fi password, or if you would like to receive system messages (e.g. possible errors) in your own language.
+
== Preparation ==
Changes here ''only'' affect the installation process.}}
+
  
By default, the keyboard layout is set to {{ic|us}}. If you have a non-[[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|US]] keyboard layout, run:
+
Arch Linux should run on any [[Wikipedia:P6 (microarchitecture)|i686]] compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the {{Grp|base}} group should take less than 800 MB of disk space.
  
# loadkeys ''layout''
+
See [[:Category:Getting and installing Arch]] for instructions on downloading the installation medium, and methods for booting it to the target machine(s). This guide assumes you use the latest available version.
  
...where ''layout'' can be {{ic|fr}}, {{ic|uk}}, {{ic|dvorak}}, {{ic|be-latin1}}, etc. See [[Wikipedia:ISO_3166-1_alpha-2#Officially_assigned_code_elements|here]] for 2-letter country code list.
+
After booting into the installation media, you will be automatically logged in as the root user and presented with a [[Zsh]] shell prompt. For [[create|modifying or creating]] configuration files, typically in {{ic|/etc}}, [[nano#Usage|nano]] or [[vim#Usage|vim]] are suggested.
  
The font should also be changed, because most languages use more glyphs than the 26 letter [[Wikipedia:English alphabet|English alphabet]]. Otherwise some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. Note that the name is case-sensitive, so please type it ''exactly'' as you see it:
+
=== UEFI mode ===
  
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
+
In case you have a [[UEFI]] motherboard with UEFI mode enabled, the CD/USB will automatically launch Arch Linux via [[systemd-boot]].
  
By default, the language is set to English (US). If you would like to change the language for the install process ''(German, in this example)'', remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the [http://www.greendesktiny.com/support/knowledgebase_detail.php?ref=EUH-483 locale] you want from {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, along with English (US). Please choose the {{ic|UTF-8}} entry.
+
To verify you are booted in UEFI mode, check that the following directory is populated:
  
To edit using the simple Nano editor, type {{ic|nano /etc/locale.gen}} and make your changes. Use {{ic|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{ic|Y}} and {{ic|Enter}} to use the same filename.
+
# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
+
See [[UEFI#UEFI Variables]] for details.
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
+
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
+
  
# locale-gen
+
=== Set the keyboard layout ===
# export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8
+
  
Remember, {{ic|LAlt+LShift}} activates and deactivates the keymap.
+
The default [[Keyboard_configuration_in_console|console keymap]] is set to [[Wikipedia:File:KB United States-NoAltGr.svg|us]]. Available choices can be listed with {{ic|ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz}}.  
  
=== Establish an internet connection ===
+
{{Note|{{ic|localectl list-keymaps}} does not work due to bug {{Bug|46725}}.}}
  
{{Warning|As of v197, udev no longer assigns network interface names according to the wlanX and ethX naming scheme. If you are coming from a different distribution or are reinstalling Arch and not aware of the new interface naming style, please do not assume that your wireless interface is named wlan0, or that your wired interface is named eth0. You can use the command {{ic|ip link}} to discover the names of your interfaces.}}
+
For example, to change the layout to {{ic|de-latin1}}, run:
  
The {{ic|dhcpcd}} network daemon starts automatically during boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection. Try to ping a server to see if a connection was established. For example, Google's webservers:
+
# loadkeys ''de-latin1''
  
{{hc|# ping -c 3 www.google.com|2=
+
If certain characters appear as white squares or other symbols, change the [[Console fonts|console font]]. For example:
PING www.l.google.com (74.125.132.105) 56(84) bytes of data.
+
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=1 ttl=50 time=17.0 ms
+
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=2 ttl=50 time=18.2 ms
+
64 bytes from wb-in-f105.1e100.net (74.125.132.105): icmp_req=3 ttl=50 time=16.6 ms
+
  
--- www.l.google.com ping statistics ---
+
# setfont ''lat9w-16''
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2003ms
+
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 16.660/17.320/18.254/0.678 ms}}
+
  
If you get a {{ic|ping: unknown host}} error, first check if there is an issue with your cable or wireless signal strength. If not, you will need to set up the network manually, as explained below. Once a connection is established move on to [[#Prepare the storage drive|Prepare the storage drive]].
+
=== Connect to the Internet ===
  
==== Wired ====
+
The [[dhcpcd]] daemon is enabled on boot for '''wired''' devices, and will attempt to start a connection. To access captive portal login forms, use the [[ELinks]] browser.
  
Follow this procedure if you need to set up a wired connection via a static IP address.
+
Verify a connection was established, for example with {{ic|ping archlinux.org}}. If no connection is available, see [[Network configuration]] or follow the below [[netctl]] examples. Otherwise, continue to [[#Update the system clock]].
  
First, disable the dhcpcd service which was started automatically at boot:
+
; Netctl preparation
  
# systemctl stop dhcpcd.service
+
To prevent conflicts, [[stop]] the enabled ''dhcpcd'' service first, replacing {{ic|''enp0s25''}} with the correct wired interface:
  
Identify the name of your Ethernet interface.
+
# systemctl stop dhcpcd@''enp0s25''.service
  
{{hc|# ip link|
+
[[Network configuration#Device names|Interfaces]] can be listed using {{ic|ip link}}, or {{ic|iw dev}} for wireless devices. They are prefixed with {{ic|en}} (ethernet), {{ic|wl}} (WLAN), or {{ic|ww}} (WWAN).
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT
+
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
+
2: enp2s0f0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc noop state DOWN mode DEFAULT qlen 1000
+
    link/ether 00:11:25:31:69:20 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
+
3: wlp3s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP mode DORMANT qlen 1000
+
    link/ether 01:02:03:04:05:06 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff}}
+
  
In this example, the Ethernet interface is {{ic|enp2s0f0}}. If you are unsure, your Ethernet interface is likely to start with the letter "e", and unlikely to be "lo" or start with the letter "w". You can also use {{ic|iwconfig}} and see which interfaces are not wireless:
+
; Wireless
  
{{hc|# iwconfig|2=
+
[[Wireless_network_configuration#Getting_some_useful_information|List available networks]], and make a connection for a specified interface:
enp2s0f0  no wireless extensions.
+
wlp3s0    IEEE 802.11bgn  ESSID:"NETGEAR97"
+
          Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.427 GHz  Access Point: 2C:B0:5D:9C:72:BF
+
          Bit Rate=65 Mb/s  Tx-Power=16 dBm
+
          Retry  long limit:7  RTS thr:off  Fragment thr:off
+
          Power Management:on
+
          Link Quality=61/70  Signal level=-49 dBm
+
          Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
+
          Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:430  Missed beacon:0
+
lo        no wireless extensions.}}
+
  
In this example, neither {{ic|enp2s0f0}} nor the loopback device have wireless extensions, meaning {{ic|enp2s0f0}} is our Ethernet interface.
+
# wifi-menu -o ''wlp2s0''
  
You also need to know these settings:
+
The resulting configuration file is stored in {{ic|/etc/netctl}}. For networks which require both a username and password, see [[WPA2 Enterprise#netctl]].
  
* Static IP address.
+
; Other
* Subnet mask.
+
* Gateway's IP address.
+
* Name servers' (DNS) IP addresses.
+
* Domain name (unless you are on a local LAN, in which case you can make it up).
+
  
Activate the connected Ethernet interface (e.g. {{ic|enp2s0f0}}):
+
Several example profiles, such as for configuring a [[Network configuration#Static IP address|static IP address]], are available. Copy the required one to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}, for example {{ic|''ethernet-static''}}:
  
  # ip link set enp2s0f0 up
+
  # cp /etc/netctl/examples/''ethernet-static'' /etc/netctl
  
Add the address:
+
Adjust the copy as needed, and enable it:
  
  # ip addr add ''ip_address''/''mask_bits'' dev ''interface_name''
+
  # netctl start ''ethernet-static''
  
For example:
+
=== Update the system clock ===
  
# ip addr add 192.168.1.2/24 dev enp2s0f0
+
Use [[systemd-timesyncd]] to ensure that your system clock is accurate. To start it:
  
For more options, run {{ic|man ip}}.
+
# timedatectl set-ntp true
  
Add your gateway like this, substituting your own gateway's IP address:
+
To check the service status, use {{ic|timedatectl status}}.
  
# ip route add default via ''ip_address''
+
== Prepare the storage devices ==
  
For example:
+
{{Warning|In general, partitioning or formatting will make existing data inaccessible and subject to being overwritten, i.e. destroyed, by subsequent operations. For this reason, all data that needs to be preserved must be backed up before proceeding.}}
  
# ip route add default via 192.168.1.1
+
In this step, the storage devices that will be used by the new system will be prepared. Read [[Partitioning]] for a more general overview.
  
Edit {{ic|resolv.conf}}, substituting your name servers' IP addresses and your local domain name:
+
Users intending to create stacked block devices for [[LVM]], [[disk encryption]] or [[RAID]], should keep those instructions in mind when preparing the partitions. If intending to install to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/resolv.conf|
+
=== Identify the devices ===
nameserver 61.23.173.5
+
nameserver 61.95.849.8
+
search example.com}}
+
  
{{Note|Currently, you may include a maximum of three {{ic|nameserver}} lines. In order to overcome this limitation, you can use a locally caching nameserver like [[Dnsmasq]]. }}
+
[[File_systems#Identify_the_devices|Identify the devices]] where the new system will be installed:
  
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Network Configuration]] page.
+
# lsblk
  
==== Wireless ====
+
Not all devices listed are viable mediums for installation; results ending in {{ic|rom}}, {{ic|loop}} or {{ic|airoot}} can be ignored.
  
Follow this procedure if you need wireless connectivity (Wi-Fi) during the installation process.
+
{{Note|In the sections below, the {{ic|sd'''xy'''}} notation will be used ({{ic|'''x'''}} for the device, {{ic|'''y'''}} for an existing partition).}}
  
First, identify the name of your wireless interface.
+
If the existing partition scheme does not need to be changed, you may skip to [[#Format the partitions]].
  
{{hc|# iw dev|2=
+
=== Partition the devices ===
phy#0
+
        Interface wlp3s0
+
                ifindex 3
+
                wdev 0x1
+
                addr 00:21:6a:5e:52:bc
+
                type managed
+
}}
+
  
In this example, {{ic|wlp3s0}} is the available wireless interface. If you are unsure, your wireless interface is likely to start with the letter "w", and unlikely to be "lo" or start with the letter "e".  
+
[[Partition]]ing a hard drive divides the available space into sections that can be accessed independently. The required information is stored in a ''partition table'' using a format such as [[MBR]] or [[GPT]]. Existing tables can be printed with {{ic|parted /dev/sd'''x''' print}} or {{ic|fdisk -l /dev/sd'''x'''}}.
  
{{Note|If you do not see output similar to this, then your wireless driver has not been loaded. If this is the case, you must load the driver yourself. Please see [[Wireless Setup]] for more detailed information.}}
+
To partition devices, use a [[Partitioning#Partitioning tools|partitioning tool]] compatible to the chosen type of partition table. Incompatible tools may result in the destruction of that table, along with existing partitions or data. Choices include:
  
Bring the interface up with:
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Name
 +
! MBR
 +
! GPT
 +
! Variants
 +
|-
 +
| [[fdisk]]
 +
| {{Yes}}
 +
| {{Yes}}
 +
| ''sfdisk'', ''cfdisk''
 +
|-
 +
| [[gdisk]]
 +
| {{No}}
 +
| {{Yes}}
 +
| ''cgdisk'', ''sgdisk''
 +
|-
 +
| [[parted]]
 +
| {{Yes}}
 +
| {{Yes}}
 +
| [[GParted]]
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
# ip link set wlp3s0 up
+
The examples below demonstrate a basic [[partition scheme]] for both types of partition tables. They assume that a new, contiguous layout is applied to a single device in {{ic|/dev/sd'''x'''}}. Necessary changes to device names and partition numbers must be done beforehand.
  
Most wireless chipsets require firmware in addition to a corresponding driver. The kernel tries to identify and load both automatically. If you get output like {{ic|SIOCSIFFLAGS: No such file or directory}}, this means you will need to manually load the firmware. If unsure, invoke {{ic|dmesg}} to query the kernel log for a firmware request from the wireless chipset. For example, if you have an Intel chipset which requires and has requested firmware from the kernel at boot:
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!colspan="5" | UEFI/GPT example layout
 +
|-
 +
! Mount point
 +
! Partition
 +
! [[w:GUID_Partition_Table#Partition_type_GUIDs|Partition type (GUID)]]
 +
! Bootable flag
 +
! Suggested size
 +
|-
 +
| /boot
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''1
 +
| [[EFI System Partition]]
 +
| Yes
 +
| 260–512 MiB
 +
|-
 +
| [SWAP]
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''2
 +
| Linux [[swap]]
 +
| No
 +
| More than 512 MiB
 +
|-
 +
| /
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''3
 +
| Linux
 +
| No
 +
| Remainder of the device
 +
|-
 +
!colspan="5" | MBR/BIOS example layout
 +
|-
 +
! Mount point
 +
! Partition
 +
! [[w:Partition type|Partition type]]
 +
! Bootable flag
 +
! Suggested size
 +
|-
 +
| [SWAP]
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''1
 +
| Linux [[swap]]
 +
| No
 +
| More than 512 MiB
 +
|-
 +
| /
 +
| /dev/sd'''x'''2
 +
| Linux
 +
| Yes
 +
| Remainder of the device
 +
|}
  
{{hc|# dmesg <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep firmware|
+
=== Format the partitions ===
firmware: requesting iwlwifi-5000-1.ucode}}
+
  
If there is no output, it may be concluded that the system's wireless chipset does not require firmware.
+
{{Warning|If [[Dual boot with Windows|dual-booting]] with an existing installation of Windows on a UEFI/GPT system, avoid reformatting the UEFI partition, as this includes the Windows ''.efi'' file required to boot it.}}
  
{{Warning|Wireless chipset firmware packages (for cards which require them) are pre-installed under {{ic|/usr/lib/firmware}} in the live environment (on CD/USB stick) '''but must be explicitly installed to your actual system to provide wireless functionality after you reboot into it!''' Package installation is covered later in this guide. Ensure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebooting! See [[Wireless Setup]] if you are unsure about the requirement of corresponding firmware installation for your particular chipset.}}
+
Once the partitions have been created, each '''must''' be formatted with an appropriate [[file system]], ''except'' for [[swap]] partitions. All available partitions on the intended installation device can be listed with the following command:
  
Next, use {{Pkg|netctl}}'s {{ic|wifi-menu}} to connect to a network:
+
# lsblk /dev/sd'''x'''
  
# wifi-menu wlp3s0
+
With the exceptions noted below, it is recommended to use the {{ic|ext4}} file system:
  
You should now have a working network connection. If you do not, check the detailed [[Wireless Setup]] page.
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sd'''xy'''
  
===== Without wifi-menu =====
+
If a swap partition was created, it must be set up and activated with:
  
Alternatively, use {{ic|iw dev wlp3s0 scan <nowiki>|</nowiki> grep SSID}} to scan for available networks, then connect to a network with:
+
# mkswap /dev/sd'''xy'''
 +
# swapon /dev/sd'''xy'''
  
# wpa_supplicant -B -i wlp3s0 -c <(wpa_passphrase "''ssid''" "''psk''")
+
If a '''new''' UEFI system partition has been created on a UEFI/GPT system, it '''must''' be formatted with a {{ic|fat32}} file system:
  
You need to replace ''ssid'' with the name of your network (e.g. "Linksys etc...") and ''psk'' with your wireless password, '''leaving the quotes around the network name and password.'''
+
  # mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sd'''xy'''
 
+
Finally, you have to give your interface an IP address. This can be set manually or using the dhcp:
+
 
+
  # dhcpcd wlp3s0
+
 
+
If that does not work, issue the following commands:
+
 
+
# echo 'ctrl_interface=DIR=/run/wpa_supplicant' > /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
+
# wpa_passphrase <ssid> <passphrase> >> /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
+
# ip link set <interface> up # May not be needed, but does no harm in any case
+
# wpa_supplicant -B -D nl80211 -c /foobar.conf -i <interface name>
+
# dhcpcd -A <interface name>
+
 
+
==== Analog modem, ISDN or PPPoE DSL ====
+
 
+
For xDSL, dial-up and ISDN connections, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
+
 
+
==== Behind a proxy server ====
+
 
+
If you are behind a proxy server, you will need to export the {{ic|http_proxy}} and {{ic|ftp_proxy}} environment variables. See [[Proxy settings]] for more information.
+
 
+
=== Prepare the storage drive ===
+
 
+
{{Warning|Partitioning can destroy data. You are '''strongly''' cautioned and advised to backup any critical data before proceeding.}}
+
 
+
==== Choose a partition table type ====
+
 
+
You have to choose between [[GUID Partition Table]] (GPT) and [[Master Boot Record]] (MBR). GPT is more modern and recommended for new installations.
+
 
+
* If you want to setup a system which dual boots with windows, then you have to pay special attention to this choice. See [[Partitioning#Choosing_between_GPT_and_MBR]] for the gory details.
+
* It is recommended to always use GPT for UEFI boot, as some UEFI firmwares do not allow UEFI-MBR boot.
+
* Some BIOS systems may have issues with GPT. See http://mjg59.dreamwidth.org/8035.html and http://rodsbooks.com/gdisk/bios.html for more info and possible workarounds.
+
 
+
{{Note|If you are installing to a USB flash key, see [[Installing Arch Linux on a USB key]].}}
+
 
+
==== Partitioning tool ====
+
 
+
Absolute beginners are encouraged to use a graphical partitioning tool. [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/download.php GParted] is a good example, and is [http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php provided as a "live" CD]. It is also included on live CDs of most Linux distributions such as [[Wikipedia:Ubuntu (operating system)|Ubuntu]] and [[Wikipedia:Linux Mint|Linux Mint]]. A drive should first be [[partitioning|partitioned]] and the partitions should be formatted with a [[File Systems|file system]] before rebooting.
+
 
+
{{Tip|When using Gparted, selecting the option to create a new partition table gives an "msdos" partition table by default. If you are intending to follow the advice to create a GPT partition table then you need to choose "Advanced" and then select "gpt" from the drop-down menu.}}
+
 
+
While gparted may be easier to use, if you just want to create a few partitions on a new disk you can get the job done quickly by just using one of the [[Partitioning#Partitioning_tools|fdisk variants]] which are included on the install medium. There are short usage instructions for both [[Partitioning#Gdisk_usage_summary|gdisk]] and [[Partitioning#Fdisk_usage_summary|fdisk]].
+
 
+
==== Partition scheme ====
+
 
+
You can decide into how many partitions the disk should be split, and for which directory each partition should be used in the system. The mapping from partitions to directories (frequently called 'mount points') is the [[Partitioning#Partition_scheme|Partition scheme]]. The simplest, and not a bad choice, is to make just one huge {{ic|/}} partition. Another popular choice is to have a {{ic|/}} and a {{ic|/home}} partition.
+
 
+
{{Box BLUE|Additional required partitions:|
+
* If you have a [[UEFI]] motherboard, you will need to create an extra [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#EFI System Partition|EFI System Partition]] (about 1 GiB recommended).
+
* If you have a BIOS motherboard (or plan on booting in BIOS compatibility mode) and you want to setup GRUB on a GPT-partitioned drive, you will need to create an extra [[GRUB#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|BIOS Boot Partition]] of size 1 or 2 MiB and {{ic|EF02}} type code. Syslinux does not need one.
+
* If you have a requirement for a [[Disk_encryption]] of the system itself, this must be reflected in your partition scheme. It is unproblematic to add encrypted folders, containers or home directories after the system is installed.
+
* If you are planning to use any filesystem for root filesystem different than ext4 (such as [[F2fs | F2fs]]), you should check first if GRUB supports it. If it is not supported you need to create a GRUB compatible partition (such as [[Ext4|ext4]]) and use it for {{ic|/boot}}.
+
}}
+
 
+
See [[Swap]] for details if you wish to set up a swap partition or swap file. A swap file is easier to resize than a partition and can be created at any point after installation, but cannot be used with a Btrfs filesystem.
+
 
+
==== Considerations for dualbooting with windows ====
+
 
+
If you have an existing OS installation, please keep in mind that if you were to just write a completely new partition table to disk then all the data which was previously on disk would be lost.
+
 
+
The recommended way to setup a linux/windows dual booting system is to first install windows, only using part of the disk for its partitions. When you have finished the windows setup, boot into the linux install environment where you can create additional partitions for linux while leaving the existing windows partitions untouched.
+
 
+
Some newer computers come pre-installed with Windows 8 which will be using Secure Boot. Arch Linux currently does not support Secure Boot, but some Windows 8 installations have been seen not to boot if Secure Boot is turned off in the BIOS. In some cases it is necessary to turn off both Secure Boot as well as Fastboot in the BIOS options in order to allow Windows 8 to boot without Secure Boot. However there are potential security risks in turning off Secure Boot for booting up Windows 8. Therefore, it may be a better option to keep the Windows 8 install intact and have an independent hard drive for the Linux install - which can then be partitioned from scratch using a GPT partition table. Once that is done, creating several ext4/FAT32/swap partitions on the second drive may be a better way forward if the computer has two drives available. This is often not easy or possible on a small laptop. Currently, Secure Boot is still not in a fully stable state for reliable operation, even for Linux distributions that support it.
+
 
+
{{Warning|Windows 8 includes a new feature called Fast Startup, which turns shutdown operations into suspend-to-disk operations. The result is that filesystems shared between Windows 8 and any other OS are almost certain to be damaged when booting between the two OSes. Even if you don't intend to share filesystems, the ESP is likely to be damaged on an EFI system. Therefore, you should disable Fast Startup, as described [http://www.eightforums.com/tutorials/6320-fast-startup-turn-off-windows-8-a.html here,] before you install Linux on any computer that uses Windows 8.}}
+
 
+
If you have already created your partitions, proceed to [[#Create_filesystems|Create filesystems]].
+
 
+
Otherwise, see the following example.
+
 
+
==== Example ====
+
 
+
The Arch Linux install media includes the following partitioning tools: {{ic|fdisk}}, {{ic|gdisk}}, {{ic|cfdisk}}, {{ic|cgdisk}}, {{ic|parted}}.
+
 
+
{{Tip|Use the {{ic|lsblk}} command to list the hard disks attached to your system, along with the sizes of their existing partitions. This will help you to be confident you are partitioning the right disk.}}
+
 
+
 
+
The example system will contain a 15 GB root partition, and a [[Partitioning#/home|home]] partition for the remaining space. Choose either [[MBR]] or [[GPT]]. Do not choose both!
+
 
+
It should be emphasized that partitioning is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrative purposes. See [[Partitioning]].
+
 
+
===== Using cgdisk to create GPT partitions =====
+
 
+
# cgdisk&nbsp;/dev/sda
+
 
+
;Root:
+
* Choose ''New'' (or press {{ic|N}}) – {{ic|Enter}} for the first sector (2048) – type in {{ic|15G}} – {{ic|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) – {{ic|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
+
 
+
;Home:
+
* Press the down arrow a couple of times to move to the larger free space area.
+
* Choose ''New'' (or press {{ic|N}}) – {{ic|Enter}} for the first sector – {{ic|Enter}} to use the rest of the drive (or you could type in the desired size; for example {{ic|30G}}) – {{ic|Enter}} for the default hex code (8300) – {{ic|Enter}} for a blank partition name.
+
 
+
Here is what it should look like:
+
 
+
Part. #    Size        Partition Type            Partition Name
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
            1007.0 KiB  free space
+
    1        15.0 GiB    Linux filesystem
+
    2        123.45 GiB  Linux filesystem
+
 
+
Double check and make sure that you are happy with the partition sizes as well as the partition table layout before continuing.
+
 
+
If you would like to start over, you can simply select ''Quit'' (or press {{ic|Q}}) to exit without saving changes and then restart ''cgdisk''.
+
 
+
If you are satisfied, choose ''Write'' (or press {{ic|Shift+W}}) to finalize and to write the partition table to the drive. Type {{ic|yes}} and choose ''Quit'' (or press {{ic|Q}}) to exit without making any more changes.
+
 
+
===== Using fdisk to create MBR partitions =====
+
{{Note|There is also ''cfdisk'', which is similar in UI to ''cgdisk'', but it currently does not automatically align the first partition properly. That is why the classic ''fdisk'' tool is used here.}}
+
 
+
Launch ''fdisk'' with:
+
 
+
# fdisk /dev/sda
+
 
+
Create the partition table:
+
 
+
* {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|o}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
+
 
+
Then create the first partition:
+
 
+
# {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|n}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
+
# Partition type: {{ic|Select (default p):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
+
# {{ic|Partition number (1-4, default 1):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
+
# {{ic|First sector (2048-209715199, default 2048):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
+
# {{ic|Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-209715199....., default 209715199):}} type {{ic|+15G}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
+
 
+
Then create a second partition:
+
 
+
# {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|n}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
+
# Partition type: {{ic|Select (default p):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
+
# {{ic|Partition number (1-4, default 2):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
+
# {{ic|First sector (31459328-209715199, default 31459328):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
+
# {{ic|Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (31459328-209715199....., default 209715199):}} press {{ic|Enter}}
+
 
+
Now preview the new partition table:
+
 
+
* {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|p}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
+
 
+
{{bc|
+
Disk /dev/sda: 107.4 GB, 107374182400 bytes, 209715200 sectors
+
Units &#61; sectors of 1 * 512 &#61; 512 bytes
+
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
+
Disk identifier: 0x5698d902
+
 
+
  Device Boot    Start        End    Blocks  Id  System
+
/dev/sda1          2048    31459327  15728640  83  Linux
+
/dev/sda2      31459328  209715199  89127936  83  Linux
+
}}
+
 
+
Then write the changes to disk:
+
 
+
* {{ic|Command (m for help):}} type {{ic|w}} and press {{ic|Enter}}
+
 
+
If everything went well fdisk will now quit with the following message:
+
{{bc|
+
The partition table has been altered!
+
 
+
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
+
Syncing disks.
+
}}
+
 
+
In case this doesn't work because ''fdisk'' encountered an error, you can use the {{ic|q}} command to exit.
+
 
+
==== Create filesystems ====
+
 
+
Simply partitioning is not enough; the partitions also need a [[File Systems|filesystem]]. To format the partitions with an ext4 filesystem:
+
 
+
{{Warning|Double check and triple check that it is actually {{ic|/dev/sda1}} and {{ic|/dev/sda2}} that you want to format. You can use {{ic|lsblk}} to help with this.}}
+
 
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda1
+
# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sda2
+
 
+
If you have made a partition dedicated to swap (code 82), do not forget to format and activate it with:
+
 
+
# mkswap /dev/sda''X''
+
# swapon /dev/sda''X''
+
 
+
For UEFI, you should format the ESP partition (for example /dev/sd''XY'') with:
+
 
+
# mkfs.vfat -F32 /dev/sd''XY''
+
  
 
=== Mount the partitions ===
 
=== Mount the partitions ===
  
Each partition is identified with a number suffix. For example, {{ic|sda1}} specifies the first partition of the first drive, while {{ic|sda}} designates the entire drive.
+
Mount the ''root'' partition to the {{ic|/mnt}} directory of the live system:
  
To display the current partition layout:
+
# mount /dev/sd'''xy''' /mnt
  
# lsblk /dev/sda
+
Remaining [[Partitioning#Partition_scheme|partitions]] except ''swap'' may be mounted in any order, after creating the respective mount points. For example, when using a {{ic|/boot}} partition:
 
+
{{Note|Do not mount more than one partition to the same directory. And pay attention, because the mounting order is important.}}
+
 
+
First, mount the root partition on {{ic|/mnt}}. Following the example above (yours may be different), it would be:
+
 
+
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt
+
 
+
Then mount the home partition and any other separate partition ({{ic|/boot}}, {{ic|/var}}, etc), if you have any:
+
 
+
# mkdir /mnt/home
+
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/home
+
 
+
In case you have a UEFI motherboard, mount the EFI System Partition at your preferred mountpoint ({{ic|/boot}} used for example):
+
  
 
  # mkdir -p /mnt/boot
 
  # mkdir -p /mnt/boot
  # mount /dev/sd''XY'' /mnt/boot
+
  # mount /dev/sd'''xy''' /mnt/boot
  
=== Select a mirror ===
+
{{ic|/mnt/boot}} is also recommended for mounting the (formatted or already existing) EFI System Partition on a UEFI/GPT system. See [[EFISTUB]] and related articles for alternatives.
  
Before installing, you may want to edit the {{ic|mirrorlist}} file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by {{ic|pacstrap}} as well, so it is worth getting it right.
+
== Installation ==
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist|
+
=== Select the mirrors ===
##
+
## Arch Linux repository mirrorlist
+
## Sorted by mirror score from mirror status page
+
## Generated on 2012-MM-DD
+
##
+
  
<nowiki>Server = http://mirror.example.xyz/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch</nowiki>
+
Packages to be installed must be downloaded from [[mirror]] servers, which are defined in {{ic|/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}}. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.
...}}
+
  
* {{ic|Alt+6}} to copy a {{ic|Server}} line.
+
The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.
* {{ic|PageUp}} key to scroll up.
+
* {{ic|Ctrl+U}} to paste it at the top of the list.
+
* {{ic|Ctrl+X}} to exit, and when prompted to save changes, press {{ic|Y}} and {{ic|Enter}} to use the same filename.
+
  
If you want, you can make it the ''only'' mirror available by getting rid of everything else (using {{ic|Ctrl+K}}), but it is usually a good idea to have a few more, in case the first one goes offline.
+
The ''pacstrap'' tool used in the next step also installs a copy of the file to the new system, so it is worth getting right.
  
{{Tip|
+
=== Install the base packages ===
* Use the [https://www.archlinux.org/mirrorlist/ Mirrorlist Generator] to get an updated list for your country. HTTP mirrors are faster than FTP, because of something called [[Wikipedia:Keepalive|keepalive]]. With FTP, pacman has to send out a signal each time it downloads a package, resulting in a brief pause. For other ways to generate a mirror list, see [[Mirrors#Sorting mirrors|Sorting mirrors]] and [[Reflector]].
+
* [https://archlinux.org/mirrors/status/ Arch Linux MirrorStatus] reports various aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors, data collection problems, the last time mirrors have been synced, etc.}}
+
  
{{Note|
+
The ''pacstrap'' script installs the {{Grp|base}} group of packages. This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as {{Pkg|btrfs-progs}}; see [https://projects.archlinux.org/archiso.git/tree/configs/releng/packages.both packages.both] for comparison.
* Whenever in the future you change your list of mirrors, always remember to force pacman to refresh all package lists with {{ic|pacman -Syy}}. This is considered to be good practice and will avoid possible headaches. See [[Mirrors]] for more information.
+
* If you are using an older installation medium, your mirrorlist might be outdated, which might lead to problems when updating Arch Linux (see {{Bug|22510}}). Therefore it is advised to obtain the latest mirror information as described above.
+
* Some issues have been reported in the [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ Arch Linux forums] regarding network problems that prevent pacman from updating/synchronizing repositories (see [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;68944] and [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id&#61;65728]). When installing Arch Linux natively, these issues have been resolved by replacing the default pacman file downloader with an alternative (see [[Improve Pacman Performance]] for more details). When installing Arch Linux as a guest OS in [[VirtualBox]], this issue has also been addressed by using "Host interface" instead of "NAT" in the machine properties.}}
+
  
=== Install the base system ===
+
To build packages from the [[AUR]] or with the [[ABS]], the {{Grp|base-devel}} group is also required. Packages can be [[install]]ed with ''pacman'' anytime after the [[#Change root]] step later, or by appending their names to the ''pacstrap'' command.
  
The base system is installed using the [https://github.com/falconindy/arch-install-scripts/blob/master/pacstrap.in pacstrap] script.
+
# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel
  
The {{ic|-i}} switch can be omitted if you wish to install every package from the ''base'' group without prompting.
+
The {{ic|-i}} switch ensures prompting before package installation. With the base group, the first [[initramfs]] will be generated and installed to the new system's boot path; double-check output prompts {{ic|1===> Image creation successful}} for it.
  
# pacstrap -i /mnt base
+
== Configuration ==
  
{{Note|
+
=== fstab ===
* If pacman fails to verify your packages, check the system time with {{ic|cal}}. If the system date is invalid (e.g. it shows the year 2010), signing keys will be considered expired (or invalid), signature checks on packages will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time, either by doing so manually or with the {{Pkg|ntp}} client, and retry running the pacstrap command. Refer to [[Time]] page for more information on correcting system time.
+
* If pacman complains that {{ic|error: failed to commit transaction (invalid or corrupted package)}}, run the following command:
+
# pacman-key --init && pacman-key --populate archlinux
+
}}
+
 
+
This will give you a basic Arch system. Other packages can be installed later using [[pacman]].
+
 
+
=== Generate an fstab ===
+
 
+
Generate an [[fstab]] file with the following command. UUIDs will be used because they have certain advantages (see [[fstab#Identifying filesystems]]). If you would prefer to use labels instead, replace the {{ic|-U}} option with {{ic|-L}}.
+
 
+
# genfstab -U -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
+
# nano /mnt/etc/fstab
+
 
+
{{Warning|The fstab file should always be checked after generating it. If you encounter errors running genfstab or later in the install process, do '''not''' run genfstab again; just edit the fstab file.}}
+
 
+
A few considerations:
+
 
+
* The last field determines the order in which partitions are checked at start up: use {{ic|1}} for the (non-{{ic|btrfs}}) root partition, which should be checked first; {{ic|2}} for all other partitions you want checked at start up; and {{ic|0}} means 'do not check' (see [[fstab#Field definitions]]).
+
* All [[btrfs]] partitions should have {{ic|0}} for this field. Normally, you will also want your ''swap'' partition to have {{ic|0}}.
+
 
+
=== Chroot and configure the base system ===
+
 
+
{{Note|If you are planning to reboot Arch in UEFI mode, read [[Beginners'_Guide/Installation#For_UEFI_motherboards|For UEFI motherboards]] as there are some things to take care of '''before''' entering the chroot. This is necessary to ensure the boot loader or manager can be correctly configured within the chroot.}}
+
  
Next, we [[chroot]] into our newly installed system:
+
Generate an [[fstab]] file. The {{ic|-U}} option indicates [[UUID]]s. Labels can be used instead through the {{ic|-L}} option.
  
  # arch-chroot /mnt
+
  # genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab
  
{{Note|Use {{ic|arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash}} to chroot into a bash shell.}}
+
Check the resulting file in {{ic|/mnt/etc/fstab}} afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.
At this stage of the installation, you will configure the primary configuration files of your Arch Linux base system. These can either be created if they do not exist, or edited if you wish to change the defaults.
+
  
Closely following and understanding these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly configured system.
+
=== Change root ===
  
==== Locale ====
+
[[chroot#Change root|Chroot]] to the new system:
  
Locales are used by '''glibc''' and other locale-aware programs or libraries for rendering text, correctly displaying regional monetary values, time and date formats, alphabetic idiosyncrasies, and other locale-specific standards.
+
# arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash
  
There are two files that need editing: {{ic|locale.gen}} and {{ic|locale.conf}}.
+
=== Locale ===
  
* The {{ic|locale.gen}} file is empty by default (everything is commented out) and you need to remove the {{ic|#}} in front of the line(s) you want. You may uncomment more lines than just English (US), as long as you choose their {{ic|UTF-8}} encoding:
+
The [[Locale]] defines which language the system uses, and other regional considerations such as currency denomination, numerology, and character sets.
  
{{hc|# nano /etc/locale.gen|
+
Uncomment {{ic|en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8}} in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}, as well as other needed localisations. Save the file, and generate the new locales:
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
+
de_DE.UTF-8 UTF-8}}
+
  
 
  # locale-gen
 
  # locale-gen
  
This will run on every '''glibc''' upgrade, generating all the locales specified in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}.
+
[[Create]] {{ic|/etc/locale.conf}}, where {{ic|''en_US.UTF-8''}} refers to the '''first column''' of an uncommented entry in {{ic|/etc/locale.gen}}:
  
* The {{ic|locale.conf}} file does not exist by default. Setting only {{ic|LANG}} should be enough. It will act as the default value for all other variables.
+
{{hc|1=/etc/locale.conf|2=
 
+
LANG=''en_US.UTF-8''
# echo LANG=en_US.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
+
# export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
+
 
+
{{Note|If you set some other language than English (US) at the beginning of the install, the above commands would be something like:
+
# echo LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8 > /etc/locale.conf
+
# export LANG<nowiki>=</nowiki>de_DE.UTF-8
+
 
}}
 
}}
  
To use other locales for other {{ic|LC_*}} variables, run {{ic|locale}} to see the available options and add them to {{ic|locale.conf}}. It is not recommended to set the {{ic|LC_ALL}} variable. An advanced example can be found [[Locale#Setting_system-wide_locale|here]].
+
If you [[#Set the keyboard layout|set the keyboard layout]], make the changes persistent in {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}}. For example, if {{ic|de-latin1}} was set with ''loadkeys'', and {{ic|lat9w-16}} with ''setfont'', assign the {{ic|KEYMAP}} and {{ic|FONT}} variables accordingly:
  
==== Console font and keymap ====
+
{{hc|1=/etc/vconsole.conf|2=
 
+
KEYMAP=''de-latin1''
If you set a keymap at [[#Change_the_language|the beginning]] of the install process, load it now, as well, because the environment has changed. For example:
+
FONT=''lat9w-16''
 
+
# loadkeys ''de-latin1''
+
# setfont Lat2-Terminus16
+
 
+
To make them available after reboot, edit {{ic|vconsole.conf}}:
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/vconsole.conf|2=
+
KEYMAP=de-latin1
+
FONT=Lat2-Terminus16
+
 
}}
 
}}
  
* {{ic|KEYMAP}} – Please note that this setting is only valid for your TTYs, not any graphical window managers or Xorg.
+
=== Time ===
  
* {{ic|FONT}} – Available alternate console fonts reside in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}. The default (blank) is safe, but some foreign characters may show up as white squares or as other symbols. It is recommended that you change it to {{ic|Lat2-Terminus16}}, because according to {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/README.Lat2-Terminus16}}, it claims to support "about 110 language sets".
+
Select a [[time zone]]:
  
* Possible option {{ic|FONT_MAP}} – Defines the console map to load at boot. Read {{ic|man setfont}}. Removing it or leaving it blank is safe.
+
# tzselect
  
See [[Fonts#Console_fonts|Console fonts]] and {{ic|man vconsole.conf}} for more information.
+
Create the symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}}, where {{ic|Zone/Subzone}} is the {{ic|TZ}} value from ''tzselect'':
  
==== Time zone ====
+
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/''Zone''/''SubZone'' /etc/localtime
  
Available time zones and subzones can be found in the {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} directories.
+
It is recommended to adjust the time skew, and set the time standard to UTC:
  
To view the available <Zone>, check the directory {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/}}:
+
# hwclock --systohc --utc
  
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/
+
If other operating systems are installed on the machine, they must be configured accordingly. See [[Time]] for details.
  
Similarly, you can check the contents of directories belonging to a <SubZone>:
+
=== Initramfs ===
  
# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe
+
Because [[mkinitcpio]] was run on installation of {{Pkg|linux}} with ''pacstrap'', most users do not need to regenerate the intramfs image so this step can be skipped.
  
Create a symbolic link {{ic|/etc/localtime}} to your zone file {{ic|/usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone>}} using this command:
+
For special configurations, set the correct [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} and [[Mkinitcpio#Image_creation_and_activation|re-generate]] the initramfs image:
  
  # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/<Zone>/<SubZone> /etc/localtime
+
  # mkinitcpio -p linux
  
'''Example:'''
+
=== Boot loader ===
  
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Minsk /etc/localtime
+
See [[:Category:Boot loaders]] for available choices and configurations. Choices include [[GRUB]] (BIOS/UEFI), [[systemd-boot]] (UEFI) and [[syslinux]] (BIOS).
  
==== Hardware clock ====
+
If you have an Intel CPU, in addition to installing a boot loader, install the {{Pkg|intel-ucode}} package and [[Microcode#Enabling_Intel_microcode_updates|enable microcode updates]].
  
Set the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operating systems. Otherwise, they may overwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts.
+
=== Network configuration ===
  
You can generate {{ic|/etc/adjtime}} automatically by using one of the following commands:
+
The procedure is similar to [[#Connect to the Internet]] for the live installation environment, except made persistent for subsequent boots.
 
+
* '''UTC''' (recommended)
+
 
+
: {{Note|Using [[Wikipedia:Coordinated Universal Time|UTC]] for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in UTC.}}
+
 
+
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --utc}}
+
 
+
To synchronize your "UTC" time over the internet, see [[Network Time Protocol daemon|NTPd]].
+
 
+
* '''localtime''' (discouraged; used by default in Windows)
+
 
+
: {{Warning|Using ''localtime'' may lead to several known and unfixable bugs. However, there are no plans to drop support for ''localtime''.}}
+
 
+
: {{bc|# hwclock --systohc --localtime}}
+
 
+
If you have (or planning on having) a dual boot setup with Windows:
+
 
+
* Recommended: Set both Arch Linux and Windows to use UTC. A quick [[Time#UTC in Windows|registry fix]] is needed. Also, be sure to prevent Windows from synchronizing the time on-line, because the hardware clock will default back to ''localtime''.
+
 
+
* Not recommended: Set Arch Linux to ''localtime'' and disable any time-related services, like [[Network Time Protocol daemon|NTPd]] . This will let Windows take care of hardware clock corrections and you will need to remember to boot into Windows at least two times a year (in Spring and Autumn) when [[Wikipedia:Daylight saving time|DST]] kicks in. So please do not ask on the forums why the clock is one hour behind or ahead if you usually go for days or weeks without booting into Windows.
+
 
+
==== Kernel modules ====
+
 
+
{{Tip|This is just an example, you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by udev, so you will rarely need to add something here. Only add modules that you know are missing.}}
+
 
+
For kernel modules to load during boot, place a {{ic|*.conf}} file in {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/}}, with a name based on the program that uses them.
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf|
+
# Load 'virtio-net.ko' at boot.
+
 
+
virtio-net}}
+
 
+
If there are more modules to load per {{ic|*.conf}}, the module names can be separated by newlines. A good example are the [[VirtualBox#Arch Linux guests|VirtualBox Guest Additions]].
+
 
+
Empty lines and lines starting with {{ic|#}} or {{ic|;}} are ignored.
+
  
 
==== Hostname ====
 
==== Hostname ====
  
Set the [[Wikipedia:hostname|hostname]] to your liking (e.g. ''arch''):
+
Set the [[hostname]] by [[add]]ing an entry to {{ic|/etc/hostname}}, where ''myhostname'' is the desired host name:
  
# echo ''myhostname'' > /etc/hostname
+
{{hc|1=/etc/hostname|2=
 +
''myhostname''
 +
}}
  
{{Note|There is no need to edit {{ic|/etc/hosts}}.}}
+
It is recommended to append the same host name to {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, for example:
  
=== Configure the network ===
+
{{hc|1=/etc/hosts|2=
 
+
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost ''myhostname''
You need to configure the network again, but this time for your newly installed environment. The procedure and prerequisites are very similar to the one described [[#Establish an internet connection|above]], except we are going to make it persistent and automatically run at boot.
+
::1 localhost.localdomain localhost ''myhostname''
 
+
{{Note|
+
* For more in-depth information on network configration, visit [[Network Configuration]] and [[Wireless Setup]].
+
* If you would like to use the old interface naming scheme (ie. eth* and wlan*) you can accomplish this by creating an empty file at {{ic|/etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-name-slot.rules}} which will mask the file of the same name located under {{ic|/usr/lib/udev/rules.d}} (alternatively, instead of an empty file, using a symlink to {{ic|/dev/null}} is also an acceptable masking method).
+
 
}}
 
}}
  
 
==== Wired ====
 
==== Wired ====
  
===== Dynamic IP =====
+
When only requiring a single wired connection, [[enable]] the [[dhcpcd]] service:
 
+
; Using dhcpcd
+
 
+
If you only use a single fixed wired network connection, you do not need a network management service and can simply enable the {{ic|dhcpcd}} service:
+
 
+
# systemctl enable dhcpcd.service
+
 
+
{{Note|If it doesn't work, use: {{ic|# systemctl enable dhcpcd@''interface_name''.service}} }}
+
 
+
; Using netctl
+
 
+
Copy a sample profile from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}:
+
 
+
# cd /etc/netctl
+
# cp examples/ethernet-dhcp my-network
+
 
+
Edit the profile as needed (update {{ic|Interface}} from {{ic|eth0}} to match network adapter ID as shown by running {{ic|ip link}}):
+
 
+
# nano my-network
+
 
+
Enable the {{ic|my-network}} profile:
+
 
+
# netctl enable my-network
+
 
+
; Using netctl-ifplugd
+
 
+
{{Warning|You cannot use this method in conjunction with explicitly enabling profiles, such as {{ic|netctl enable <profile>}}.}}
+
 
+
Alternatively, you can use {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}, which gracefully handles dynamic connections to new networks:
+
 
+
Install {{Pkg|ifplugd}}, which is required for {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}:
+
 
+
# pacman -S ifplugd
+
 
+
Then enable for interface that you want:
+
 
+
# systemctl enable netctl-ifplugd@<interface>.service
+
 
+
{{Tip|[[Netctl]] also provides {{ic|netctl-auto}}, which can be used to handle wired profiles in conjunction with {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}.}}
+
 
+
===== Static IP =====
+
 
+
; Using netctl
+
 
+
Copy a sample profile from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}:
+
 
+
# cd /etc/netctl
+
# cp examples/ethernet-static my-network
+
 
+
Edit the profile as needed (modify {{ic|Interface}}, {{ic|Address}}, {{ic|Gateway}} and {{ic|DNS}}):
+
 
+
# nano my-network
+
  
* Notice the {{ic|/24}} in {{ic|Address}} which is the [[wikipedia:Classless Inter-Domain Routing#CIDR notation|CIDR notation]] of a {{ic|255.255.255.0}} netmask
+
# systemctl enable dhcpcd@''interface''.service
  
Enable above created profile to start it at every boot:
+
Where {{ic|''interface''}} is an ethernet [[Network_configuration#Device_names|device name]].
  
# netctl enable my-network
+
See [[Network configuration#Configure the IP address]] for other available methods.
  
 
==== Wireless ====
 
==== Wireless ====
  
{{Note|If your wireless adapter requires a firmware (as described in the above [[#Wireless|Establish an internet connection]] section and also [[Wireless Setup#Device driver|here]]), install the package containing your firmware. Most of the time, the {{Pkg|linux-firmware}} package will contain the needed firmware. Though for some devices, the required firmware might be in its own package. For example:
+
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|iw}}, {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}}, and (for [[Netctl#Wireless_.28WPA-PSK.29|wifi-menu]]) {{Pkg|dialog}} packages:
{{bc|# pacman -S zd1211-firmware}}
+
See [[Wireless Setup#Installing driver/firmware]] for more info.}}
+
  
Install {{Pkg|iw}} and {{Pkg|wpa_supplicant}} which you will need to connect to a network:
+
# pacman -S iw wpa_supplicant dialog
  
# pacman -S iw wpa_supplicant
+
Additional [[Wireless#Installing driver/firmware|firmware packages]] may also be required. When using ''wifi-menu'', do so after [[#Unmount the partitions and reboot]].
  
===== Adding wireless networks =====
+
See [[Wireless#Wireless management]] for other available methods.
  
; Using wifi-menu
+
=== Root password ===
  
Install {{Pkg|dialog}}, which is required for {{ic|wifi-menu}}:
+
Set the root [[password]] with:
 
+
# pacman -S dialog
+
 
+
After finishing the rest of this installation and rebooting, you can connect to the network with {{ic|wifi-menu ''interface_name''}} (where {{ic|''interface_name''}} is the interface of your wireless chipset).
+
 
+
# wifi-menu ''interface_name''
+
 
+
{{Warning|This must be done *after* your reboot when you are no longer chrooted. The process spawned by this command will conflict with the one you have running outside of the chroot. Alternatively, you could just configure a network profile manually using the following templates so that you do not have to worry about using {{ic|wifi-menu}} at all.}}
+
 
+
; Using manual netctl profiles
+
 
+
Copy a network profile from {{ic|/etc/netctl/examples}} to {{ic|/etc/netctl}}:
+
 
+
# cd /etc/netctl
+
# cp examples/wireless-wpa my-network
+
 
+
Edit the profile as needed (modify {{ic|Interface}}, {{ic|ESSID}} and {{ic|Key}}):
+
 
+
# nano my-network
+
 
+
Enable above created profile to start it at every boot:
+
 
+
# netctl enable my-network
+
 
+
===== Connect automatically to known networks =====
+
 
+
{{Warning|You cannot use this method in conjunction with explicitly enabling profiles, such as {{ic|netctl enable <profile>}}.}}
+
 
+
Install {{Pkg|wpa_actiond}}, which is required for {{ic|netctl-auto}}:
+
 
+
# pacman -S wpa_actiond
+
 
+
Enable the {{ic|netctl-auto}} service, which will connect to known networks and gracefully handle roaming and disconnects:
+
 
+
# systemctl enable netctl-auto@''interface_name''.service
+
 
+
{{Tip|[[Netctl]] also provides {{ic|netctl-ifplugd}}, which can be used to handle wired profiles in conjunction with {{ic|netctl-auto}}.}}
+
 
+
==== Analog modem, ISDN or PPPoE DSL ====
+
 
+
For xDSL, dial-up and ISDN connections, see [[Direct Modem Connection]].
+
 
+
=== Create an initial ramdisk environment ===
+
 
+
{{Tip|Most users can skip this step and use the defaults provided in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}}. The initramfs image (from the {{ic|/boot}} folder) has already been generated based on this file when the {{Pkg|linux}} package (the Linux kernel) was installed earlier with {{ic|pacstrap}}.}}
+
 
+
Here you need to set the right [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS|hooks]] if the root is on a USB drive, if you use RAID, LVM, or if {{ic|/usr}} is on a separate partition.
+
 
+
Edit {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}} as needed and re-generate the initramfs image with:
+
 
+
# mkinitcpio -p linux
+
 
+
{{Note|Arch VPS installations on QEMU (e.g. when using {{ic|virt-manager}}) may need {{ic|virtio}} modules in {{ic|mkinitcpio.conf}} to be able to boot.
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /etc/mkinitcpio.conf|2=
+
MODULES="virtio virtio_blk virtio_pci virtio_net"
+
}}
+
}}
+
 
+
=== Set the root password ===
+
 
+
Set the root password with:
+
  
 
  # passwd
 
  # passwd
  
=== Install and configure a bootloader ===
+
== Unmount the partitions and reboot ==
  
==== For BIOS motherboards ====
+
Exit from the chroot environment by running {{ic|exit}} or pressing {{ic|Ctrl+D}}.
  
For BIOS systems, two bootloaders are available: Syslinux and GRUB. Choose the bootloader as per your convenience.
+
Partitions will be unmounted automatically by ''systemd'' on shutdown. You may however unmount manually as a safety measure:
  
* Syslinux is (currently) limited to loading only files from the partition where it was installed. Its configuration file is considered to be easier to understand. An example configuration can be found [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1109328#p1109328 here].
+
# umount -R /mnt
  
* GRUB is more feature-rich and supports more complex scenarios. Its configuration file(s) is more similar to 'sh' scripting language, which may be difficult for beginners to manually write. It is recommended that they automatically generate one.
+
If the partition is "busy", you can find the cause with [[fuser]]. Reboot the computer.  
  
===== Syslinux =====
+
# reboot
  
{{Note|If you opted for a GUID partition table (GPT) for your hard drive earlier, you need to install the {{Pkg|gptfdisk}} package now for this next step to work, assuming you have not installed it already.}}
+
Remove the installation media, or you may boot back into it. You can log into your new installation as ''root'', using the password you specified with ''passwd''.
  
Install the {{Pkg|syslinux}} package and then use the {{ic|syslinux-install_update}} script to automatically ''install'' the bootloader ({{ic|-i}}), mark the partition ''active'' by setting the boot flag ({{ic|-a}}), and install the ''MBR'' boot code ({{ic|-m}}):
+
== Post-installation ==
  
# pacman -S syslinux
+
Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready to be built into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. You are now ''strongly'' advised to read the [[General recommendations]] article, especially the first two sections. Its other sections provide links to post-installation tutorials like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad.
# syslinux-install_update -i -a -m
+
 
+
Configure {{ic|syslinux.cfg}} to point to the right root partition. This step is vital. If it points to the wrong partition, Arch Linux will not boot. Change {{ic|/dev/sda3}} to reflect your root partition ''(if you partitioned your drive as in [[#Prepare the storage drive|the example]], your root partition is sda1)''. Do the same for the fallback entry.
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg|2=
+
...
+
LABEL arch
+
        ...
+
        APPEND root='''/dev/sda3''' rw
+
        ...}}
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using Syslinux, see [[Syslinux]].
+
 
+
===== GRUB =====
+
 
+
Install the {{Pkg|grub}} package and then run {{ic|grub-install}} to install the bootloader:
+
 
+
{{Note|
+
* Change {{ic|/dev/sda}} to reflect the drive you installed Arch on. Do not append a partition number (do not use {{ic|sda''X''}}).
+
* For GPT-partitioned drives on BIOS motherboards, you also need a "BIOS Boot Partition". See [[GRUB#GUID Partition Table (GPT) specific instructions|GPT-specific instructions]] and [[GRUB#Install_to_GPT_BIOS_boot_partition|Install to GPT BIOS boot partition]] in the GRUB page.
+
}}
+
 
+
# pacman -S grub
+
# grub-install --target=i386-pc --recheck --debug '''/dev/sda'''
+
 
+
While using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it is recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
+
 
+
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} ({{ic|pacman -S os-prober}}) before running the next command.}}
+
 
+
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
+
 
+
==== For UEFI motherboards ====
+
 
+
For UEFI systems, several options are available. A complete list of options is available at [[UEFI Bootloaders]]. You may find that some options work while others do not. Otherwise, choose one as per your convenience. Here, we give some of the possibilities as examples:
+
 
+
* [[gummiboot]] is a minimal UEFI Boot Manager which basically provides a menu for EFISTUB kernels and other UEFI applications. The pkg {{Pkg|gummiboot}} is part of [core] repo and is recommended UEFI boot method.
+
* GRUB is a more complete bootloader, useful if you run into problems with EFISTUB and/or Gummiboot/rEFInd.
+
 
+
{{Note|For UEFI boot, the drive needs to be GPT-partitioned and an [[Unified Extensible Firmware Interface#EFI System Partition|EFI System Partition]] (512 MiB or larger, gdisk type {{ic|EF00}}, formatted with FAT32) must be present. In the following examples, this partition is assumed to be mounted at {{ic|/boot}}. If you have followed this guide from the beginning, you have already done all of these.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|[[UEFI Bootloaders#Using rEFInd|rEFInd]] is another alternative to Gummiboot thats is contains auto-detection features and uses Kernel EFISTUB for actual booting.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|[[UEFI_Bootloaders#Using_efibootmgr_entry|Direct EFISTUB booting]] is not recommended for Beginners.}}
+
 
+
===== Gummiboot =====
+
 
+
{{Note|The below commands should be run BEFORE '''chroot''', if any, but are only necessary if you are using the September 2013 iso or earlier.}}
+
 
+
# umount /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
+
# modprobe -r efivars
+
 
+
# modprobe efivarfs
+
# mount -t efivarfs efivarfs /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
+
 
+
{{Note|Regardless of the iso you use, if you are chrooting, you must run the following command BEFORE chroot (where ({{ic|$CHROOT}} denotes the '''chroot''' dir). This step is not required if chroot is not involved.}}
+
 
+
# mount --bind /sys/firmware/efi/efivars $CHROOT/sys/firmware/efi/efivars
+
 
+
{{Note|The below commands should be run AFTER '''chroot''', if any.}}
+
 
+
Install the {{Pkg|gummiboot}} package and then run the following to install gummiboot as your bootloader:
+
 
+
# pacman -S gummiboot
+
# gummiboot install
+
 
+
You will need to manually create a configuration file to add an entry for Arch Linux to the gummiboot manager. Create {{ic|/boot/loader/entries/arch.conf}} and add the following contents, replacing {{ic|/dev/sdaX}} with your root partition, usually {{ic|/dev/sda2}}:
+
 
+
{{hc|# nano /boot/loader/entries/arch.conf|2=
+
title          Arch Linux
+
linux        /vmlinuz-linux
+
initrd        /initramfs-linux.img
+
options    root='''PARTUUID=6f44c56d-d5c2-41ca-8c54-873d8dc5e5e3''' rw add_efi_memmap
+
}}
+
 
+
{{Note|In the above config PARTUUID denotes the Unique Partition GUID of the '''root''' partition, stored in the GPT table of the disk. PARTUUID is independent of (FS)UUID. PARTUUID info for existing partitions can be obtained using {{ic|blkid}} command. The above PARTUUID is given for example only.
+
 
+
{{hc|# blkid|2=
+
/dev/sda1: LABEL="EFISYS" UUID="1A38-7D84" TYPE="vfat" PARTLABEL="EFISYS" PARTUUID="f5e1ef99-752e-4041-855d-aca8a7cc0d03"
+
/dev/sda2: LABEL="BOOT" UUID="0ec12acc-413e-41cd-b48f-6a34770a54c8" TYPE="ext4" PARTLABEL="BOOT" PARTUUID="21c21be7-e002-4c15-b14a-ac3c6cbf152f"
+
/dev/sda3: LABEL="ROOT" UUID="99a33077-b303-4fd6-ae3f-a163ed8c590b" TYPE="ext4" PARTLABEL="ROOT" PARTUUID="6f44c56d-d5c2-41ca-8c54-873d8dc5e5e3"
+
}}
+
}}
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using gummiboot, see [[gummiboot]].
+
 
+
===== GRUB =====
+
 
+
{{Note|The below commands should be run BEFORE '''chroot''', if any, and only if you are using September 2013 or before iso.}}
+
 
+
# umount /sys/firmware/efi/efivars
+
# modprobe -r efivars
+
# modprobe efivars
+
 
+
{{Note|The below commands should be run AFTER '''chroot''', if any.}}
+
 
+
Install the {{Pkg|grub}} and {{Pkg|efibootmgr}} packages and then run the following to install the bootloader:
+
 
+
# pacman -S grub efibootmgr
+
# grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id=arch_grub --recheck --debug
+
 
+
Next, while using a manually created {{ic|grub.cfg}} is absolutely fine, it is recommended that beginners automatically generate one:
+
 
+
{{Tip|To automatically search for other operating systems on your computer, install {{Pkg|os-prober}} before running the next command.}}
+
 
+
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
+
 
+
For more information on configuring and using GRUB, see [[GRUB]].
+
 
+
=== Unmount the partitions and reboot ===
+
 
+
Exit from the chroot environment:
+
 
+
# exit
+
 
+
Since the partitions are mounted under {{ic|/mnt}}, we use the following command to unmount them:
+
 
+
# umount -R /mnt
+
 
+
Reboot the computer:
+
 
+
# reboot
+
  
{{Tip|Be sure to remove the installation media, otherwise you will boot back into it.}}
+
For particular areas of interest, see the [[List of applications]].
<noinclude>{{Beginners' Guide navigation}}</noinclude>
+

Latest revision as of 14:01, 24 July 2016

This document will guide you through the process of installing Arch Linux using the Arch Install Scripts. Before installing, you are advised to skim over the FAQ.

The community-maintained ArchWiki is the primary resource that should be consulted if issues arise. The IRC channel (irc://irc.freenode.net/#archlinux) and the forums are also excellent resources if an answer cannot be found elsewhere. In accordance with the Arch Way, you are encouraged to type man command to read the man page of any command you are unfamiliar with.

Tip: This guide is accessible from the live installation with the ELinks browser, after the #Connect to the Internet step. This can be done in a new virtual console, switching (Alt+arrow) between the console containing the web page, and the console where you are performing the installation. Similarly, the #archlinux IRC can be accessed using irssi.

Preparation

Arch Linux should run on any i686 compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packages from the base group should take less than 800 MB of disk space.

See Category:Getting and installing Arch for instructions on downloading the installation medium, and methods for booting it to the target machine(s). This guide assumes you use the latest available version.

After booting into the installation media, you will be automatically logged in as the root user and presented with a Zsh shell prompt. For modifying or creating configuration files, typically in /etc, nano or vim are suggested.

UEFI mode

In case you have a UEFI motherboard with UEFI mode enabled, the CD/USB will automatically launch Arch Linux via systemd-boot.

To verify you are booted in UEFI mode, check that the following directory is populated:

# ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars

See UEFI#UEFI Variables for details.

Set the keyboard layout

The default console keymap is set to us. Available choices can be listed with ls /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/**/*.map.gz.

Note: localectl list-keymaps does not work due to bug FS#46725.

For example, to change the layout to de-latin1, run:

# loadkeys de-latin1

If certain characters appear as white squares or other symbols, change the console font. For example:

# setfont lat9w-16

Connect to the Internet

The dhcpcd daemon is enabled on boot for wired devices, and will attempt to start a connection. To access captive portal login forms, use the ELinks browser.

Verify a connection was established, for example with ping archlinux.org. If no connection is available, see Network configuration or follow the below netctl examples. Otherwise, continue to #Update the system clock.

Netctl preparation

To prevent conflicts, stop the enabled dhcpcd service first, replacing enp0s25 with the correct wired interface:

# systemctl stop dhcpcd@enp0s25.service

Interfaces can be listed using ip link, or iw dev for wireless devices. They are prefixed with en (ethernet), wl (WLAN), or ww (WWAN).

Wireless

List available networks, and make a connection for a specified interface:

# wifi-menu -o wlp2s0

The resulting configuration file is stored in /etc/netctl. For networks which require both a username and password, see WPA2 Enterprise#netctl.

Other

Several example profiles, such as for configuring a static IP address, are available. Copy the required one to /etc/netctl, for example ethernet-static:

# cp /etc/netctl/examples/ethernet-static /etc/netctl

Adjust the copy as needed, and enable it:

# netctl start ethernet-static

Update the system clock

Use systemd-timesyncd to ensure that your system clock is accurate. To start it:

# timedatectl set-ntp true

To check the service status, use timedatectl status.

Prepare the storage devices

Warning: In general, partitioning or formatting will make existing data inaccessible and subject to being overwritten, i.e. destroyed, by subsequent operations. For this reason, all data that needs to be preserved must be backed up before proceeding.

In this step, the storage devices that will be used by the new system will be prepared. Read Partitioning for a more general overview.

Users intending to create stacked block devices for LVM, disk encryption or RAID, should keep those instructions in mind when preparing the partitions. If intending to install to a USB flash key, see Installing Arch Linux on a USB key.

Identify the devices

Identify the devices where the new system will be installed:

# lsblk

Not all devices listed are viable mediums for installation; results ending in rom, loop or airoot can be ignored.

Note: In the sections below, the sdxy notation will be used (x for the device, y for an existing partition).

If the existing partition scheme does not need to be changed, you may skip to #Format the partitions.

Partition the devices

Partitioning a hard drive divides the available space into sections that can be accessed independently. The required information is stored in a partition table using a format such as MBR or GPT. Existing tables can be printed with parted /dev/sdx print or fdisk -l /dev/sdx.

To partition devices, use a partitioning tool compatible to the chosen type of partition table. Incompatible tools may result in the destruction of that table, along with existing partitions or data. Choices include:

Name MBR GPT Variants
fdisk Yes Yes sfdisk, cfdisk
gdisk No Yes cgdisk, sgdisk
parted Yes Yes GParted

The examples below demonstrate a basic partition scheme for both types of partition tables. They assume that a new, contiguous layout is applied to a single device in /dev/sdx. Necessary changes to device names and partition numbers must be done beforehand.

UEFI/GPT example layout
Mount point Partition Partition type (GUID) Bootable flag Suggested size
/boot /dev/sdx1 EFI System Partition Yes 260–512 MiB
[SWAP] /dev/sdx2 Linux swap No More than 512 MiB
/ /dev/sdx3 Linux No Remainder of the device
MBR/BIOS example layout
Mount point Partition Partition type Bootable flag Suggested size
[SWAP] /dev/sdx1 Linux swap No More than 512 MiB
/ /dev/sdx2 Linux Yes Remainder of the device

Format the partitions

Warning: If dual-booting with an existing installation of Windows on a UEFI/GPT system, avoid reformatting the UEFI partition, as this includes the Windows .efi file required to boot it.

Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system, except for swap partitions. All available partitions on the intended installation device can be listed with the following command:

# lsblk /dev/sdx

With the exceptions noted below, it is recommended to use the ext4 file system:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdxy

If a swap partition was created, it must be set up and activated with:

# mkswap /dev/sdxy
# swapon /dev/sdxy

If a new UEFI system partition has been created on a UEFI/GPT system, it must be formatted with a fat32 file system:

# mkfs.fat -F32 /dev/sdxy

Mount the partitions

Mount the root partition to the /mnt directory of the live system:

# mount /dev/sdxy /mnt

Remaining partitions except swap may be mounted in any order, after creating the respective mount points. For example, when using a /boot partition:

# mkdir -p /mnt/boot
# mount /dev/sdxy /mnt/boot

/mnt/boot is also recommended for mounting the (formatted or already existing) EFI System Partition on a UEFI/GPT system. See EFISTUB and related articles for alternatives.

Installation

Select the mirrors

Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist. On the live system, all mirrors are enabled, and sorted by their synchronization status and speed at the time the installation image was created.

The higher a mirror is placed in the list, the more priority it is given when downloading a package. You may want to edit the file accordingly, and move the geographically closest mirrors to the top of the list, although other criteria should be taken into account.

The pacstrap tool used in the next step also installs a copy of the file to the new system, so it is worth getting right.

Install the base packages

The pacstrap script installs the base group of packages. This group does not include all tools from the live installation, such as btrfs-progs; see packages.both for comparison.

To build packages from the AUR or with the ABS, the base-devel group is also required. Packages can be installed with pacman anytime after the #Change root step later, or by appending their names to the pacstrap command.

# pacstrap -i /mnt base base-devel

The -i switch ensures prompting before package installation. With the base group, the first initramfs will be generated and installed to the new system's boot path; double-check output prompts ==> Image creation successful for it.

Configuration

fstab

Generate an fstab file. The -U option indicates UUIDs. Labels can be used instead through the -L option.

# genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab

Check the resulting file in /mnt/etc/fstab afterwards, and edit it in case of errors.

Change root

Chroot to the new system:

# arch-chroot /mnt /bin/bash

Locale

The Locale defines which language the system uses, and other regional considerations such as currency denomination, numerology, and character sets.

Uncomment en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 in /etc/locale.gen, as well as other needed localisations. Save the file, and generate the new locales:

# locale-gen

Create /etc/locale.conf, where en_US.UTF-8 refers to the first column of an uncommented entry in /etc/locale.gen:

/etc/locale.conf
LANG=en_US.UTF-8

If you set the keyboard layout, make the changes persistent in /etc/vconsole.conf. For example, if de-latin1 was set with loadkeys, and lat9w-16 with setfont, assign the KEYMAP and FONT variables accordingly:

/etc/vconsole.conf
KEYMAP=de-latin1
FONT=lat9w-16

Time

Select a time zone:

# tzselect

Create the symbolic link /etc/localtime, where Zone/Subzone is the TZ value from tzselect:

# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Zone/SubZone /etc/localtime

It is recommended to adjust the time skew, and set the time standard to UTC:

# hwclock --systohc --utc

If other operating systems are installed on the machine, they must be configured accordingly. See Time for details.

Initramfs

Because mkinitcpio was run on installation of linux with pacstrap, most users do not need to regenerate the intramfs image so this step can be skipped.

For special configurations, set the correct hooks in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf and re-generate the initramfs image:

# mkinitcpio -p linux

Boot loader

See Category:Boot loaders for available choices and configurations. Choices include GRUB (BIOS/UEFI), systemd-boot (UEFI) and syslinux (BIOS).

If you have an Intel CPU, in addition to installing a boot loader, install the intel-ucode package and enable microcode updates.

Network configuration

The procedure is similar to #Connect to the Internet for the live installation environment, except made persistent for subsequent boots.

Hostname

Set the hostname by adding an entry to /etc/hostname, where myhostname is the desired host name:

/etc/hostname
myhostname

It is recommended to append the same host name to /etc/hosts, for example:

/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1	localhost.localdomain	localhost	 myhostname
::1		localhost.localdomain	localhost	 myhostname

Wired

When only requiring a single wired connection, enable the dhcpcd service:

# systemctl enable dhcpcd@interface.service

Where interface is an ethernet device name.

See Network configuration#Configure the IP address for other available methods.

Wireless

Install the iw, wpa_supplicant, and (for wifi-menu) dialog packages:

# pacman -S iw wpa_supplicant dialog

Additional firmware packages may also be required. When using wifi-menu, do so after #Unmount the partitions and reboot.

See Wireless#Wireless management for other available methods.

Root password

Set the root password with:

# passwd

Unmount the partitions and reboot

Exit from the chroot environment by running exit or pressing Ctrl+D.

Partitions will be unmounted automatically by systemd on shutdown. You may however unmount manually as a safety measure:

# umount -R /mnt

If the partition is "busy", you can find the cause with fuser. Reboot the computer.

# reboot

Remove the installation media, or you may boot back into it. You can log into your new installation as root, using the password you specified with passwd.

Post-installation

Your new Arch Linux base system is now a functional GNU/Linux environment ready to be built into whatever you wish or require for your purposes. You are now strongly advised to read the General recommendations article, especially the first two sections. Its other sections provide links to post-installation tutorials like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad.

For particular areas of interest, see the List of applications.