Difference between revisions of "Building a Live CD"

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[[Category:Live Arch systems (English)]]
 
[[Category:Live Arch systems (English)]]
 
[[Category:HOWTOs (English)]]
 
[[Category:HOWTOs (English)]]
{{Template:Out_of_date}}
 
 
 
 
{{i18n|Building a Live CD}}
 
{{i18n|Building a Live CD}}
  
== New instructions ==
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== Motivation - Why? ==
Please see [[Archiso]] or [[larch]] for two possible approaches. The methods described in this article are old and likely to break.
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=== Motivation - Why? ===
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To have a bootable version of Arch Linux running totally off a CD, is useful in many ways. It can be made to rescue your HD system, test new machines / hardware if Linux compatible, keep an updated installer with latest packages, or make a demo CD to show your projects, and much more.
 
To have a bootable version of Arch Linux running totally off a CD, is useful in many ways. It can be made to rescue your HD system, test new machines / hardware if Linux compatible, keep an updated installer with latest packages, or make a demo CD to show your projects, and much more.
  
== Old instructions (outdated)==
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== Instructions - How ==
=== Before we start - What you'll need ===
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Currently there are two well developed and documented tools available for creating your own Arch Linux-based live media: '''[[Archiso]]''' and '''[[larch]]'''. Please refer the respective articles for detailed information as this article will only give you a rough overview.
# To create an iso, format a filesystem, and to resize an image download <code>cdrtools</code> and <code>e2fsprogs</code> packages.
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# pacman -S cdrtools
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# pacman -S e2fsprogs
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# Free hard disk space:
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* 1 fresh partition to install the distro.
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* 1 folder in your active partition to copy the distro to be put on the CD.
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# A CD-RW to test burning various images and a CD burner.
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# Install CD burning package (if you don't know what package to install, try <code>k3b</code> or you may prefer <code>brasero</code> if you are on GNOME).
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# pacman -S k3b
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or
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# pacman -S brasero
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=== Details ===
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As an example, here we are creating a mini Arch Linux live CD (110MB). It is based on packages installed from Arch Linux's CD installer ver. 0.5.
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==== Boot with Arch Linux CD installer and install the base packages ====
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When the packages are installed, install the kernel but don't install LILO or Grub. You can also copy your own kernel image (<tt>/boot/vmlinuz</tt>), and related modules (<tt>/lib/modules/2.x.x</tt>) from your active partition. To boot the new install, configure <tt>lilo.conf</tt> or <tt>grub</tt> in your active partition.
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'''Hint:'''For test purpose, to check for errors in the booting process, in your active partition mount the new partition and edit <tt>/etc/rc.local</tt> with the following lines to pause before login:
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echo "Press any key to continue..."
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read KEY
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'''NOTE:''' Don't forget to remove the pause!!
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In your active partition, in <tt>/root</tt> make one folder "''mylivecd''" and two sub-folders: "''isolinux''" and "''system''" (any names can be used).
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# cd /root
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# mkdir mylivecd
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# cd mylivecd
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# mkdir isolinux
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# mkdir system
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==== Install isolinux. Copy it from an existing live CD.====
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# Download "''isolinux.bin''" and "''boot.cat''" to <tt>/root/mylivecd/isolinux/</tt> :
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http://amlug.bliss-solutions.org/live-cd/distfiles/0.5.1/isolinux/
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# Create boot message "''boot.msg''" (text file) and include a short description about the live CD. Save the file in <tt>/root/mylivecd/isolinux/</tt>. Copy this text to <tt>boot.msg</tt>:
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This is a Live CD test ver. 0.1.
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F1 - boot message
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F2 - package list
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  Press Enter
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# Create "''isolinux.cfg''" (text file) and include the following text. Save the file in <tt>/root/mylivecd/isolinux/</tt>
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prompt 1
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timeout 0
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display boot.msg
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F1 boot.msg
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F2 package.txt
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default vmlinuz initrd=miniroot.gz init=/sbin/init ramdisk_size=100000 load_ramdisk=1 prompt_ramdisk=0 vga=788 root=/dev/ram0
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==== Build one miniroot image ====
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Miniroot is loaded in RAM during booting and operates same as in HD. Use Ext2 filesystem.
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'''NOTE:''' Miniroot setup depends on <tt>/etc/inittab</tt>, <tt>/etc/rc.sysinit</tt>, <tt>/etc/rc.multi</tt>, and <tt>/etc/rc.shutdown</tt>. Before building the miniroot image, study these files and plan how they can be modified whenever is needed. In <tt>/sbin</tt> the following files are required: <br>
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http://amlug.bliss-solutions.org/live-cd/distfiles/0.5.1/miniroot/init/sbin/
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# Create "''miniroot''" (text file) in <tt>/root/mylivecd</tt> with Ext2 filesystem. The image size depends how much stuff you plan to include. In this sample we will make the image 15.8MB but its recommended to make the image as small as possible. When you are ready, mount the image in <tt>/mnt/xxx</tt> (here we mount in <tt>/mnt/image</tt>).
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# cd /root/mylivecd
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# touch miniroot
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# mkfs.ext2 miniroot 15840 (press "y" for each question)
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# mkdir /mnt/image
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# mount -t auto -o loop miniroot /mnt/image
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# rm -R /mnt/image/lost+found
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'''NOTE:''' If you want to resize, run the following codes (e.g. to 11.5MB):
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# e2fsck -f miniroot (press "y" for /lost+found not found.  Create<y>?)
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# resize2fs miniroot 11520
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# Mount the new partition (e.g. <tt>/dev/hda3</tt>). Copy the below folders and files from the new partition to <tt>/mnt/image</tt> (use <tt>cp -Ra</tt> to maintain the file permissions).
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# mkdir /mnt/tmp
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# mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/tmp
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/bin /mnt/image/
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/etc /mnt/image/
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/sbin /mnt/image/
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/tmp /mnt/image/
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/var /mnt/image/
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# Copy <tt>/usr</tt> and <tt>/lib/modules/2.x.x/</tt>, <tt>/lib/modules/evms/</tt>, <tt>/lib/modules/security/</tt> to <tt>/root/mylivecd/system/</tt> :
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/usr /root/mylivecd/system/
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/opt /root/mylivecd/system/
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# mkdir /root/mylivecd/system/lib
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/lib/modules /root/mylivecd/system/lib/
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/lib/evms /root/mylivecd/system/lib/
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# cp -Ra /mnt/tmp/lib/security /root/mylivecd/system/lib/
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'''NOTE''': If <tt>/bin</tt> and <tt>/sbin</tt> are too big you may consider using busybox:
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http://www.busybox.net/
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'''OR''' temporary folders, which will be removed or renamed at the boot by codes in <tt>/rc.sysinit</tt>. Here is an example:
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http://amlug.bliss-solutions.org/live-cd/distfiles/0.5.1/miniroot/init/sbin/rc.sysinit
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# Create the following folders in <tt>/mnt/image</tt> and copy <tt>/mnt/tmp/lib</tt> files to  <tt>/mnt/image/lib/</tt> (don't copy  <tt>/mnt/tmp/lib/module</tt>, <tt>~/lib/evms</tt> and <tt>~/lib/security)</tt>:
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# cd /mnt/image
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# mkdir dev
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# mkdir home
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# mkdir lib
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# mkdir mnt/cdrom
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# mkdir mnt/floppy
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# mkdir root
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# mkdir proc
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# mkdir lib/modules
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# cd /mnt/tmp/lib/
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# cp -a l* /mnt/image/lib/
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#With the folders <tt>/usr</tt> and <tt>/opt</tt> create links in <tt>/mnt/image/</tt>. Also link the <tt>/system/lib/modules/2.x.x/</tt>. Copy kernel image to <tt>/root/mylivecd/isolinux/</tt>:
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# cd /mnt/image
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# ln -sf /mnt/cdrom/system/usr usr
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# ln -sf /mnt/cdrom/system/opt opt
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# cd /mnt/image/lib/modules/
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# ln -sf /mnt/cdrom/system/lib/modules/2.4.22 2.4.22
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# cd /mnt/image/lib/
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# ln -sf /mnt/cdrom/system/lib/evms evms
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# ln -sf /mnt/cdrom/system/lib/security security
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# cp /mnt/tmp/boot/vmlinuz /root/mylivecd/isolinux/
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# Edit <tt>/mnt/image/etc/fstab as shown here:</tt>
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/dev/root      /      ext2    defaults 0 0
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none          /proc  proc    defaults 0 0
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/dev/floppy/0          /mnt/floppy  auto      user,rw,noauto,unhide    0      0
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/dev/cdroms/cdrom0    /mnt/cdrom  iso9660  ro,user,noauto,unhide  0      0
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# Add the following line in <tt>rc.sysinit</tt> (after  line: <tt>stat_busy "Mounting Local Filesystems"</tt>) in <tt>/mnt/image/etc/</tt>. This enables reading files from the CD's /system folder.
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/bin/mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom -o ro -t iso9660
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# Compress the miniroot and move miniroot.gz to /root/mylivecd/isoliux/
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# cd /root/mylivecd/
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# umount /mnt/image
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# gzip -c miniroot >> miniroot.gz
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# mv miniroot.gz isolinux/
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# Before compiling iso, move the <tt>/root/mylivecd/miniroot</tt> to a safe place. Make  a temporary folder to put the iso image (not within <tt>/mylivecd</tt>). Run the following code (don't miss the "." at the end of line):
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# cd /root/mylivecd
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# mkdir /root/isotmp
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# Make the ISO:
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mkisofs -o /root/isotmp/test-livecd-0.1.iso -R -V "Test 0.1" \
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-T -b isolinux/isolinux.bin -c isolinux/boot.cat -no-emul-boot \
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-boot-load-size 4 -boot-info-table -A "Test Live CD 0.1" .
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==== Conclusion ====
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We hope this document gets you started. Any comments or addition, please either edit the content or post reply (requires to register). Good luck!
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------
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=== Additional Info:===
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Codes, content of AMLUG Live CD, and how to compress:
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=== Archiso ===
http://www.amlug.net/new-projects/forum/index.php?showforum=23
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Archiso is the official tool used to build Arch Linux release images. It strongly follows the KISS principle and is easy to use. If you want to build your own updated Arch Linux live installation images, this tool will get you to your goal quickly as the git repo contains the exact profile used to generate these installation images. However, it can also be used for completely customizing your live medium. It relies on an Arch Linux host system.  
  
How other distros build live CDs:
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=== larch ===
http://www.babytux.org/articles/howto/how2livecd.php
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larch aims to provide a more desktop-based approach.
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Revision as of 23:48, 10 May 2010

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Motivation - Why?

To have a bootable version of Arch Linux running totally off a CD, is useful in many ways. It can be made to rescue your HD system, test new machines / hardware if Linux compatible, keep an updated installer with latest packages, or make a demo CD to show your projects, and much more.

Instructions - How

Currently there are two well developed and documented tools available for creating your own Arch Linux-based live media: Archiso and larch. Please refer the respective articles for detailed information as this article will only give you a rough overview.

Archiso

Archiso is the official tool used to build Arch Linux release images. It strongly follows the KISS principle and is easy to use. If you want to build your own updated Arch Linux live installation images, this tool will get you to your goal quickly as the git repo contains the exact profile used to generate these installation images. However, it can also be used for completely customizing your live medium. It relies on an Arch Linux host system.

larch

larch aims to provide a more desktop-based approach.