Difference between revisions of "CD Burning"

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{{Merge|Optical disc drive|Too many pages to explain how best to use a  cd/dvd device. Merge them into a single page for quick reference.|Talk:CD_Burning#Merge_multiple_pages_CD.2FDVD}}
== Command-line CD-burning ==
== Command-line CD-burning ==

Revision as of 10:14, 18 July 2013

zh-CN:CD Burning Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with Optical disc drive.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: Too many pages to explain how best to use a cd/dvd device. Merge them into a single page for quick reference. (Discuss in Talk:CD_Burning#Merge_multiple_pages_CD.2FDVD)

Command-line CD-burning

Install CD-burning utilities

From http://www.cdrkit.org/:

cdrkit is a suite of programs for recording CDs and DVDs, blanking CD-RW media, creating ISO-9660 filesystem images, extracting audio CD data, and more. The programs included in the cdrkit package were originally derived from several sources, most notably mkisofs by Eric Youngdale and others, cdda2wav by Heiko Eissfeldt, and cdrecord by Jörg Schilling. However, cdrkit is not affiliated with any of these authors; it is now an independent project.

The cdrkit package is available in the official repositories.

If you intend to use cdrdao (for writing cue/bin files to CD), install that package instead.

  • If you face any issues with cdrkit, it is recommended to install cdrtools from the community repository (cdrkit is a fork of cdrtools). cdrtools is being actively developed and supports CD, DVD and Blu-ray burning along with complete CDRWIN cue/bin support. cdrtools does not depend on cdrdao. For more information, see this page from the cdrtools site
  • Make sure that you build a package using makepkg and install with pacman. Pacman wrappers may resolve to cdrkit instead

Modifying the CD-RW

For the remainder of this section the name of your recording device is assumed to be /dev/cdrw. If that is not the case, modify the commands accordingly. In order to write to the CD it needs to be unmounted. If it is not, wodim will give you an error message.

If wodim gives you an error message similar too Cannot open SCSI driver!, use the following command:

$ modprobe sr_mod

You can try to let wodim locate your burning device with this command:

$ wodim -checkdrive

Erasing CD-RW

CD-RW media usually need to be erased before you can write new data on it. To blank CD-RW medium use this command:

$ wodim -v dev=/dev/cdrw -blank=fast

As you might have guessed, this blanks your medium really fast, but you can also use some other options, just replace the word fast with one of the following:

blank the entire disk
blank the entire disk
blank the entire disk
minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
blank a track
unreserve a track
blank a track tail
unclose last session
blank last session

Burning an ISO image

To burn an ISO image run:

$ cdrecord -v dev=/dev/sr0 isoimage.iso

Verify the burnt ISO image

You can verify the integrity of the burnt CD to make sure it contains no errors. Always eject the CD and reinsert it before verifying.

First calculate the md5sum of the original ISO image:

$ md5sum isoimage.iso
 e5643e18e05f5646046bb2e4236986d8 isoimage.iso

If the CD was burnt in DAO (Disc At Once) mode by passing the -dao option to cdrecord you can calculate the md5sum of the burnt CD as follows:

$ md5sum /dev/sr0
 e5643e18e05f5646046bb2e4236986d8 /dev/sr0

If the CD was burnt in TAO (Track At Once) mode it can be verified with dd and md5sum. You need to know the number of sectors to check. You can calculate this by dividing the size of the ISO file by 2048, but for your convenience this is included in the output of cdrecord:

Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 90095616/90095616 (43992 sectors).

Then check if this matches the md5sum of the burnt image, replacing "count" with the number of sectors:

$ dd if=/dev/sr0 bs=2048 count=43992 | md5sum
 43992+0 records in
 43992+0 records out
 90095616 bytes (90 MB) copied, 0.359539 s, 251 MB/s
 e5643e18e05f5646046bb2e4236986d8  -

Burning an audio CD

Create your audio tracks and store them as uncompressed, 16-bit stereo WAV files. To convert MP3 to WAV, ensure lame is installed, cd to the directoy with your MP3 files, and run:

$ for i in *.mp3; do lame --decode "$i" "$(basename "$i" .mp3)".wav; done

In case you get an error when trying to burn WAV files converted with lame try decoding with mpg123:

$ for i in *.mp3; do mpg123 --rate 44100 --stereo --buffer 3072 --resync -w $(basename $i .mp3).wav $i; done

Name the audio files in a manner that will cause them to be listed in the desired track order when listed alphabetically, such as 01.wav, 02.wav, 03.wav, etc. Use the following command to simulate burning the wav files as an audio CD:

$ wodim -dummy -v -pad speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -dao -swab *.wav

In case you detect errors or empty tracks like:

Track 01: audio    0 MB (00:00.00) no preemp pad

try another decoder (e.g. mpg123) or try using cdrecord from the cdrtools package. Note that cdrkit also contains a cdrecord command but it is just a softlink to wodim. If anything worked you can remove the dummy flag to really burn the CD

To test the new audio CD, use MPlayer:

$ mplayer cdda://

Burning a bin/cue

To burn a bin/cue image run:

$ cdrdao write --device /dev/cdrw image.cue

Making an ISO image from an existing CD

To copy an existing CD just type:

$ readom -v dev=/dev/cdrw f=isoimage.iso
Note: If you get "Error trying to open /dev/cdrw exclusively (Device or resource busy)...", unmount the CD with
# umount /dev/cdrw
Replace /dev/cdrw with /dev/cdrom if it's a CDRom.

You do not want to use dd or cat as they provide no error checking, but for reference here are those commands:

$ dd if=/dev/cdrw of=/home/user/isoimage.iso

or with cat:

$ cat /dev/cdrw > isoimage.iso

Or use the readcd program (which is now a symlink to readom), also in the cdrkit package:

$ readcd -v dev=/dev/cdrw -f isoimage.iso

If the original CD was bootable it will be a bootable image.

TOC/CUE/BIN for mixed-mode disks

ISO images only store a single data track. If you want to create an image of a mixed-mode disk (data track with multiple audio tracks) then you need to make a TOC/BIN pair:

$ cdrdao read-cd --read-raw --datafile IMAGE.bin --driver generic-mmc:0x20000 --device /dev/cdrom IMAGE.toc

Some software only likes CUE/BIN pair, you can make a CUE sheet with toc2cue (part of cdrdao):

$ toc2cue IMAGE.toc IMAGE.cue

Making an ISO image from existing files on hard disk

To make an iso image just copy the needed files to one folder, then do:

$ mkisofs -V volume_name -J -r -o isoimage.iso ~/folder

Mounting an ISO image

To test if the ISO image is proper, you can mount it (as root):

# mount -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0 cd_image /cdrom

You have to first load the loop module:

# modprobe loop

See also Mounting images as user for doing this without root privileges.

Converting to an ISO image

To convert an img/ccd image, you can use ccd2iso:

$ ccd2iso ~/image.img ~/image.iso

Burning CDs with a GUI

Template:Wikipedia There are several applications available to burn CDs in a graphical environment.

  • AcetoneISO — All in one ISO tool (supports BIN, MDF, NRG, IMG, DAA, DMG, CDI, B5I, BWI, PDI and ISO)
http://sourceforge.net/projects/acetoneiso || acetoneiso2
  • BashBurn — Lightweight terminal based menu frontend for CD/DVD burning tools
http://bashburn.dose.se/ || bashburn
  • Brasero — Disc burning application for the GNOME desktop that is designed to be as simple as possible. Part of gnome-extra
http://projects.gnome.org/brasero/ || brasero
  • cdw — Ncurses frontend to cdrecord, mkisofs, growisofs, dvd+rw-mediainfo, dvd+rw-format, xorriso
http://cdw.sourceforge.net/ || cdwAUR
  • GnomeBaker — Full featured CD/DVD burning application for the GNOME desktop
http://gnomebaker.sourceforge.net/ || gnomebakerAUR
  • Graveman — GTK-based CD/DVD burning application. It requires configuration to point to correct devices
http://graveman.tuxfamily.org/ || gravemanAUR
  • K3b — Feature-rich and easy to handle CD burning application based on Kdelibs
http://www.k3b.org/ || k3b
  • Silicon empire — Qt-based set of tools to manage and organize your optical discs like CDs, DVDs and Blu-rays
http://getsilicon.org/ || silicon-empireAUR
  • X-CD-Roast — Lightweight cdrtools front-end for CD and DVD writing
http://www.xcdroast.org/ || xcdroastAUR
  • Xfburn — Simple frontend to the libburnia libraries with support for CD/DVD(-RW), ISO images and BurnFree
http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/applications/xfburn || xfburn

Nero Linux

Nero Linux is a commercial burning suite from makers of Nero for Windows - Nero AG. The biggest advantage of Nero linux is its interface which similar to window version. Hence, users migrating from windows might find it easy to operate. The Linux version now includes Nero Express, a wizard which takes users through the process of burning CDs and DVDs step-by-step, which users will be familiar with from the Windows version. Also new in version 4 is Blu-ray Disc defect management, integration of Isolinux for creating bootable media and support for Musepack and AIFF audio formats...

Nero Linux 4 retails at £17.99 with a free trial version also available.


  • Easy, wizard-style user interface for guided burning with Nero Linux Express 4
  • Full Blu-ray Burning Support
  • Supports Burning of Audio CD (CD-DA), ISO 9660 (Joliet support), CD-Text, ISOLINUX Bootable, Multi-session Discs, DVD-Video and miniDVD, DVD double layer support.
  • Advanced burning with Nero Burning ROM and command line client


For Nero Linux you need to load sg module at boot time. Put a namesake file in /etc/modules-load.d:


Some updates ago the sg module wasn't auto loaded any more and Nero needs it.


K3b locale error

When running K3B, if the following message appears:

System locale charset is ANSI_X3.4-1968
Your system's locale charset (i.e. the charset used to encode file names) is 
set to ANSI_X3.4-1968. It is highly unlikely that this has been done intentionally.
Most likely the locale is not set at all. An invalid setting will result in
problems when creating data projects.Solution: To properly set the locale 
charset make sure the LC_* environment variables are set. Normally the distribution 
setup tools take care of this.

It means that your locale is not set well.

To fix it,

  • Remove /etc/locale.gen
  • Re-install glibc
  • Edit /etc/locale.gen, uncommenting all lines lines that corresponds to your language AND the en_US options, for compatibility:
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
en_US ISO-8859-1
  • Re-generate the profiles with locale-gen:
# locale-gen
 Generating locales...
 en_US.UTF-8... done
 en_US.ISO-8859-1... done
 pt_BR.UTF-8... done
 pt_BR.ISO-8859-1... done
 Generation complete.

More info here.

Brasero fails to find blank discs

Brasero uses gvfs to manage CD/DVD burning devices.

Brasero fails to normalize audio CD

If you try to burn it may stop at the first step called Normalization.

As a workaround you can disable the normalization plugin using the Edit > Plugins menu