Difference between revisions of "Bluetooth"

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(Installation: dbus is started by systemd.)
(revert to latest revision by User:City-busz, Obex section only covers Obex --> no need to rename it, Obex is more usage than configuration, related articles don't need sections)
 
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[[fr:Bluetooth]]
 
[[fr:Bluetooth]]
 
[[it:Bluetooth]]
 
[[it:Bluetooth]]
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[[ja:Bluetooth]]
 
[[ru:Bluetooth]]
 
[[ru:Bluetooth]]
[[zh-CN:Bluetooth]]
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[[zh-hans:Bluetooth]]
{{Article summary start}}
+
{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary text|Covers the installation and use of Bluetooth on Arch Linux.}}
+
{{Related|Bluez4}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
+
{{Related|Bluetooth mouse}}
{{Article summary wiki|Bluetooth mouse configuration}}
+
{{Related|Bluetooth keyboard}}
{{Article summary end}}
+
{{Related|Bluetooth headset}}
 
+
{{Related|Blueman}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
 
[http://www.bluetooth.org/ Bluetooth] is a standard for the short-range wireless interconnection of cellular phones, computers, and other electronic devices. In Linux, the canonical implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack is [http://www.bluez.org/ BlueZ].
 
[http://www.bluetooth.org/ Bluetooth] is a standard for the short-range wireless interconnection of cellular phones, computers, and other electronic devices. In Linux, the canonical implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack is [http://www.bluez.org/ BlueZ].
  
 
== Installation ==
 
== Installation ==
To use Bluetooth, [[pacman|install]] {{Pkg|bluez}}, available in the [[Official Repositories]]. The {{ic|dbus}} daemon(start automatically by systemd) is used to read settings and for PIN pairing, while the {{ic|bluetooth}} daemon is required for the Bluetooth protocol.
 
  
Start the bluetooth service:
+
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|bluez}} and {{Pkg|bluez-utils}} packages. The {{Pkg|bluez}} package provides the Bluetooth protocol stack, and the {{Pkg|bluez-utils}} package provides the {{ic|bluetoothctl}} utility.  
# systemctl start bluetooth.service
 
  
Enable the bluetooth service at system boot up:
+
The generic Bluetooth driver is the {{ic|btusb}} Kernel module. [[Kernel_module#Obtaining_information|Check]] whether that module is loaded. If it's not, then [[Kernel_module#Manual_module_handling|load the module]].
# systemctl enable bluetooth.service
 
  
== Graphical front-ends ==
+
Then [[start]] the {{ic|bluetooth.service}} systemd unit. You can [[enable]] it to start automatically at boot time.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|
 +
* By default the bluetooth daemon will only give out bnep0 devices to users that are a member of the {{ic|lp}} group. Make sure to add your user to that group if you intend to connect to a bluetooth tether. You can change the group that is required in the file {{ic|/etc/dbus-1/system.d/bluetooth.conf}}.
 +
* Some Bluetooth adapters are bundled with a Wi-Fi card (e.g. [http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/wireless-products/centrino-advanced-n-6235.html Intel Centrino]). These require that the Wi-Fi card is firstly enabled (typically a keyboard shortcut on a laptop) in order to make the Bluetooth adapter visible to the kernel.
 +
* Some Bluetooth cards (e.g. Broadcom) conflict with the network adapter. Thus, you need to make sure that your Bluetooth device get connected before the network service boot.
 +
* Some tools such as hcitool and hciconfig have been deprecated upstream, and are no longer included in {{Pkg|bluez-utils}}. Since these tools will no longer be updated, it is recommended that scripts be updated to avoid using them. If you still desire to use them, install {{AUR|bluez-utils-compat}}. See {{Bug|53110}} and [https://www.spinics.net/lists/linux-bluetooth/msg69239.html the Bluez mailing list] for more information. }}
 +
 
 +
=== Front-ends ===
 +
 
 +
==== Console ====
 +
 
 +
* {{App|bluetoothctl|Pairing a device from the shell is one of the simplest and most reliable options.|http://www.bluez.org/|{{Pkg|bluez-utils}}}}
 +
 
 +
==== Graphical ====
  
 
The following packages allow for a graphical interface to customize Bluetooth.
 
The following packages allow for a graphical interface to customize Bluetooth.
  
=== Blueman ===
+
* {{App|GNOME Bluetooth|[[GNOME]]'s Bluetooth tool.
 +
** {{Pkg|gnome-bluetooth}} provides the back-end
 +
** {{Pkg|gnome-shell}} provides the status monitor applet
 +
** {{Pkg|gnome-control-center}} provides the configuration front-end GUI that can be accessed by typing Bluetooth on the Activities overview, or with the {{ic|gnome-control-center bluetooth}} command.
 +
** You can also launch the {{ic|bluetooth-sendto}} command directly to send files to a remote device.
 +
** To receive files, open the Bluetooth settings panel; you can only receive whilst the Bluetooth panel is open.
 +
** To add a Bluetooth entry to the ''Send To'' menu in Thunar's file properties menu, see instructions [http://docs.xfce.org/xfce/thunar/send-to here]. (The command that needs to be configured is {{ic|bluetooth-sendto %F}}).
 +
|https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/GnomeBluetooth|}}
 +
* {{App|Bluedevil|[[KDE]]'s Bluetooth tool. If there is no Bluetooth icon visible in Dolphin and in the system tray, enable it in the system tray options or add a widget. You can configure Bluedevil and detect Bluetooth devices by clicking the icon. An interface is also available from the KDE System Settings.|https://projects.kde.org/projects/kde/workspace/bluedevil|{{Pkg|bluedevil}}}}
 +
* {{App|Blueberry|Linux Mint's spin-off of GNOME Bluetooth, which works in all desktop environments. ''Blueberry'' doesn't support receiving files through Obex Object Push.|https://github.com/linuxmint/blueberry|{{Pkg|blueberry}}}}
 +
* {{App|[[Blueman]]|A full featured Bluetooth manager.|https://github.com/blueman-project/blueman|{{Pkg|blueman}}}}
 +
 
 +
== Pairing ==
 +
 
 +
{{Note|Before using the bluetooth device, make sure that it is not blocked by [[rfkill]].}}
  
[http://blueman-project.org Blueman] is a full featured Bluetooth manager written in [[GTK+]] and, as such, is recommended for [[GNOME]] or [[Xfce]]. You can install Blueman with the package {{Pkg|blueman}}, available in the [[Official Repositories]].
+
This section describes directly configuring ''bluez5'' via the ''bluetoothctl'' CLI, which might not be necessary if you are using  an alternative front-end tool (such as GNOME Bluetooth).
  
Be sure that {{ic|bluetooth}} daemon is running as described above (added to rc.conf after dbus), and execute {{ic|blueman-applet}}. To make the applet run on login add {{ic|blueman-applet}} either under ''System -> Preferences -> Startup Applications'' (GNOME) or ''Xfce Menu -> Settings -> Session and Startup'' (Xfce).
+
The exact procedure depends on the devices involved and their input functionality. What follows is a general outline of pairing a device using {{ic|/usr/bin/bluetoothctl}}:
  
In order for a user to add and manage Bluetooth devices using Blueman, the user must be added to the 'lp' group. See /etc/dbus-1/system.d/bluetooth.conf for the section that enables users of the 'lp' group to communicate with the Bluetooth daemon.
+
Start the {{ic|bluetoothctl}} interactive command. Input {{ic|help}} to get a list of available commands.
  
{{Note|If you are running Blueman outside GNOME/GDM (e.g., in Xfce using the {{ic|startx}} command) you should add {{ic|. /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d/*}} on top of your {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} to make Nautilus capable to browse your devices.}}
+
# Possibly select a default controller by inputting {{ic|select ''MAC Address''}}
 +
# Turn the power to the controller on by entering {{ic|power on}}. It is off by default and will turn off again each reboot, see [[#Auto power-on after boot]].
 +
# Enter {{ic|devices}} to get the MAC Address of the device with which to pair.
 +
# Enter device discovery mode with {{ic|scan on}} command if device is not yet on the list.
 +
# Turn the agent on with {{ic|agent on}} or choose a specific agent: if you press tab twice after {{ic|agent}} you should see a list of available agents, e.g. DisplayOnly KeyboardDisplay NoInputNoOutput DisplayYesNo KeyboardOnly off on.
 +
# Enter {{ic|pair ''MAC Address''}} to do the pairing (tab completion works).
 +
# If using a device without a PIN, one may need to manually trust the device before it can reconnect successfully. Enter {{ic|trust ''MAC Address''}} to do so.
 +
# Finally, use {{ic|connect ''MAC_address''}} to establish a connection.
  
To receive files don't forget to right click on the ''Blueman tray icon -> Local Services -> Transfer -> File Receiving" and tick the square box next to "Enabled".
+
An example session may look this way:
  
==== Script for Thunar ====
+
# bluetoothctl
If you are not using Nautilus (for example Thunar) you may find the following script useful:
+
[NEW] Controller 00:10:20:30:40:50 pi [default]
{{hc|obex_thunar.sh|
+
[bluetooth]# agent KeyboardOnly
#!/bin/bash
+
Agent registered
fusermount -u ~/bluetooth
+
[bluetooth]# default-agent
obexfs -b $1 ~/bluetooth
+
Default agent request successful
thunar ~/bluetooth
+
[bluetooth]# power on
 +
Changing power on succeeded
 +
[CHG] Controller 00:10:20:30:40:50 Powered: yes
 +
[bluetooth]# scan on
 +
Discovery started
 +
[CHG] Controller 00:10:20:30:40:50 Discovering: yes
 +
[NEW] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 myLino
 +
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 LegacyPairing: yes
 +
[bluetooth]# pair 00:12:34:56:78:90
 +
Attempting to pair with 00:12:34:56:78:90
 +
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: yes
 +
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: no
 +
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: yes
 +
Request PIN code
 +
[agent] Enter PIN code: 1234
 +
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Paired: yes
 +
Pairing successful
 +
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: no
 +
[bluetooth]# connect 00:12:34:56:78:90
 +
Attempting to connect to 00:12:34:56:78:90
 +
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: yes
 +
Connection successful
 +
 
 +
== Configuration ==
 +
 
 +
=== Auto power-on after boot ===
 +
 
 +
By default, your Bluetooth adapter will not power on after a reboot. The former method by using {{ic|hciconfig hci0 up}} is deprecated, see the [http://www.bluez.org/release-of-bluez-5-35/ release note]. Now you just need to add the line {{ic|1=AutoEnable=true}} in {{ic|/etc/bluetooth/main.conf}} at the bottom in the {{ic|[Policy]}} section:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|1=/etc/bluetooth/main.conf|2=
 +
[Policy]
 +
AutoEnable=true
 
}}
 
}}
Now you will need to move the script to an appropriate location (e.g., {{ic|/usr/bin}}). After that, mark it as executable:
 
{{bc|chmod +x /usr/bin/obex_thunar.sh}}
 
The last step is to change the line in ''Blueman tray icon -> Local Services -> Transfer -> Advanced'' to {{ic|obex_thunar.sh %d}}.
 
  
=== GNOME Bluetooth ===
+
== Using Obex for sending and receiving files ==
 +
 
 +
=== ObexFS ===
  
[http://live.gnome.org/GnomeBluetooth GNOME Bluetooth] is a fork of the old ''bluez-gnome'' and is focused on integration with the [[GNOME]] desktop environment. GNOME Bluetooth is required by {{Pkg|gnome-shell}}, so you should already have it installed if you are running GNOME 3. Otherwise, it can be installed with the package {{Pkg|gnome-bluetooth}}.
+
Another option, rather than using KDE or Gnome Bluetooth packages, is ObexFS which allows for the mounting of phones which are treated like any other filesystem.
  
Run {{ic|bluetooth-applet}} for a nice Bluetooth applet. You should now be able to setup devices and send files by right-clicking the Bluetooth icon. To make the applet run on login, add it to ''System -> Preferences -> Startup Applications''.
+
{{Note|To use ObexFS, one needs a device that provides an ObexFTP service.}}
  
To add a Bluetooth entry to the ''SendTo'' menu in Thunar's file properties menu, see instructions [http://thunar.xfce.org/pwiki/documentation/sendto_menu here].
+
Install {{AUR|obexftp}} and mount supported phones by running:
  
=== BlueDevil ===
+
$ obexfs -b ''MAC_address_of_device'' /mountpoint
  
The Bluetooth tool for [[KDE]] is [https://projects.kde.org/projects/extragear/base/bluedevil BlueDevil]. It can be installed with the package {{Pkg|bluedevil}}, available in the [[Official Repositories]].
+
Once you have finished, to unmount the device use the command:
  
Make sure {{ic|bluetooth}} daemon is running, as described above. You should get a Bluetooth icon both in Dolphin and in the system tray, from which you can configure BlueDevil and detect Bluetooth devices by clicking the icon. You can also configure BlueDevil from the KDE System Settings
+
$ fusermount -u /mountpoint
  
=== Fluxbox, Openbox, other WM ===
+
For more mounting options see http://dev.zuckschwerdt.org/openobex/wiki/ObexFs
Of course you can still use the preceding applications even if GNOME, Xfce or KDE are not your desktop manager. This list should help you figuring out which application does what:
 
* bluetooth-applet -- tray icon with access to settings, pairing wizard, management of known devices
 
* /usr/lib/gnome-user-share/gnome-user-share -- needs to be running if you're about to receive files via obexBT from a paired/bonded device
 
  
if you're receiving an error during transmission and/or there's no file received add this into
+
{{Note|Ensure that the bluetooth device you are mounting is '''not''' set to mount ''read-only''. You should be able to do this from the device's settings. If the device is mounted ''read-only'' you may encounter a permissions error when trying to transfer files to the device.}}
  
{{ic|/etc/dbus-1/system.d/bluetooth.conf}}
+
=== ObexFTP transfers ===
  <policy user="your_user_id">
 
    <allow own="org.bluez"/>
 
    <allow send_destination="org.bluez"/>
 
    <allow send_interface="org.bluez.Agent"/>
 
  </policy>
 
  
* bluetooth-wizard -- for new devices to be paired
+
If your device supports the Obex FTP service but you do not wish to mount the device you can transfer files to and from the device using the obexftp command.
* bluetooth-properties -- accessible also via bluetooth-applet icon
 
* gnome-file-share-properties -- permissions on receiving files via bluetooth
 
* bluez-sendto -- gui for sending files to a remote device
 
  
== Manual configuration ==
+
To send a file to a device run the command:
  
To configure BlueZ manually, you may need to edit the configuration files in {{ic|/etc/bluetooth}}. These are:
+
$ obexftp -b ''MAC_address_of_device'' -p /path/to/file
audio.conf
 
input.conf
 
main.conf
 
network.conf
 
rfcomm.conf
 
  
The default configuration should work for most purposes. Most configuration options are well-documented in these files, so customization is a simple matter of reading the option descriptions. For general options, start with {{ic|main.conf}}.
+
To retrieve a file from a device run the command:
  
=== Audio streaming ===
+
$ obexftp -b ''MAC_address_of_device'' -g filename
If you would like to enable audio streaming from your device to your computer, you must modify {{ic|audio.conf}} and add this to the {{ic|[General]}} section:
 
  Enable=Socket
 
  
== Pairing ==
+
{{Note|Ensure that the file you are retrieving is in the device's ''exchange folder''. If the file is in a subfolder of the exchange folder then provide the correct path in the command.}}
Many bluetooth devices require [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth#Pairing pairing].
 
The exact procedure depends on the devices involved and their input functionality.
 
  
The procedure on a mobile may be as follows:
+
=== Obex Object Push ===
* The computer sends a connect request to the mobile.
 
* A pin, determined by the computer, is prompted for at the mobile
 
* The same key must be re-entered at the computer.
 
  
To pair with a device without using the gnome-bluez package, the ''bluez-simple-agent'' utility that comes with the bluez package can be used. This utility depends on two packages from [extra]:
+
For devices that do not support Obex FTP service, check if Obex Object Push is supported.
  
  # pacman -S python2-dbus python2-gobject
+
  # sdptool browse ''XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX''
  
First, scan for external devices:
+
Read the output, look for Obex Object Push, remember the channel for this service.  If supported, one can use {{AUR|ussp-push}} to send files to this device:
$ hcitool scan
 
  
Run the script as root:
+
# ussp-push ''XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX''@''CHANNEL'' ''file'' ''wanted_file_name_on_phone''
  
# bluez-simple-agent
+
== Audio ==
  
The message "Agent registered" should be returned, press control-c to quit.  
+
In order to be able to use audio equipment like bluetooth headphones or speakers, you need to install the additional {{Pkg|pulseaudio-bluetooth}} package.
  
Below is a basic example of pairing with a specific device. The script will ask for the passcode, enter the code and confirm with enter.
+
Please have a look at the [[Bluetooth headset]] page for more information about bluetooth audio and bluetooth headsets.
  
# bluez-simple-agent hci0 00:11:22:33:AA:BB
+
=== Using your computer's speakers as a bluetooth headset ===
  
{{note|bluez-simple-agent is only needed once for pairing a device, not every time you want to connect.}}
+
In order to enable your system to be detected as an A2DP sink (e.g. to play music from your phone via your computer speakers), add the following to the file {{ic|/etc/bluetooth/audio.conf}} (create it if not present):
  
See the Examples section below for pairing examples with various devices.
+
[General]
 +
Enable=Source
  
== Using Obex for sending and receiving files ==
+
More info in:
Another option, rather than using KDE or Gnome Bluetooth packages, is Obexfs which allows you to mount your phone and treat it as part of your filesystem. Note that to use Obexfs, you need a device that provides an Obex FTP service.
 
  
To install;
+
* https://gist.github.com/joergschiller/1673341
# pacman -S obexfs
+
* http://www.lightofdawn.org/blog/?viewDetailed=00031
  
and then your phone can then be mounted running as root
+
== Troubleshooting ==
# obexfs -b <devices mac address> /mountpoint
 
  
For more mounting options see http://dev.zuckschwerdt.org/openobex/wiki/ObexFs
+
=== Shell command _____ is missing from bluez-utils ===
  
For devices don't support Obex FTP service, check if Obex Object Push is supported.
+
Some tools have been marked as deprecated and removed from the package. At this time they are still available in the AUR package {{AUR|bluez-utils-compat}}. Their functionality is partially covered by new tools, while some things have yet to be implemented with the new [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/bluetooth/bluez.git/tree/doc/ D-Bus API]:
  
# sdptool browse XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
+
{| class="wikitable" style="max-width: 50em;"
 +
|-
 +
! Deprecated tool
 +
! Most likely replacement
 +
|-
 +
| gatttool || btgatt-client, [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/bluetooth/bluez.git/tree/doc/gatt-api.txt D-Bus Gatt API]
 +
|-
 +
| hciattach || btattach
 +
|-
 +
| hciconfig || btmgmt (and bluetoothctl?)
 +
|-
 +
| hcidump || btmon (and btsnoop)
 +
|-
 +
| hcitool || missing, [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/bluetooth/bluez.git/tree/doc/device-api.txt D-Bus Device API] available
 +
|-
 +
| rfcomm
 +
| rowspan="2" | missing, implement with [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/bluetooth/bluez.git/tree/doc/profile-api.txt D-Bus Profile1 API]?
 +
|-
 +
| ciptool
 +
|-
 +
| style="vertical-align: top;" | sdptool
 +
| missing, functionality seems to be scattered over different D-Bus objects: [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/bluetooth/bluez.git/tree/doc/profile-api.txt Profile], [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/bluetooth/bluez.git/tree/doc/advertising-api.txt Advertising], and the UUIDs arrays in [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/bluetooth/bluez.git/tree/doc/device-api.txt device] and [https://git.kernel.org/cgit/bluetooth/bluez.git/tree/doc/adapter-api.txt adapter].
 +
|}
  
Read the output, look for Obex Object Push, remember the channel for this service.  If supported, you can use ussp-push to send files to this device:
+
=== gnome-bluetooth ===
  
# ussp-push XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX@CHANNEL file wanted_file_name_on_phone
+
If you see this when trying to enable receiving files in bluetooth-properties:
  
== Examples ==
+
Bluetooth OBEX start failed: Invalid path
 +
Bluetooth FTP start failed: Invalid path
  
=== Siemens S55 ===
+
Then make sure that the [[XDG user directories]] exist.
  
This is what I did to connect to my S55. (I have not figured out how to initiate the connection from the phone)
+
=== Bluetooth USB Dongle ===
* The steps under installation
 
 
  $> hcitool scan
 
  Scanning ...
 
          XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX  NAME
 
  $> B=XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
 
Start the simple-agent in a second terminal
 
  $> su -c bluez-simple-agent
 
  Password:
 
  Agent registered
 
Back to the first console 
 
  $> obexftp -b $B -l "Address book"
 
  # Phone ask for pin, I enter it and answer yes when asked if I want to save the device
 
  ...
 
  <file name="5F07.adr" size="78712" modified="20030101T001858" user-perm="WD" group-perm="" />
 
  ...
 
  $> obexftp -b 00:01:E3:6B:FF:D7 -g "Address book/5F07.adr"
 
  Browsing 00:01:E3:6B:FF:D7 ...
 
  Channel: 5
 
  Connecting...done
 
  Receiving "Address book/5F07.adr"... Sending "Address book"... done
 
  Disconnecting...done
 
  $> obexftp -b 00:01:E3:6B:FF:D7 -p a                     
 
  ...
 
  Sending "a"... done
 
  Disconnecting...done
 
  
=== Logitech Mouse MX Laser / M555b ===
+
If you are using a USB dongle, you should check that your Bluetooth dongle is recognized. You can do that by running {{ic|journalctl -f}} when you have plugged in the USB dongle (or inspecting {{ic|/var/log/messages.log}}). It should look something like the following (look out for hci):
  
To quickly test the connection:
+
{{bc|
 +
Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname kernel: [ 2661.349823] usb 4-1: new full-speed USB device number 3 using uhci_hcd
 +
Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: HCI dev 0 registered
 +
Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: Listening for HCI events on hci0
 +
Feb 20 15:00:25 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: HCI dev 0 up
 +
Feb 20 15:00:25 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: Adapter /org/bluez/4568/hci0 has been enabled
 +
}}
  
$> hidd --connect XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
+
If you only get the first two lines, you may see that it found the device but you need to bring it up.
 +
Example:
  
For automated reconnection, use your desktop wizard to configure the bluetooth mouse.
+
{{hc|hciconfig -a hci0|
If your desktop environment doesn't includes support for this task, see the [[Bluetooth mouse manual configuration]] guide.
+
hci0: Type: USB
 +
BD Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00 ACL MTU: 0:0 SCO MTU: 0:0
 +
DOWN
 +
RX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 events:0 errors:0
 +
        TX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 commands:0 errors:
 +
}}
  
=== Motorola V900 ===
+
# hciconfig hci0 up
  
After installing blueman and running blueman-applet, click "find me" under connections -> bluetooth in motorla device. In blueman-applet, scan devices, find the motorola, click "add" in blueman-applet. Click "bond" in blueman-applet, enter some pin, enter the same pin in motorola when it asks. In terminal:
+
{{hc|hciconfig -a hci0|
 +
hci0: Type: USB
 +
BD Address: 00:02:72:C4:7C:06 ACL MTU: 377:10 SCO MTU: 64:8
 +
UP RUNNING
 +
RX bytes:348 acl:0 sco:0 events:11 errors:0
 +
        TX bytes:38 acl:0 sco:0 commands:11 errors:0
 +
}}
  
  cd ~/
+
To verify that the device was detected you can use {{ic|hcitool}} which is part of the {{ic|bluez-utils}}. You can get a list of available devices and their identifiers and their MAC address by issuing:
  mkdir bluetooth-temp
 
  obexfs -n xx:yy:zz:... ~/bluetooth-temp
 
  cd ~/bluetooth-temp
 
  
and browse... Only audio, video, and pictures are available when you do this.
+
{{hc|$ hcitool dev|
 +
Devices:
 +
        hci0 00:1B:DC:0F:DB:40
 +
}}
  
=== Motorola RAZ ===
+
More detailed information about the device can be retrieved by using {{ic|hciconfig}}.
  
> pacman -S obextool obexfs obexftp openobex bluez
+
{{hc|$ hciconfig -a hci0|
 +
hci0:  Type: USB
 +
        BD Address: 00:1B:DC:0F:DB:40 ACL MTU: 310:10 SCO MTU: 64:8
 +
        UP RUNNING PSCAN ISCAN
 +
        RX bytes:1226 acl:0 sco:0 events:27 errors:0
 +
        TX bytes:351 acl:0 sco:0 commands:26 errors:0
 +
        Features: 0xff 0xff 0x8f 0xfe 0x9b 0xf9 0x00 0x80
 +
        Packet type: DM1 DM3 DM5 DH1 DH3 DH5 HV1 HV2 HV3
 +
        Link policy: RSWITCH HOLD SNIFF PARK
 +
        Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT
 +
        Name: 'BlueZ (0)'
 +
        Class: 0x000100
 +
        Service Classes: Unspecified
 +
        Device Class: Computer, Uncategorized
 +
        HCI Ver: 2.0 (0x3) HCI Rev: 0xc5c LMP Ver: 2.0 (0x3) LMP Subver: 0xc5c
 +
        Manufacturer: Cambridge Silicon Radio (10)
 +
}}
  
> lsusb
+
==== Audio devices start to skip at short distance from dongle ====
Bus 005 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
 
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
 
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
 
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 03f0:171d Hewlett-Packard Wireless (Bluetooth + WLAN) Interface [Integrated Module]
 
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
 
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
 
  
> hciconfig hci0 up
+
If other devices share the same USB host, they can [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1440161#p1440161 interrupt communication with audio devices]. Make sure it is the only device attached to its bus. For example:
  
> hciconfig
+
{{hc|$ lsusb|
hci0:   Type: BR/EDR  Bus: USB
+
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 0a12:0001 Cambridge Silicon Radio, Ltd Bluetooth Dongle (HCI mode)
        BD Address: 00:16:41:97:BA:5E  ACL MTU: 1017:8  SCO MTU: 64:8
+
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
        UP RUNNING
+
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 048d:1345 Integrated Technology Express, Inc. Multi Cardreader
        RX bytes:348 acl:0 sco:0 events:11 errors:0
+
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0424:a700 Standard Microsystems Corp. 2 Port Hub
        TX bytes:38 acl:0 sco:0 commands:11 errors:0
+
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0024 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub
 +
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
 +
}}
  
> hcitool dev
+
=== Logitech Bluetooth USB Dongle ===
Devices:
 
        hci0    00:16:41:97:BA:5E
 
  
'''Attention: make sure that bluetooth on your phone is enabled and your phone is visible!
+
There are Logitech dongles (ex. Logitech MX5000) that can work in two modes: Embedded and HCI. In embedded mode dongle emulates a USB device so it seems to your PC that you are using a normal USB mouse/keyoard.
'''
 
  
> hcitool scan
+
If you hold the little red Button on the USB BT mini-receiver it will enable the other mode. Hold the red button on the BT dongle and plug it into the computer, and after 3-5 seconds of holding the button, the Bluetooth icon will appear in the system tray. [http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1332197 Discussion]
Scanning ...
 
        00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D      [quirxi]
 
  
> hcitool inq
+
Alternatively, you can install the {{Pkg|bluez-hid2hci}} package. When you connect your Logitech dongle it will automatically switch.
Inquiring ...
 
        00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D      clock offset: 0x1ee4    class: 0x522204
 
  
> l2ping 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D
+
=== hcitool scan: Device not found ===
Ping: 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D from 00:16:41:97:BA:5E (data size 44) ...
 
44 bytes from 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D id 0 time 23.94ms
 
44 bytes from 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D id 1 time 18.85ms
 
44 bytes from 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D id 2 time 30.88ms
 
44 bytes from 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D id 3 time 18.88ms
 
44 bytes from 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D id 4 time 17.88ms
 
44 bytes from 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D id 5 time 17.88ms
 
6 sent, 6 received, 0% loss
 
  
> hcitool name  00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D
+
* On some Dell laptops (e.g. Studio 15) you have to switch the Bluetooth mode from HID to HCI. Install the {{Pkg|bluez-hid2hci}} package, then [[udev]] should do this automatically. Alternatively, you can run this command to switch to HCI manually:
[quirxi]
 
  
  # hciconfig -a hci0
+
  # /usr/lib/udev/hid2hci
hci0:  Type: BR/EDR  Bus: USB
 
        BD Address: 00:16:41:97:BA:5E  ACL MTU: 1017:8  SCO MTU: 64:8
 
        UP RUNNING
 
        RX bytes:9740 acl:122 sco:0 events:170 errors:0
 
        TX bytes:2920 acl:125 sco:0 commands:53 errors:0
 
        Features: 0xff 0xff 0x8d 0xfe 0x9b 0xf9 0x00 0x80
 
        Packet type: DM1 DM3 DM5 DH1 DH3 DH5 HV1 HV2 HV3
 
        Link policy:
 
        Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT
 
        Name: 'BCM2045'
 
        Class: 0x000000
 
        Service Classes: Unspecified
 
        Device Class: Miscellaneous,
 
        HCI Version: 2.0 (0x3)  Revision: 0x204a
 
        LMP Version: 2.0 (0x3)  Subversion: 0x4176
 
        Manufacturer: Broadcoml / Corporation (15)
 
  
> hcitool info 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D
+
* If the device will not show up and you have a Windows operating system on your machine, try booting it and enable the bluetooth adapter from windows.
Requesting information ...
 
        BD Address:  00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D
 
        Device Name: [quirxi]
 
        LMP Version: 1.2 (0x2) LMP Subversion: 0x309
 
        Manufacturer: Broadcom Corporation (15)
 
        Features: 0xff 0xfe 0x0d 0x00 0x08 0x08 0x00 0x00
 
                <3-slot packets> <5-slot packets> <encryption> <slot offset>
 
                <timing accuracy> <role switch> <hold mode> <sniff mode>
 
                <RSSI> <channel quality> <SCO link> <HV2 packets>
 
                <HV3 packets> <A-law log> <CVSD> <power control>
 
                <transparent SCO> <AFH cap. slave> <AFH cap. master>
 
  
'''Edit your main.conf and enter the proper class for your phone ( Class = 0x100100 ):'''
+
* Sometimes also this simple command helps:
> vim /etc/bluetooth/main.conf
 
  
  # Default device class. Only the major and minor device class bits are
+
# hciconfig hci0 up
  # considered.
 
  #Class = 0x000100
 
  Class =  0x100100
 
  
> /etc/rc.d/dbus start
+
=== rfkill unblock: Do not unblock ===
:: Starting D-BUS system messagebus
 
[DONE]
 
  
> /etc/rc.d/bluetooth start
+
If your device still soft blocked and you run connman, try this:
:: Stopping bluetooth subsystem:  pand dund rfcomm hidd  bluetoothd
 
[DONE]
 
:: Starting bluetooth subsystem:  bluetoothd
 
  
'''Pairing with bluez-simple-agent only has to be done once. On your motorola-phone give 0000 in as your pin when phone asks for it !!'''
+
  $ connmanctl enable bluetooth
  > /usr/bin/bluez-simple-agent hci0 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D
 
RequestPinCode (/org/bluez/10768/hci0/dev_00_1A_1B_82_9B_6D)
 
Enter PIN Code: 0000
 
Release
 
New device (/org/bluez/10768/hci0/dev_00_1A_1B_82_9B_6D)
 
  
'''Now you can browse the filesystem of your phone with obexftp:'''
+
=== My computer is not visible ===
> obexftp -v -b 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D -B 9 -l
 
Connecting..\done
 
Tried to connect for 448ms
 
Receiving "(null)"...-<?xml version="1.0" ?>
 
<!DOCTYPE folder-listing SYSTEM "obex-folder-listing.dtd">
 
<folder-listing>
 
<parent-folder />
 
<folder name="audio" size="0" type="folder" modified="20101010T132323Z" user-perm="RW" />
 
<folder name="video" size="0" type="folder" modified="20101010T132323Z" user-perm="RW" />
 
<folder name="picture" size="0" type="folder" modified="20101010T132323Z" user-perm="RW" />
 
</folder-listing>
 
done
 
Disconnecting..\done
 
  
'''Or you can mount your phone into a directory on your computer and treat it like a normal file system:'''
+
Cannot discover computer from your phone? Enable PSCAN and ISCAN:
  
  > groupadd bluetooth
+
  # enable PSCAN and ISCAN
  > mkdir /mnt/bluetooth
+
  $ hciconfig hci0 piscan
  > chown root:bluetooth /mnt/bluetooth
+
  # check it worked
> chmod 775 /mnt/bluetooth
 
> usermod -a -G bluetooth arno
 
  
> obexfs -b 00:1A:1B:82:9B:6D /mnt/bluetooth/
+
{{hc|$ hciconfig|
> l /mnt/bluetooth/
+
hci0:  Type: USB
total 6
+
        BD Address: 00:12:34:56:78:9A ACL MTU: 192:8 SCO MTU: 64:8
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root    0 10. Okt 13:25 .
+
        '''UP RUNNING PSCAN ISCAN'''
drwxr-xr-x 5 root root 4096 10. Okt 10:08 ..
+
        RX bytes:20425 acl:115 sco:0 events:526 errors:0
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root    0 10. Okt 2010  audio
+
        TX bytes:5543 acl:84 sco:0 commands:340 errors:0
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root    0 10. Okt 2010  picture
+
}}
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root    0 10. Okt 2010  video
 
  
=== Pairing with an iPhone using bluez-simple-agent ===
+
{{Note|Check DiscoverableTimeout and PairableTimeout in {{ic|/etc/bluetooth/main.conf}}}}
  
Assuming a bluetooth device called hci0 and an iPhone that showed up in a hcitool scan as '00:00:DE:AD:BE:EF':
+
Try changing device class in {{ic|/etc/bluetooth/main.conf}} as following:
  
    # bluez-simple-agent hci0 00:00:DE:AD:BE:EF
+
# Default device class. Only the major and minor device class bits are
    Passcode:
+
# considered.
 +
#Class = 0x000100 (from default config)
 +
Class = 0x100100
  
=== Headset and Alsa Devices  ===
+
This was the only solution to make my computer visible for my phone.
1. First if you have not already, install bluez
 
# pacman -S bluez
 
2. Scan for your device
 
$ hcitool (-i <optional hci#>***) scan
 
3. Pair your headset with your device
 
$ bluez-simple-agent (optional hci# ***) XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
 
  and put in your pin (0000 or 1234, etc)
 
4. Add this to your/etc/asound.conf file
 
#/etc/asound.conf
 
 
pcm.btheadset {
 
    type plug
 
    slave {
 
        pcm {
 
            type bluetooth
 
            device XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
 
            profile "auto"
 
        } 
 
    } 
 
    hint {
 
        show on
 
        description "BT Headset"
 
    } 
 
}
 
ctl.btheadset {
 
  type bluetooth
 
 
  
5. Check to see if it has been added to alsa devices
+
=== Logitech keyboard does not pair ===
$ aplay -L
 
  
6. Now play with aplay:
+
If you do not get the passkey when you try to pair your Logitech keyboard, type the following command:
$ aplay -D btheadset /path/to/audio/file
 
 
 
or Mplayer:
 
$ mplayer -ao alsa:device=btheadset /path/to/audio/or/video/file
 
  
*** To find hci# for a usb dongle, type in
+
# hciconfig hci0 sspmode 0
$ hcitool dev
 
  
== Troubleshooting ==
+
If after pairing, the keyboard still does not connect, check the output of {{ic|hcidump -at}}. If the latter indicates repeatedly connections-disconnections like the following message:
  
=== Segfaults in Bluez 4.95 ===
+
    status 0x00 handle 11 reason 0x13
If bluetoothd stops working after enabling or disabling your bluetooth device via rfkill or gnome-bluetooth applet, look at your dmesg output. If it looks like:
+
    Reason: Remote User Terminated Connection
  
bluetoothd[2330]: segfault at 1 ip 00007fcef2327b75 sp 00007fff9f769cb0 error 4 in libglib-2.0.so.0.2800.8[7fcef22ca000+e9000]
+
then, the only solution for now is to install [[bluez4|the old Bluetooth stack]].
  
then you should consider downgrading to 4.94 (just grab the PKGBUILD/etc from arch and change version to 4.94 and correct the md5sum for bluez) or wait for an update of bluez. [https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/25088?project=1&openedfrom=-1+week Here] is a (arch) bug report about it.
+
=== HSP/HFP profiles ===
  
=== passkey-agent ===
+
bluez5 removed support for the HSP/HFP profiles (telephony headset for [[TeamSpeak]], [[Skype]], etc.). You need to install [[PulseAudio]] (>= version 6) or another application that implements HSP/HFP itself.
$> passkey-agent --default 1234
 
Can't register passkey agent
 
The name org.bluez was not provided by any .service files
 
You probably started {{ic|/etc/rc.d/bluetooth}} before {{ic|/etc/rc.d/dbus}}
 
$> hciconfig dev
 
# (no listing)
 
Try running {{ic|hciconfig hc0 up}}
 
  
=== Blueman ===
+
=== Foxconn / Hon Hai / Lite-On Broadcom device ===
If blueman-applet fails to start, try removing the entire ''/var/lib/bluetooth'' directory and restarting the machine (or just the hal, dbus, and bluetooth services).
 
# rm -rf /var/lib/bluetooth
 
# reboot
 
  
=== gnome-bluetooth ===
+
Some of these devices require the firmware to be flashed into the device at boot. The firmware is not provided but can converted from a Microsoft Windows ''.hex'' file into a ''.hcd'' using [https://github.com/jessesung/hex2hcd hex2hcd] (which is installed with {{Pkg|bluez-utils}}).
If you see this when trying to enable receiving files in bluetooth-properties:
 
  Bluetooth OBEX start failed: Invalid path
 
  Bluetooth FTP start failed: Invalid path
 
Then run:
 
  # pacman -S xdg-user-dirs
 
  $ xdg-user-dirs-update
 
You can edit the paths using:
 
  $ vi ~/.config/user-dirs.dirs
 
  
=== Bluetooth USB Dongle ===
+
In order to get the right ''.hex'' file, try searching the device vendor:product code obtained with ''lsusb'', for example:
If you are using a USB dongle, you should check that your Bluetooth dongle is recognized. You can do that by inspecting {{ic|/var/log/messages.log}} when plugging in the USB dongle (or running {{ic|journalctl -f}} with systemd). It should look something like the following (look out for hci):
 
  
# tail -f /var/log/messages.log
+
    ...
  Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname kernel: [ 2661.349823] usb 4-1: new full-speed USB device number 3 using uhci_hcd
+
    Bus 002 Device 004: ID '''04ca:2006''' Lite-On Technology Corp. Broadcom BCM43142A0 Bluetooth Device
  Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: HCI dev 0 registered
+
    ...
  Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: Listening for HCI events on hci0
 
  Feb 20 15:00:25 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: HCI dev 0 up
 
  Feb 20 15:00:25 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: Adapter /org/bluez/4568/hci0 has been enabled
 
  
For a list of supported hardware please refer to the [[Bluetooth#Resources|resources]] section on this page.
+
or
  
If you only get the first two lines, you may see that it found the device but you need to bring it up.
+
    Bus 004 Device 004: Id '''0489:e031''' Foxconn / Hon Hai
Example:
 
  
hciconfig -a hci0
+
Alternatively, boot into Windows (a virtual machine installation will suffice) and get the firmware name from the Device Manager utility. If you want to know the model of your device but cannot see it in ''lsusb'', you might see it in ''lsusb -v'' as {{ic|iProduct}}.
hci0: Type: USB
 
BD Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00 ACL MTU: 0:0 SCO MTU: 0:0
 
DOWN
 
RX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 events:0 errors:0
 
TX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 commands:0 errors:
 
sudo hciconfig hci0 up
 
hciconfig -a hci0
 
hci0: Type: USB
 
BD Address: 00:02:72:C4:7C:06 ACL MTU: 377:10 SCO MTU: 64:8
 
UP RUNNING
 
RX bytes:348 acl:0 sco:0 events:11 errors:0
 
TX bytes:38 acl:0 sco:0 commands:11 errors:0
 
  
If this fails with an error like:
+
The ''.hex'' file can be extracted from the downloaded Windows driver without having to run Windows for it. Download the right driver, for example [http://www.fujitsupc.com/downloads/mobile/BLUETOOTH_WIDCOMM_V6.5.0.3100_WIN7-32_FPC46-1771-01.EXE Bluetooth Widcomm] (listed among the drivers for [http://support.fujitsupc.com/CS/Portal/supportsearch.do?srch=DOWNLOADS&Series=P%20Series&Model=P771&ProductType=Notebook%20PC Lifebook P771]), which contains the drivers for many Broadcomm devices. In case of Bluetooth Widcomm, the driver is a self-extracting RAR archive, so it can be extracted using ''{{Pkg|unrar}} x''. To find out which of the many ''.hex'' files is the right one for you, look in the file {{ic|Win32/bcbtums-win7x86-brcm.inf}} and search for {{ic|[RAMUSB'''E031'''.CopyList]}}, where {{ic|E031}} should be replaced with the product code (the second hex number in ''lsusb'') of your device in upper-case. Underneath you should see the file name of the right ''.hex'' file.
Operation not possible due to RF-kill
 
it could be due either to the {{ic|rfkill}} utility, in which case it should be resolved with
 
# rfkill unblock all
 
or, it could simply be the hardware switch of the computer. The hardware bluetooth switch (at least sometimes) controls access to USB bluetooth dongles also. Flip/press this switch and try bringing the device up again.
 
  
To verify that the device was detected you can use {{ic|hcitool}} which is part of the {{ic|bluez-utils}}. You can get a list of available devices and their identifiers and their MAC address by issuing:
+
Once you have the ''.hcd'' file, copy it into {{ic|/lib/firmware/brcm/BCM.hcd}} - this filename is suggested by {{ic|dmesg}} and it may change in your case so check your ''dmesg'' output in order to verify. Then reload the ''btusb'' module:
  
  $ hcitool dev
+
  # rmmod btusb
  Devices:
+
  # modprobe btusb
        hci0 00:1B:DC:0F:DB:40
 
  
More detailed informations about the device can be retrieved by using {{ic|hciconfig}}.
+
In some cases (with older kernels?), you have to flash the ''.hcd'' file with the ''brcm_patchram_plus'' utility, provided by {{AUR|brcm_patchram_plus-git}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|brcm_patchram_plus-git}}}}. First, make sure in ''dmesg'' that the device is recognized by ''btusb'' as a bluetooth device. Then, run the following (replace ''04ca 2006'' with your vendor product pair):
  
  $ hciconfig -a hci0
+
  # echo '04ca 2006' > /sys/bus/usb/drivers/btusb/new_id
hci0:  Type: USB
+
   
        BD Address: 00:1B:DC:0F:DB:40 ACL MTU: 310:10 SCO MTU: 64:8
+
Turn on the device:
        UP RUNNING PSCAN ISCAN
 
        RX bytes:1226 acl:0 sco:0 events:27 errors:0
 
        TX bytes:351 acl:0 sco:0 commands:26 errors:0
 
        Features: 0xff 0xff 0x8f 0xfe 0x9b 0xf9 0x00 0x80
 
        Packet type: DM1 DM3 DM5 DH1 DH3 DH5 HV1 HV2 HV3
 
        Link policy: RSWITCH HOLD SNIFF PARK
 
        Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT
 
        Name: 'BlueZ (0)'
 
        Class: 0x000100
 
        Service Classes: Unspecified
 
        Device Class: Computer, Uncategorized
 
        HCI Ver: 2.0 (0x3) HCI Rev: 0xc5c LMP Ver: 2.0 (0x3) LMP Subver: 0xc5c
 
        Manufacturer: Cambridge Silicon Radio (10)
 
  
=== Logitech Bluetooth USB Dongle ===
+
# hciconfig hci0 up
There are Logitech dongles (ex. Logitech MX5000) that can work in two modes Embedded and HCI. In embedded mode dongle emulates a USB device so it seems to your PC that your using a normal USB mouse/keyoard.
 
  
If you hold the little red Button on the USB BT mini-receiver it will enable the other mode. Hold the red button on the BT dongle and plug it into the computer, and after 3-5 seconds of holding the button, the Bluetooth icon will appear in the system tray. [http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1332197 Discussion]
+
Flash the firmware:  
  
=== hcitool scan: Device not found ===
+
  # brcm_patchram_plus_usb --patchram fw-04ca_2006.hcd hci0
* On some Dell laptops (e.g. Studio 15) you have to switch the Bluetooth mode from HID to HCI using
 
  # hid2hci
 
  
{{Note|hid2hci is no longer in the $PATH, it is under /lib/udev/hid2hci, but udev should run it automatically for you.}}
+
The device should now be available. See [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=162688 BBS#162688] for information on making these changes persistent.
  
* If the device won't show up and you have a Windows operating system on your machine, try booting it and enable the bluetooth adapter from windows.
+
=== Device connects, then disconnects after a few moments ===
  
* Sometimes also this simple command helps:
+
If you see messages like the following in {{ic|journalctl}} output, and your device fails to connect or disconnects shortly after connecting:
# hciconfig hci0 up
 
  
=== My computer isn't visible ===
+
  bluetoothd: Unable to get connect data for Headset Voice gateway: getpeername: Transport endpoint is not connected (107)
Can't discover computer from your phone? Enable PSCAN and ISCAN:
+
bluetoothd: connect error: Connection refused (111)
# enable PSCAN and ISCAN
 
$ hciconfig hci0 piscan
 
# check it worked
 
$ hciconfig
 
  hci0:  Type: USB
 
        BD Address: 00:12:34:56:78:9A ACL MTU: 192:8 SCO MTU: 64:8
 
        '''UP RUNNING PSCAN ISCAN'''
 
        RX bytes:20425 acl:115 sco:0 events:526 errors:0
 
        TX bytes:5543 acl:84 sco:0 commands:340 errors:0
 
  
{{Note | Check DiscoverableTimeout and PairableTimeout in /etc/bluetooth/main.conf}}
+
This may be because you have already paired the device with another operating system using the same bluetooth adapter (e.g., dual-booting).  Some devices can't handle multiple pairings associated with the same MAC address (i.e., bluetooth adapter).  You can fix this by re-pairing the device.  Start by removing the device:
  
Try changing device class in /etc/bluetooth/main.conf as following
+
$ bluetoothctl
  # Default device class. Only the major and minor device class bits are
+
  [bluetooth]# devices
  # considered.
+
  Device XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX My Device
  #Class = 0x000100 (from default config)
+
  [bluetooth]# remove XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX
Class = 0x100100
 
  
This was the only solution to make my computer visible for my phone.  
+
Then [[restart]] {{ic|bluetooth.service}}, turn on your bluetooth adapter, make your device discoverable, re-scan for devices, and re-pair your device.  Depending on your bluetooth manager, you may need to perform a full reboot in order to re-discover the device.
  
=== Nautilus cannot browse files ===
+
=== Device does not connect with an error in journal ===
If nautilus doesn't open and show this error:
 
Nautilus cannot handle obex: locations. Couldn't display "obex://[XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX]/".
 
Install gvfs-obexftp package:
 
# pacman -S gvfs-obexftp
 
  
=== Bluetooth is disabled when starting GNOME ===
+
If you see a message like the following in {{ic|journalctl}} output while trying to connect to a device:
If you have {{ic|dbus}} and {{ic|bluetooth}} backgrounded (@) in your {{ic|DAEMONS}} array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}, it might happen that {{ic|bluetooth}} will be disabled when starting up GNOME. To solve this, make sure {{ic|dbus}} is not backgrounded.
 
  
=== Sennheiser MM400 Headset connection problems ===
+
a2dp-source profile connect failed for 9C:64:40:22:E1:3F: Protocol not available
If your {{ic|Sennheiser MM400 Headset}} immediately disconnects after connecting as {{ic|Headset Service}} with Blueman, try to connect it as {{ic|Audio Sink}}. Afterwards you can change the headset's {{ic|Audio Profile}} to {{ic|Telephony Duplex}} with a right click in Blueman.
 
With this option headset functionality will be available although the headset was only connected as {{ic|Audio Sink}} in first place and no disconnection will happen (tested with bluez 4.96-3, pulseaudio 1.1-1 and blueman 1.23-2).
 
  
=== My device is paired but no sound is played from it ===
+
try installing {{Pkg|pulseaudio-bluetooth}} and restarting pulseaudio. This error can manifest even while using only file transfer.
Try to first inspect '''/var/log/messages.log'''
 
{{bc|# tail /var/log/messages.log
 
Jan 12 20:08:58 localhost pulseaudio[1584]: [pulseaudio] module-bluetooth-device.c: Service not connected
 
Jan 12 20:08:58 localhost pulseaudio[1584]: [pulseaudio] module-bluetooth-device.c: Bluetooth audio service not available}}
 
  
If you see such messages, try first:
+
=== Device does not show up in scan ===
{{bc|# pactl load-module module-bluetooth-device}}
 
  
If the module fails to work, do this workaround:
+
Some devices using bluetooth low energy do not appear when scanning with bluetoothctl, for example the Logitech MX Master. The simplest way I've found to connect them is by installing {{aur|bluez-utils-compat}}, then [[start]] {{ic|bluetooth.service}} and do:
Open '''/etc/bluetooth/audio.conf''' and add after '''[General]''' (on a new line)
 
{{bc|Enable&#61;Socket}}
 
Then restart the bluetooth daemon with {{ic|/etc/rc.d/bluetooth restart}}.
 
Pair again your device, and you should find it in the pulseaudio settings (advanced settings for the sound)
 
  
[http://wiki.gentoo.org/index.php?title=Bluetooth_Headset&redirect=no More information on Gentoo Wiki]
+
# bluetoothctl
 +
[NEW] Controller (MAC) myhostname [default]
 +
[bluetooth]# power on
 +
[CHG] Controller (MAC) Class: 0x0c010c
 +
Changing power on succeeded
 +
[CHG] Controller (MAC) Powered: yes
 +
[bluetooth]# scan on
 +
Discovery started
 +
[CHG] Controller (MAC) Discovering: yes
  
If after fixing this you still can't get sound, try using blueman (this is the only one that works for me), make sure that notify-osd is installed or it might show you weird error messages like this one: "Stream setup failed"
+
In another terminal:
  
fail (/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/blueman/gui/manager/ManagerDeviceMenu.py:134)
+
# hcitool lescan
fail (DBusException(dbus.String(u'Stream setup failed'),),)
 
  
== See also ==
+
Wait until your device shows up, then Ctrl+C hcitool. bluetoothctl should now see your device and pair normally.
*[http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/bluetooth-guide.xml Gentoo Linux Bluetooth Guide]
 
*[http://en.opensuse.org/HCL:Bluetooth openSUSE Bluetooth Hardware Compatibility List]
 
*[http://linuxgazette.net/109/oregan3.html Accessing a Bluetooth phone (Linux Gazette)]
 
*[http://www.adamish.com/blog/#a000361 Bluetooth computer visibility]
 

Latest revision as of 04:40, 6 July 2018

Bluetooth is a standard for the short-range wireless interconnection of cellular phones, computers, and other electronic devices. In Linux, the canonical implementation of the Bluetooth protocol stack is BlueZ.

Installation

Install the bluez and bluez-utils packages. The bluez package provides the Bluetooth protocol stack, and the bluez-utils package provides the bluetoothctl utility.

The generic Bluetooth driver is the btusb Kernel module. Check whether that module is loaded. If it's not, then load the module.

Then start the bluetooth.service systemd unit. You can enable it to start automatically at boot time.

Note:
  • By default the bluetooth daemon will only give out bnep0 devices to users that are a member of the lp group. Make sure to add your user to that group if you intend to connect to a bluetooth tether. You can change the group that is required in the file /etc/dbus-1/system.d/bluetooth.conf.
  • Some Bluetooth adapters are bundled with a Wi-Fi card (e.g. Intel Centrino). These require that the Wi-Fi card is firstly enabled (typically a keyboard shortcut on a laptop) in order to make the Bluetooth adapter visible to the kernel.
  • Some Bluetooth cards (e.g. Broadcom) conflict with the network adapter. Thus, you need to make sure that your Bluetooth device get connected before the network service boot.
  • Some tools such as hcitool and hciconfig have been deprecated upstream, and are no longer included in bluez-utils. Since these tools will no longer be updated, it is recommended that scripts be updated to avoid using them. If you still desire to use them, install bluez-utils-compatAUR. See FS#53110 and the Bluez mailing list for more information.

Front-ends

Console

  • bluetoothctl — Pairing a device from the shell is one of the simplest and most reliable options.
http://www.bluez.org/ || bluez-utils

Graphical

The following packages allow for a graphical interface to customize Bluetooth.

  • GNOME BluetoothGNOME's Bluetooth tool.
    • gnome-bluetooth provides the back-end
    • gnome-shell provides the status monitor applet
    • gnome-control-center provides the configuration front-end GUI that can be accessed by typing Bluetooth on the Activities overview, or with the gnome-control-center bluetooth command.
    • You can also launch the bluetooth-sendto command directly to send files to a remote device.
    • To receive files, open the Bluetooth settings panel; you can only receive whilst the Bluetooth panel is open.
    • To add a Bluetooth entry to the Send To menu in Thunar's file properties menu, see instructions here. (The command that needs to be configured is bluetooth-sendto %F).
https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/GnomeBluetooth ||
  • BluedevilKDE's Bluetooth tool. If there is no Bluetooth icon visible in Dolphin and in the system tray, enable it in the system tray options or add a widget. You can configure Bluedevil and detect Bluetooth devices by clicking the icon. An interface is also available from the KDE System Settings.
https://projects.kde.org/projects/kde/workspace/bluedevil || bluedevil
  • Blueberry — Linux Mint's spin-off of GNOME Bluetooth, which works in all desktop environments. Blueberry doesn't support receiving files through Obex Object Push.
https://github.com/linuxmint/blueberry || blueberry
  • Blueman — A full featured Bluetooth manager.
https://github.com/blueman-project/blueman || blueman

Pairing

Note: Before using the bluetooth device, make sure that it is not blocked by rfkill.

This section describes directly configuring bluez5 via the bluetoothctl CLI, which might not be necessary if you are using an alternative front-end tool (such as GNOME Bluetooth).

The exact procedure depends on the devices involved and their input functionality. What follows is a general outline of pairing a device using /usr/bin/bluetoothctl:

Start the bluetoothctl interactive command. Input help to get a list of available commands.

  1. Possibly select a default controller by inputting select MAC Address
  2. Turn the power to the controller on by entering power on. It is off by default and will turn off again each reboot, see #Auto power-on after boot.
  3. Enter devices to get the MAC Address of the device with which to pair.
  4. Enter device discovery mode with scan on command if device is not yet on the list.
  5. Turn the agent on with agent on or choose a specific agent: if you press tab twice after agent you should see a list of available agents, e.g. DisplayOnly KeyboardDisplay NoInputNoOutput DisplayYesNo KeyboardOnly off on.
  6. Enter pair MAC Address to do the pairing (tab completion works).
  7. If using a device without a PIN, one may need to manually trust the device before it can reconnect successfully. Enter trust MAC Address to do so.
  8. Finally, use connect MAC_address to establish a connection.

An example session may look this way:

# bluetoothctl 
[NEW] Controller 00:10:20:30:40:50 pi [default]
[bluetooth]# agent KeyboardOnly 
Agent registered
[bluetooth]# default-agent 
Default agent request successful
[bluetooth]# power on
Changing power on succeeded
[CHG] Controller 00:10:20:30:40:50 Powered: yes
[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[CHG] Controller 00:10:20:30:40:50 Discovering: yes
[NEW] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 myLino
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 LegacyPairing: yes
[bluetooth]# pair 00:12:34:56:78:90
Attempting to pair with 00:12:34:56:78:90
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: yes
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: no
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: yes
Request PIN code
[agent] Enter PIN code: 1234
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Paired: yes
Pairing successful
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: no
[bluetooth]# connect 00:12:34:56:78:90
Attempting to connect to 00:12:34:56:78:90
[CHG] Device 00:12:34:56:78:90 Connected: yes
Connection successful

Configuration

Auto power-on after boot

By default, your Bluetooth adapter will not power on after a reboot. The former method by using hciconfig hci0 up is deprecated, see the release note. Now you just need to add the line AutoEnable=true in /etc/bluetooth/main.conf at the bottom in the [Policy] section:

/etc/bluetooth/main.conf
[Policy]
AutoEnable=true

Using Obex for sending and receiving files

ObexFS

Another option, rather than using KDE or Gnome Bluetooth packages, is ObexFS which allows for the mounting of phones which are treated like any other filesystem.

Note: To use ObexFS, one needs a device that provides an ObexFTP service.

Install obexftpAUR and mount supported phones by running:

$ obexfs -b MAC_address_of_device /mountpoint

Once you have finished, to unmount the device use the command:

$ fusermount -u /mountpoint

For more mounting options see http://dev.zuckschwerdt.org/openobex/wiki/ObexFs

Note: Ensure that the bluetooth device you are mounting is not set to mount read-only. You should be able to do this from the device's settings. If the device is mounted read-only you may encounter a permissions error when trying to transfer files to the device.

ObexFTP transfers

If your device supports the Obex FTP service but you do not wish to mount the device you can transfer files to and from the device using the obexftp command.

To send a file to a device run the command:

$ obexftp -b MAC_address_of_device -p /path/to/file

To retrieve a file from a device run the command:

$ obexftp -b MAC_address_of_device -g filename
Note: Ensure that the file you are retrieving is in the device's exchange folder. If the file is in a subfolder of the exchange folder then provide the correct path in the command.

Obex Object Push

For devices that do not support Obex FTP service, check if Obex Object Push is supported.

# sdptool browse XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX

Read the output, look for Obex Object Push, remember the channel for this service. If supported, one can use ussp-pushAUR to send files to this device:

# ussp-push XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX@CHANNEL file wanted_file_name_on_phone

Audio

In order to be able to use audio equipment like bluetooth headphones or speakers, you need to install the additional pulseaudio-bluetooth package.

Please have a look at the Bluetooth headset page for more information about bluetooth audio and bluetooth headsets.

Using your computer's speakers as a bluetooth headset

In order to enable your system to be detected as an A2DP sink (e.g. to play music from your phone via your computer speakers), add the following to the file /etc/bluetooth/audio.conf (create it if not present):

[General]
Enable=Source

More info in:

Troubleshooting

Shell command _____ is missing from bluez-utils

Some tools have been marked as deprecated and removed from the package. At this time they are still available in the AUR package bluez-utils-compatAUR. Their functionality is partially covered by new tools, while some things have yet to be implemented with the new D-Bus API:

Deprecated tool Most likely replacement
gatttool btgatt-client, D-Bus Gatt API
hciattach btattach
hciconfig btmgmt (and bluetoothctl?)
hcidump btmon (and btsnoop)
hcitool missing, D-Bus Device API available
rfcomm missing, implement with D-Bus Profile1 API?
ciptool
sdptool missing, functionality seems to be scattered over different D-Bus objects: Profile, Advertising, and the UUIDs arrays in device and adapter.

gnome-bluetooth

If you see this when trying to enable receiving files in bluetooth-properties:

Bluetooth OBEX start failed: Invalid path
Bluetooth FTP start failed: Invalid path

Then make sure that the XDG user directories exist.

Bluetooth USB Dongle

If you are using a USB dongle, you should check that your Bluetooth dongle is recognized. You can do that by running journalctl -f when you have plugged in the USB dongle (or inspecting /var/log/messages.log). It should look something like the following (look out for hci):

Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname kernel: [ 2661.349823] usb 4-1: new full-speed USB device number 3 using uhci_hcd
Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: HCI dev 0 registered
Feb 20 15:00:24 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: Listening for HCI events on hci0
Feb 20 15:00:25 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: HCI dev 0 up
Feb 20 15:00:25 hostname bluetoothd[4568]: Adapter /org/bluez/4568/hci0 has been enabled

If you only get the first two lines, you may see that it found the device but you need to bring it up. Example:

hciconfig -a hci0
hci0:	Type: USB
	BD Address: 00:00:00:00:00:00 ACL MTU: 0:0 SCO MTU: 0:0
	DOWN 
	RX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 events:0 errors:0
        TX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 commands:0 errors:
# hciconfig hci0 up
hciconfig -a hci0
hci0:	Type: USB
	BD Address: 00:02:72:C4:7C:06 ACL MTU: 377:10 SCO MTU: 64:8
	UP RUNNING 
	RX bytes:348 acl:0 sco:0 events:11 errors:0
        TX bytes:38 acl:0 sco:0 commands:11 errors:0

To verify that the device was detected you can use hcitool which is part of the bluez-utils. You can get a list of available devices and their identifiers and their MAC address by issuing:

$ hcitool dev
Devices:
        hci0	00:1B:DC:0F:DB:40

More detailed information about the device can be retrieved by using hciconfig.

$ hciconfig -a hci0
hci0:   Type: USB
        BD Address: 00:1B:DC:0F:DB:40 ACL MTU: 310:10 SCO MTU: 64:8
        UP RUNNING PSCAN ISCAN
        RX bytes:1226 acl:0 sco:0 events:27 errors:0
        TX bytes:351 acl:0 sco:0 commands:26 errors:0
        Features: 0xff 0xff 0x8f 0xfe 0x9b 0xf9 0x00 0x80
        Packet type: DM1 DM3 DM5 DH1 DH3 DH5 HV1 HV2 HV3
        Link policy: RSWITCH HOLD SNIFF PARK
        Link mode: SLAVE ACCEPT 
        Name: 'BlueZ (0)'
        Class: 0x000100
        Service Classes: Unspecified
        Device Class: Computer, Uncategorized
        HCI Ver: 2.0 (0x3) HCI Rev: 0xc5c LMP Ver: 2.0 (0x3) LMP Subver: 0xc5c
        Manufacturer: Cambridge Silicon Radio (10)

Audio devices start to skip at short distance from dongle

If other devices share the same USB host, they can interrupt communication with audio devices. Make sure it is the only device attached to its bus. For example:

$ lsusb
Bus 002 Device 002: ID 0a12:0001 Cambridge Silicon Radio, Ltd Bluetooth Dongle (HCI mode)
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 048d:1345 Integrated Technology Express, Inc. Multi Cardreader
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0424:a700 Standard Microsystems Corp. 2 Port Hub
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 8087:0024 Intel Corp. Integrated Rate Matching Hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

Logitech Bluetooth USB Dongle

There are Logitech dongles (ex. Logitech MX5000) that can work in two modes: Embedded and HCI. In embedded mode dongle emulates a USB device so it seems to your PC that you are using a normal USB mouse/keyoard.

If you hold the little red Button on the USB BT mini-receiver it will enable the other mode. Hold the red button on the BT dongle and plug it into the computer, and after 3-5 seconds of holding the button, the Bluetooth icon will appear in the system tray. Discussion

Alternatively, you can install the bluez-hid2hci package. When you connect your Logitech dongle it will automatically switch.

hcitool scan: Device not found

  • On some Dell laptops (e.g. Studio 15) you have to switch the Bluetooth mode from HID to HCI. Install the bluez-hid2hci package, then udev should do this automatically. Alternatively, you can run this command to switch to HCI manually:
# /usr/lib/udev/hid2hci
  • If the device will not show up and you have a Windows operating system on your machine, try booting it and enable the bluetooth adapter from windows.
  • Sometimes also this simple command helps:
# hciconfig hci0 up

rfkill unblock: Do not unblock

If your device still soft blocked and you run connman, try this:

$ connmanctl enable bluetooth

My computer is not visible

Cannot discover computer from your phone? Enable PSCAN and ISCAN:

# enable PSCAN and ISCAN
$ hciconfig hci0 piscan 
# check it worked
$ hciconfig
hci0:   Type: USB
        BD Address: 00:12:34:56:78:9A ACL MTU: 192:8 SCO MTU: 64:8
        UP RUNNING PSCAN ISCAN
        RX bytes:20425 acl:115 sco:0 events:526 errors:0
        TX bytes:5543 acl:84 sco:0 commands:340 errors:0
Note: Check DiscoverableTimeout and PairableTimeout in /etc/bluetooth/main.conf

Try changing device class in /etc/bluetooth/main.conf as following:

# Default device class. Only the major and minor device class bits are
# considered.
#Class = 0x000100 (from default config)
Class = 0x100100

This was the only solution to make my computer visible for my phone.

Logitech keyboard does not pair

If you do not get the passkey when you try to pair your Logitech keyboard, type the following command:

# hciconfig hci0 sspmode 0

If after pairing, the keyboard still does not connect, check the output of hcidump -at. If the latter indicates repeatedly connections-disconnections like the following message:

   status 0x00 handle 11 reason 0x13
   Reason: Remote User Terminated Connection

then, the only solution for now is to install the old Bluetooth stack.

HSP/HFP profiles

bluez5 removed support for the HSP/HFP profiles (telephony headset for TeamSpeak, Skype, etc.). You need to install PulseAudio (>= version 6) or another application that implements HSP/HFP itself.

Foxconn / Hon Hai / Lite-On Broadcom device

Some of these devices require the firmware to be flashed into the device at boot. The firmware is not provided but can converted from a Microsoft Windows .hex file into a .hcd using hex2hcd (which is installed with bluez-utils).

In order to get the right .hex file, try searching the device vendor:product code obtained with lsusb, for example:

   ...
   Bus 002 Device 004: ID 04ca:2006 Lite-On Technology Corp. Broadcom BCM43142A0 Bluetooth Device
   ...

or

   Bus 004 Device 004: Id 0489:e031 Foxconn / Hon Hai

Alternatively, boot into Windows (a virtual machine installation will suffice) and get the firmware name from the Device Manager utility. If you want to know the model of your device but cannot see it in lsusb, you might see it in lsusb -v as iProduct.

The .hex file can be extracted from the downloaded Windows driver without having to run Windows for it. Download the right driver, for example Bluetooth Widcomm (listed among the drivers for Lifebook P771), which contains the drivers for many Broadcomm devices. In case of Bluetooth Widcomm, the driver is a self-extracting RAR archive, so it can be extracted using unrar x. To find out which of the many .hex files is the right one for you, look in the file Win32/bcbtums-win7x86-brcm.inf and search for [RAMUSBE031.CopyList], where E031 should be replaced with the product code (the second hex number in lsusb) of your device in upper-case. Underneath you should see the file name of the right .hex file.

Once you have the .hcd file, copy it into /lib/firmware/brcm/BCM.hcd - this filename is suggested by dmesg and it may change in your case so check your dmesg output in order to verify. Then reload the btusb module:

# rmmod btusb
# modprobe btusb

In some cases (with older kernels?), you have to flash the .hcd file with the brcm_patchram_plus utility, provided by brcm_patchram_plus-gitAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]. First, make sure in dmesg that the device is recognized by btusb as a bluetooth device. Then, run the following (replace 04ca 2006 with your vendor product pair):

# echo '04ca 2006' > /sys/bus/usb/drivers/btusb/new_id
    

Turn on the device:

# hciconfig hci0 up

Flash the firmware:

# brcm_patchram_plus_usb --patchram fw-04ca_2006.hcd hci0

The device should now be available. See BBS#162688 for information on making these changes persistent.

Device connects, then disconnects after a few moments

If you see messages like the following in journalctl output, and your device fails to connect or disconnects shortly after connecting:

bluetoothd: Unable to get connect data for Headset Voice gateway: getpeername: Transport endpoint is not connected (107)
bluetoothd: connect error: Connection refused (111)

This may be because you have already paired the device with another operating system using the same bluetooth adapter (e.g., dual-booting). Some devices can't handle multiple pairings associated with the same MAC address (i.e., bluetooth adapter). You can fix this by re-pairing the device. Start by removing the device:

$ bluetoothctl
[bluetooth]# devices
Device XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX My Device
[bluetooth]# remove XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX

Then restart bluetooth.service, turn on your bluetooth adapter, make your device discoverable, re-scan for devices, and re-pair your device. Depending on your bluetooth manager, you may need to perform a full reboot in order to re-discover the device.

Device does not connect with an error in journal

If you see a message like the following in journalctl output while trying to connect to a device:

a2dp-source profile connect failed for 9C:64:40:22:E1:3F: Protocol not available

try installing pulseaudio-bluetooth and restarting pulseaudio. This error can manifest even while using only file transfer.

Device does not show up in scan

Some devices using bluetooth low energy do not appear when scanning with bluetoothctl, for example the Logitech MX Master. The simplest way I've found to connect them is by installing bluez-utils-compatAUR, then start bluetooth.service and do:

# bluetoothctl
[NEW] Controller (MAC) myhostname [default]
[bluetooth]# power on
[CHG] Controller (MAC) Class: 0x0c010c
Changing power on succeeded
[CHG] Controller (MAC) Powered: yes
[bluetooth]# scan on
Discovery started
[CHG] Controller (MAC) Discovering: yes

In another terminal:

# hcitool lescan

Wait until your device shows up, then Ctrl+C hcitool. bluetoothctl should now see your device and pair normally.