Difference between revisions of "CD Burning"

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[[Category:Utilities (English)]]
#REDIRECT [[Optical disc drive#Burning]]
[[Category:HOWTOs (English)]]
{{i18n|CD Burning}}
{{Article summary start}}
{{Article summary text|This document outlines various methods of burning CDs.}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
{{Article summary wiki|DVD Burning}}
{{Article summary end}}
== Command-line CD-burning ==
===Install CD-burning utilities===
From http://www.cdrkit.org/:
:''<tt>cdrkit</tt> is a suite of programs for recording CDs and DVDs, blanking CD-RW media, creating ISO-9660 filesystem images, extracting audio CD data, and more. The programs included in the <tt>cdrkit</tt> package were originally derived from several sources, most notably <tt>mkisofs</tt> by Eric Youngdale and others, <tt>cdda2wav</tt> by Heiko Eissfeldt, and <tt>cdrecord</tt> by Jörg Schilling. However, <tt>cdrkit</tt> is not affiliated with any of these authors; it is now an independent project.
The {{Package Official|cdrkit}} package is available in [extra]:
# pacman -S cdrkit
If you intend to use {{Package Official|cdrdao}} (for writing {{Filename|cue}}/{{Filename|bin}} files to CD)
# pacman -S cdrdao
{{Note|If you face any issues with <tt>cdrkit</tt>, it is recommended to install {{Package AUR|cdrtools}} from the [[AUR]] (<tt>cdrkit</tt> is a fork of <tt>cdrtools</tt>). <tt>cdrtools</tt> is being actively developed and supports CD, DVD and BluRay burning along with complete CDRWIN {{Filename|cue}}/{{Filename|bin}} support. <tt>cdrtools</tt> does not depend on <tt>cdrdao</tt>.}}
{{Note|Make sure that you build a package using makepkg and install with pacman. Pacman wrappers like bauerbill may resolve to cdrkit instead.}}
===Setting permissions===
Users that should be able to use CD/DVD burning devices must have permissions to access the devices. If you are using [[udev]] (which is default in Arch Linux kernels), you only need to add the user(s) to the optical [[group]]:
# gpasswd -a <username> optical
Log out and back in for the changes to take effect.
===Modifying the CD-RW===
For the remainder of this section the name of your recording device is assumed to be {{Filename|/dev/cdrw}}. If that is not the case, modify the commands accordingly. In order to write to the CD it needs to be unmounted. If it is not, <tt>wodim</tt> will give you an error message. 
===Erasing CD-RW===
CD-RW media usually need to be erased before you can write new data on it. To blank CD-RW medium use this command:
$ wodim -v dev=/dev/cdrw -blank=fast
As you might have guessed, this blanks your medium really fast, but you can also use some other options, just replace the word ''fast'' with one of the following:
;all: blank the entire disk
;disc: blank the entire disk
;disk: blank the entire disk
;fast: minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
;minimal: minimally blank the entire disk (PMA, TOC, pregap)
;track: blank a track
;unreserve: unreserve a track
;trtail: blank a track tail
;unclose: unclose last session
;session: blank last session
===Burning an iso image===
To burn an iso-image run:
$ wodim -v dev=/dev/cdrw isoimage.iso
===Burning an audio CD===
# Create your audio tracks and store them as uncompressed, 16-bit stereo {{Filename|wav}} files.
$ '''Tip:''' to convert mp3 to wav ensure LAME is installed, cd to the directoy with your MP3 files and run:
$ for i in *.mp3; do lame --decode "$i" "`basename "$i" .mp3`".wav; done
# Name the audio files in a manner that will cause them to be listed in the desired track order when listed alphabetically, such as {{Filename|01.wav}}, {{Filename|02.wav}}, {{Filename|03.wav}}, etc.
# Use the following command to burn the wav files as an audio CD:
$ wodim -v -pad speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -dao -swab *.wav
===Burning a bin/cue===
To burn a bin/cue image run:
$ cdrdao write --device /dev/cdrw image.cue
===Making an iso image from an existing CD===
To copy an existing CD just type:
$ dd if=/dev/cdrw of=/home/user/isoimage.iso
or even simpler:
$ cat /dev/cdrw > isoimage.iso
Or use the {{Codeline|readcd}} program, also in the <tt>cdrkit</tt> package
$ readcd -v dev=/dev/cdrw -f isoimage.iso
If the original CD was bootable it will be a bootable image.
====TOC/CUE/BIN for mixed-mode disks====
ISO images only store a single data track. If you want to create an image of a mixed-mode disk (data track with multiple audio tracks) then you need to make a TOC/BIN pair:
$ cdrdao read-cd --read-raw --datafile IMAGE.bin --driver generic-mmc:0x20000 --device /dev/cdrom IMAGE.toc
Some software only likes CUE/BIN pair, you can make a CUE sheet with {{Codeline|toc2cue}} (part of <tt>cdrdao</tt>):
$ toc2cue IMAGE.toc IMAGE.cue
===Making an iso image from existing files on harddisk===
To make an iso image just copy the needed files to one folder, then do:
$ mkisofs -V volume_name -J -r -o isoimage.iso ~/folder
===Mounting an iso image===
To test if the iso image is proper, you can mount it (as root):
# mount -t iso9660 -o ro,loop=/dev/loop0 cd_image /cdrom
You have to first load the loop module:
# modprobe loop
===Converting to iso image===
To convert an {{Filename|img}}/{{Filename|ccd}} image, you can use {{Codeline|ccd2iso}}:
# pacman -S ccd2iso
$ ccd2iso ~/image.img ~/image.iso
== Burning CDs with a GUI ==
There are several applications available to burn CDs in a graphical environment. The use of these programs are self-explanatory.
===Nero Linux===
NERO LINUX is Commercial burning suite from makers of nero for windows - Nero AG. the biggest advantage of nero linux is its interface which similar to window version. Hence, users migrating from windows might find it easy to operate. The Linux version now includes Nero Express, a wizard which takes users through the process of burning CDs and DVDs step-by-step, which users will be familiar with from the Windows version. Also new in version 4 is Blu-ray Disc defect management, integration of Isolinux for creating bootable media and support for Musepack and AIFF audio formats...
* [http://www.nero.com/enu/linux4.html Nero Linux 4]
* [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?do_Details=1&ID=2153 AUR package]
* Easy, wizard-style user interface for guided burning with Nero Linux Express 4
* Full Blu-ray Burning Support
* Supports Burning of Audio CD (CD-DA),ISO 9660 (Joliet support),CD-Text,ISOLINUX Bootable ,Multisession Discs,DVD-Video and miniDVD,DVD double layer support.
* Advanced burning with Nero Burning ROM and command line client
Nero Linux 4 retails at £17.99 with a free trial version also available.
According to [http://k3b.plainblack.com/, k3b is "The CD/DVD Kreator for Linux - optimized for KDE". K3b uses the [[Wikipedia:Qt (toolkit)|Qt]] toolkit.
The {{Package Official|k3b}} package is available in [extra]:
# pacman -S k3b
Run {{Codeline|k3bsetup}} to set up your preferences, permissions, etc.; run {{Codeline|k3b}} to execute the main program.
====About Locale====
When running K3B, if the following message appears
System locale charset is ANSI_X3.4-1968
Your system's locale charset (i.e. the charset used to encode filenames) is
set to ANSI_X3.4-1968. It is highly unlikely that this has been done intentionally.
Most likely the locale is not set at all. An invalid setting will result in
problems when creating data projects.Solution: To properly set the locale
charset make sure the LC_* environment variables are set. Normally the distribution
setup tools take care of this.
It means that your locale is not set well.
To fix it,
* Remove <code>/etc/locale.gen</code>
# rm /etc/locale.gen
* Re-install <code>glibc</code>
# pacman -S glibc
* Edit <code>/etc/locale.gen</code>, uncommenting all lines lines that corresponds to your language AND the <code>en_US</code> options, for compatibility.
# nano /etc/locale.gen
en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
en_US ISO-8859-1
* Re-generate the profiles with <code>locale-gen</code>
# locale-gen
Generating locales...
en_US.UTF-8... done
en_US.ISO-8859-1... done
pt_BR.UTF-8... done
pt_BR.ISO-8859-1... done
Generation complete.
More info [http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=251512%29; here]
==== K3B says that there's no Burning Devices ====
A common cause of this is the current user have no privileges for that.
You can try to:
* Add the user to the group <code>optical</code> (remember to re-login after this)
# gpasswd -a <user> optical
* Set permissions to devices
# chmod 777 /dev/dvd*
# chmod 777 /dev/cd*
* Make sure dbus is running:
# /etc/rc.d/dbus start
You should add a dbus entry in your <code>/etc/rc.conf</code> so that it automatically loads upon boot.
Brasero is another solution to CD burning if you are using [[Gnome]].
* Install brasero with pacman.
# pacman -S brasero
* Run <code>brasero</code> to run the main program.
====Brasero fails to find blank discs====
Brasero version 2.30 and above uses gvfs instead of hal to manage CD/DVD burning devices.
* Install gvfs with pacman.
# pacman -S gvfs
* Edit your .xinitrc by adding "dbus-launch" before your window manager name, eg.:
# exec dbus-launch openbox-session
* You don't need to edit .xinitrc if you're using login manager like [http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/GDM GDM] or [http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/KDM KDM]
Graveman is a simple and almost dependency-free application for burning CDs.
* Graveman is not packed for arch but you can install it from the [[AUR]]: [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=43499].
* Run <code>graveman</code> as a regular user to create the configuration file in ~/.config/graveman/graveman.conf (if you run graveman as root first, the permissions for this file will be wrong).
* Now, in graveman, go to menu File > Preferences... > Devices and add your CD burners (If necessary, run graveman as root).  Devices may already be set up correctly.
* Note that you may have to manually add your own device in Graveman's preferences and point it at /dev/cdrom instead of /dev/hdc
* If graveman's autodetection points to '''1,0,0''' or something like that, and you get the "Currently:  no media" error you may point it to '''/dev/sr0''' or '''/dev/cdrom''' as noted above
Alternatively theres also [http://bashburn.sourceforge.net/ Bashburn] in [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?do_Details=1&ID=3658&O=0&L=0&C=0&K=bashburn&SB=n&SO=a&PP=25&do_MyPackages=0&do_Orphans=0&SeB=nd AUR] as a semi-gui solution. BashBurn is the new name for the cd burning shell script Magma. It's not the best looking CD-burning application out there, but it does what you want it to do.
[http://www.xfce.org/projects/xfburn/ Xfburn] is a simple CD/DVD burning tool based on libburnia libraries. It can blank CD-RWs, burn and create iso images, as well as burn personal compositions of data to either CD or DVD.
It can be found in the Extra Repository.
* Install Xfburn with pacman.
# pacman -S xfburn
[http://code.google.com/p/recorder/ Recorder] is a graphical frontend of cdrkit/cdrtools, cdrdao, mkisofs and growisofs. It aims to be simple and easy to use, free of large configurations and useless options, following the KISS principle and offering a disc burning of quality, nothing more.
* Install from the AUR: [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=16501 Recorder package].
* Discussion thread: [http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=47253 Recorder - A simple GTK+ disc burner]
===PATA and SATA problems around 2.6.20/2.6.21===
For some kernels on some machines, CD burning works very unreliably. This is not fully diagnosed but appears to be related to DMA and having SATA Hard Drives and older IDE CD/DVD Burners and is possibly more prevalent on PIIX Motherboards. On newer kernels there is a new driver whereby the CD/DVD Burner behaves as if it is a SCSI drive, even though it isn't.
The symptom for this problem is an almost total refusal to burn anything at all. It 'seems' to work fine, but if you verify the burn it invariably fails. If this is happening to you and you have an IDE burner try this fix.
You will need to install mkinitcpio as described here, [[Configuring mkinitcpio]] so you can rebuild the kernel. You now need to reconfigure your /etc/mkinitcpio.conf file to reuse the old IDE drivers.
# gedit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf
Find the line:
MODULES="ata_generic ata_piix"
and change it to (insert piix in the front)
MODULES="piix ata_generic ata_piix"
Then, find the line:
HOOKS="base udev autodetect pata scsi sata usbinput keymap filesystems"
and change that to: (replace pata with ide)
HOOKS="base udev autodetect ide scsi sata usbinput keymap filesystems"
Use mkinitcpio to rebuild the kernel as described in it's own wiki page, and reboot. In brief:
# mkinitcpio -g /boot/kernel26.img

Latest revision as of 00:41, 25 August 2014