Difference between revisions of "CUPS"

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{{Article summary start|Summary}}
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{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary text|Installing and configuring CUPS}}
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{{Related|CUPS/Printer sharing}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Related|CUPS/Printer-specific problems}}
{{Article summary wiki|CUPS printer sharing}}
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{{Related|CUPS/Troubleshooting}}
{{Article summary wiki|CUPS printer-specific problems}}
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{{Related|Samba}}
{{Article summary wiki|Samba}}
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{{Related|LPRng}}
{{Article summary end}}
+
{{Related articles end}}
  
From [http://www.cups.org/index.php CUPS' site]:
+
[http://www.cups.org/ CUPS] is the standards-based, open source printing system developed by Apple Inc. for macOS® and other UNIX®-like operating systems.
:"''[[Wikipedia:CUPS|CUPS]] is the standards-based, open source printing system developed by Apple Inc. for OS® X and other UNIX®-like operating systems''".
+
  
Although there are other printing packages such as LPRNG, the Common Unix Printing System is the most popular choice because of its relative ease of use.
+
== Installation ==
  
==CUPS Linux Printing workflow==
+
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|cups}} package.
As of {{Pkg|cups}} version 1.5.3-3, Arch Linux makes use of the new full pdf-based printing workflow. For
+
further reading check [http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/openprinting/pdfasstandardprintjobformat PDF standard printing job format] and an old [https://wiki.linuxfoundation.org/en/OpenPrinting/Database/CUPS-Filter-Chart CUPS filtering chart] for history and fun.
+
A good starting point for general Linux printing questions is [http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/openprinting here].
+
  
There are two ways to setup a printer.
+
If you intend to "print" into a PDF document, also install the {{pkg|cups-pdf}} package. By default, pdf files are stored in {{ic|/var/spool/cups-pdf/$USER}}. The location can be changed in {{ic|/etc/cups/cups-pdf.conf}}.
* If there's a CUPS server running in your network and sharing a printer you only need to install the client package.
+
* If the printer is connected directly to your system or you have access to an IPP network printer then setup a local CUPS server.
+
  
==Installing the client package==
+
[[Start]] and [[enable]] {{ic|org.cups.cupsd.service}}.
The package {{Pkg|libcups}} is the only required package. [[pacman|Install]] it from the [[Official repositories]].
+
  
Then add your CUPS server's IP address or hostname into {{ic|/etc/cups/client.conf}}. That is all you need. Every application should quickly find the printer(s) shared by that CUPS server.
+
== Connection Interfaces ==
 +
Additional steps for printer detection are listed below for various connection interfaces.
  
===Optional advanced network setup===
+
{{Note|CUPS helper programs are run using the {{ic|lp}} group and {{ic|daemon}} user. This allows the helper programs to access printer devices '''and''' read config files in {{ic|/etc/cups/}}, which all belong to the {{ic|lp}} group. This default may conflict with non-printer parallel port device access:
It is also possible to run a entire cupsd+cups-browsed instance on your client with Avahi browsing enabled to discover unknown shared printers in your network. This can be useful in large setups where the server is unknown.
+
* Adding extra users to the {{ic|lp}} group will allow those users to read CUPS files, and
{{Note|This behavior did not change with cups 1.6.x - the difference is that until 1.5.x cupsd was able to do printer browsing alone and now it can only browse its own shared printers.
+
* CUPS helpers may gain access to any non-printer parallel port devices.
To get the local cupsd recognise other shared printers offered by a remote cupsd server you need a running local cups-browserd (supported since cups-filters 1.0.26) instance using Avahi to discover unknown printers.}}
+
If this is a concern, consider using a [[Udev]] rule to assign a different group for any non-printer parallel port device ({{Bug|50009}}). The group and user that CUPS uses can be changed, but the permissions of some files may need to be manually fixed.}}
  
==Installing the server packages==
+
=== USB ===
The following packages and some printer drivers are needed. [[pacman|Install]] them from the [[Official repositories]].
+
To see if your USB printer is detected:
 +
{{hc|$ lsusb|
 +
(...)
 +
Bus 001 Device 007: ID 03f0:1004 Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 970c/970cse
 +
}}
  
* {{Pkg|cups}} - the actual CUPS daemon
+
=== Parallel port ===
* {{Pkg|cups-filters}} - essential filters
+
To use a parallel port printer, the {{ic|lp}}, {{ic|parport}} and {{ic|parport_pc}} [[kernel modules]] are required.
* {{Pkg|ghostscript}} - (optional) PostScript interpreter
+
{{Pkg|gsfonts}} - GhostScript standard Type1 fonts
+
  
If you want to enable printer browsing through your network, also install {{Pkg|avahi}}. Make sure '''avahi-daemon''' is started before '''cupsd'''.
+
{{hc|$ dmesg {{!}} grep -i parport|
 +
parport0: Printer, Hewlett-Packard HP LaserJet 2100 Series
 +
lp0: using parport0 (polling)
 +
}}
  
If the system is connected to a networked printer using the [[Samba]] protocol or if the system is to be a print server for Windows clients, also install {{Pkg|samba}}.
+
=== Network ===
 +
To use [[Avahi]] hostnames to connect to networked printers, set up [[Avahi#Hostname_resolution|.local hostname resolution]] and [[restart]] {{ic|org.cups.cupsd.service}}.
  
===Printer driver===
+
If the system is connected to a networked printer using the [[Samba]] protocol, or if the system is to be a print server for Windows clients, install the {{Pkg|samba}} package.
Here are some of the driver packages. Choosing the right driver depends on the printer:
+
  
* '''{{Pkg|gutenprint}}''' - A collection of high quality drivers for Canon, Epson, Lexmark, Sony, Olympus, and PCL printers for use with GhostScript, CUPS, Foomatic, and the [[GIMP]]
+
== Printer Drivers ==
* '''{{Pkg|foomatic-db}}, {{Pkg|foomatic-db-engine}}, {{Pkg|foomatic-db-nonfree}}, and {{Pkg|foomatic-filters}}''' - Foomatic is a database-driven system for integrating free software printer drivers with common spoolers under Unix. Installing foomatic-filters should solve problems if the cups error_log is reporting "stopped with status 22!".
+
The drivers for a printer may come from any of the sources shown below. See [[CUPS/Printer-specific problems]] for an incomplete list of drivers that others have managed to get working.
* '''{{Pkg|hplip}}''' - HP drivers for DeskJet, OfficeJet, Photosmart, Business Inkjet and some LaserJet printer models, as well as a number of Brother printers.
+
* '''{{Pkg|splix}}''' - Samsung drivers for SPL (Samsung Printer Language) printers.
+
  
* '''{{AUR|foo2zjs}}''' - Drivers for ZjStream protocol printers such as the HP Laserjet 1018. More info [http://foo2zjs.rkkda.com here]. Package is available in the [[AUR]].
+
To drive a printer, CUPS needs a PPD file and, for most printers, some [https://www.cups.org/doc/man-filter.html filters].
* '''{{AUR|hpoj}}''' - If you are using an HP Officejet, you should also install this package and follow the instructions to avoid problems as in [https://answers.launchpad.net/hplip/+question/133425 this thread]. Package is available in the [[AUR]].
+
For details on how CUPS uses PPDs and filters, see [https://www.cups.org/doc/postscript-driver.html].
* '''{{AUR|samsung-unified-driver}}''' - Unified Linux Driver for Samsung printers and scanners. Required for new printers such as the ML-2160. Package is available in the [[AUR]].
+
* '''{{AUR|ufr2}}''' or '''{{AUR|cndrvcups-lb}}''' - Canon UFR2 driver with support for LBP, iR and MF series printers. Package is available in the [[AUR]].
+
  
* '''{{Pkg|cups-pdf}}''' - A package that allows one to setup a virtual PDF Printer that generates a PDF out of jobs sent to it
+
The [http://www.openprinting.org/printers OpenPrinting Printer List] provides driver recommendations for many printers. It also supplies PPD files for each printer, but most are available through foomatic or the recommended driver package.
  
If you are not sure of what driver package to install or if the current driver is not working, it may be easiest to just install all of the drivers. Some of the package names are misleading because printers of other makes may rely on them. For example, the Brother HL-2140 needs the hplip driver installed.
+
When a PPD file is provided to CUPS, the CUPS server will regenerate the PPD files and save them in {{ic|/etc/cups/ppd/}}.
  
====Download printer PPD====
+
=== CUPS ===
Depending on the printer, this step is optional and may not be needed, as the standard CUPS installation already comes with quite a few PPD (Postscript Printer Description) files. Moreover, the ''foomatic-filters'', ''gimp-print'' and ''hplip'' packages already include quite a few PPD files which will automatically be detected by CUPS.
+
CUPS provides a few PPDs and filter binaries by default, which should work out of the box.
  
Here is an explanation of what a PPD file is from the Linux Printing website:
+
=== Foomatic ===
:"''For every PostScript printer the manufacturers provide a PPD file which contains all printer-specific information about the particular printer model: Basic printer capabilities as whether the printer is a color printer, fonts, PostScript level, etc., and especially the user-adjustable options, as paper size, resolution, etc.''"
+
The [https://wiki.linuxfoundation.org/openprinting/database/foomatic foomatic] project provides PPDs for many printer drivers, both free and nonfree. For more information about what foomatic does, see [http://www.openprinting.org/download/kpfeifle/LinuxKongress2002/Tutorial/IV.Foomatic-Developer/IV.tutorial-handout-foomatic-development.html Foomatic from the Developer's View].
  
If the PPD for the printer is ''not'' already in CUPS, then:
+
To use foomatic, install {{pkg|foomatic-db-engine}}, and at least one of {{pkg|foomatic-db-ppds}}, {{pkg|foomatic-db-nonfree-ppds}}, or {{pkg|foomatic-db-gutenprint-ppds}}.
*check [[AUR]] to see if there are packages for the printer/manufacturer
+
*visit the [http://www.openprinting.org/printers OpenPrinting database] and select the manufacturer and model of the printer
+
*visit the manufacturer's site and search for GNU/Linux drivers
+
  
{{Note|PPD files go in {{ic|/usr/share/cups/model/}}}}
+
The foomatic PPDs may require additional filters, such as {{pkg|gutenprint}}, {{pkg|ghostscript}}, or another source (for instance {{aur|min12xxw}}).
 +
For {{pkg|ghostscript}}, {{pkg|gsfonts}} may also be required.
  
====Another source for printer drivers====
+
=== Manufacturer-specific drivers ===
[http://www.turboprint.de/english.html Turboprint] is a proprietary driver for many printers not yet supported by GNU/Linux (Canon i*, for example). Unlike CUPS, however, high quality prints are either marked with a watermark or are a pay-only service.
+
Many printer manufacturers supply their own Linux drivers. These are often available in the official Arch repositories or in the [[AUR]].
  
==Hardware support and configuration==
+
Some of those drivers are described in more detail in [[CUPS/Printer-specific problems]].
  
USB printers can get accessed with two methods: The usblp kernel module and libusb. The former is the classic way. It is simple: data is sent to the printer by writing it to a device file as a simple serial data stream. Reading the same device file allows bi-di access, at least for things like reading out ink levels, status, or printer capability information (PJL). It works very well for simple printers, but for multi-function devices (printer/scanner) it is not suitable and manufacturers like HP supply their own backends. Source: [http://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/printing-architecture/2012/002412.html here].
+
== Printer URI ==
  
===Kernel modules===
+
Listed below are additional steps to manually generate the URI if required.
Before using the CUPS web interface, the appropriate kernel modules need to be installed. The following steps are from the Gentoo Printing Guide.
+
  
This section may not be necessary, however, depending on which kernel is being used. The kernel module may load automatically after plugging in the printer. Use the {{ic|tail}} command (described below) to see if the printer has already been detected. The {{ic|lsmod}} utility can also be used to see what modules have been loaded.
+
=== USB ===
  
====USB printers====
+
CUPS should be able to automatically generate a URI for USB printers, for example {{ic|1=usb://HP/DESKJET%20940C?serial=CN16E6C364BH}}.
{{Warning|As of {{pkg|cups}} version 1.6.0, you no longer need to [[Kernel modules#Blacklisting|blacklist]] the {{ic|usblp}} kernel module.}}
+
If you find out this is the only way to fix a remaining issue please report this upstream to the CUPS bug tracker and maybe also get in contact with Till Kamppeter (Debian CUPS maintainer). See [http://cups.org/str.php?L4128 upstream bug] for more.
+
  
Some USB printer users may want to try if blacklisting the {{ic|usblp}} module would help:
+
If it doesn't, see [[CUPS/Troubleshooting#USB printers]] for troubleshooting steps.
  
{{hc|/etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf|blacklist usblp}}
+
=== Parallel port ===
  
Custom kernel users may need to manually load the {{ic|usbcore}} module before proceeding:
+
The URI should be of the form {{ic|parallel:''device''}}. For instance, if the printer is connected on {{ic|/dev/lp0}}, use {{ic|parallel:/dev/lp0}}.
# modprobe usbcore
+
If you are using a USB to parallel port adapter, use {{ic|parallel:/dev/usb/lp0}} as the printer URI.
  
Once the modules are installed, plug in the printer and check if the kernel detected it by running the following:
+
=== Network ===
# tail /var/log/messages.log
+
or
+
# dmesg
+
  
If you're using {{ic|usblp}}, the output should indicate that the printer has been detected like so:
+
If you have set up [[Avahi]] as in [[#Network]], CUPS should detect the printer URI. You can also use {{ic|avahi-discover}} to find the name of your printer and its address (for instance, {{ic|BRN30055C6B4C7A.local/10.10.0.155:631}}).
Feb 19 20:17:11 kernel: printer.c: usblp0: USB Bidirectional
+
printer dev 2 if 0 alt 0 proto 2 vid 0x04E8 pid 0x300E
+
Feb 19 20:17:11 kernel: usb.c: usblp driver claimed interface cfef3920
+
Feb 19 20:17:11 kernel: printer.c: v0.13: USB Printer Device Class driver
+
  
If you blacklisted {{ic|usblp}}, you will see something like:
+
The URI can also be generated manually, without using [[Avahi]].
usb 3-2: new full speed USB device using uhci_hcd and address 3
+
A list of the available URI schemes for networked printers is available in the CUPS documentation [https://www.cups.org/doc/network.html#PROTOCOLS]. As exact details of the URIs differ between printers, check either the manual of the printer or [[CUPS/Printer-specific problems]].
usb 3-2: configuration #1 chosen from 1 choice
+
  
====Parallel port printers====
+
Remote CUPS print servers can be accessed through a URI of the form {{ic|ipp://''hostname'':631/printers/''queue_name''}}. See [[CUPS/Printer sharing#Between GNU/Linux systems]] for details on setting up the remote print server.
To use a parallel port printer the configuration is pretty much the same, except for the modules:
+
# modprobe lp
+
# modprobe parport
+
# modprobe parport_pc
+
  
Once again, check the setup by running:
+
See [[CUPS/Troubleshooting#Networking issues]] for additional issues and solutions.
# tail /var/log/messages.log
+
It should display something like this:
+
lp0: using parport0 (polling).
+
  
If you are using a USB to parallel port adapter, CUPS will not be able to detect the printer. As a workaround, add the printer using a different connection type and then change DeviceID in {{ic|/etc/cups/printers.conf}}:
+
{{Warning|1=Avoid configuring both the server and the client with a printer filter - either the print queue on the client or the server should be 'raw'. This avoids sending a print job through the filters for a printer twice, which can cause problems (for instance, [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1589908#p1589908]). See [[#Usage]] for an example of setting a print queue to 'raw'.}}
DeviceID = parallel:/dev/usb/lp0
+
  
====Auto-loading====
+
== Usage ==
It is convenient to have the system automatically load the kernel module every time it starts up. To do so, use a text editor to open up {{ic|/etc/modules-load.d/printing.conf}} and add the appropriate modules one per line. Here is an example:
+
lp
+
parport
+
parport_pc
+
  
=== HP Printer ===
+
CUPS can be fully controlled using the lp* and cups* command-line tools.
HP printers can also be installed via HP's linux setup tool. If you want to run the setup tool, ensure you have {{ic|python2-qt}} and {{ic|pygobject}}.
+
Alternatively, the web interface or one of several GUI applications can be used.
  
To run with qt frontend :
+
* The ''queue'' name is a short but descriptive name used on the system to identify the queue. This name should not contain spaces or any special characters. For instance, a print queue corresponding to a HP LaserJet 5P could be named "hpljet5p". More than one queue can be associated with each physical printer.
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
* The ''location'' is a description of the printer's physical location (for instance "bedroom", or "kitchen"). This is to aid in maintaining several printers.
# hp-setup -u
+
* The ''description'' is a full description of the printer. A common use is the full printer name (like "HP LaserJet 5P").
</nowiki>}}
+
  
To run with command line :
+
=== CLI tools ===
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
# hp-setup -i
+
</nowiki>}}
+
PPD files are in {{ic|/usr/share/ppd/HP/}}.
+
  
For printers that require the proprietary HP plugin (like the P1102w), install the {{AUR|hplip-plugin}} package from [[AUR]].
+
See [http://localhost:631/help/options.html CUPS local documentation] for more tips on the command-line tools.
  
==Configuring==
+
{{Note|Command-line switches cannot be grouped}}
Now that CUPS is installed, there are a variety of options on how to set up printing solutions. As always, the tried and true command line method is at your disposal. CUPS also embeds a full-featured web interface. Likewise, various desktop environments such as GNOME and KDE have useful programs that can help manage printers. Depending on your needs, you may choose one method or the other.
+
 
+
If you are planning on connecting to a network printer, rather than one that is directly connected to the computer, you might want to read the [[CUPS printer sharing]] page first. Printer sharing between GNU/Linux systems is quite easy and involves very little configuration, whereas sharing between a Windows and GNU/Linux host requires a little bit more effort.
+
 
+
===CUPS daemon===
+
With the kernel modules installed, you can now start the '''cups''' and optionally, the '''cups-browsed''' [[daemons]].
+
 
+
=== Web interface and tool-kit ===
+
 
+
Once the daemon is running, open a browser and go to: http://localhost:631 (''The '''localhost''' string may need to be replaced with the hostname found in'' {{ic|/etc/hostname}}).
+
 
+
From here, follow the various wizards to add the printer. A usual procedure is to start by clicking on ''Adding Printers and Classes'' and then ''Add Printer''.  When prompted for a username and password, log in as root. The name assigned to the printer does not matter, the same applies for 'location' and 'description'. Next, a list of devices to select from will be presented. The actual name of the printer shows up next to the label (e.g., next to ''USB Printer #1'' for USB printers). Finally, choose the appropriate drivers and the configuration is complete.
+
 
+
Now test the configuration by pressing the ''Maintenance'' drop-down menu then ''Print Test Page''. If it does not print and there is certainty regarding the correctness of applied settings, then the problem is most likely due to missing a proper printer driver.
+
 
+
{{Tip|See: [[#Alternative CUPS interfaces]] for other other front-ends.}}
+
{{Note|When setting up a USB printer, you should see your printer listed on ''Add Printer'' page. If you can only see a "SCSI printer" option, it probably means that CUPS has failed to recognize
+
your printer.}}
+
 
+
{{Note|To enable wireless scanning on certain HP multi-function devices using the {{pkg|hplip}} package, you may need to add the printer as a Network Printer using the http:// protocol. To determine the proper URI to use, run the {{ic|hp-makeuri}} command.}}
+
 
+
==== CUPS administration ====
+
 
+
A username and password will be required when administering the printer in the web interface, such as: adding or removing printers, stopping print tasks, etc. The default username is the one assigned in the ''sys'' group, or root. Other admin groups (e.g. lpadmin or printadmin) may be added to the {{ic|SystemGroup}} line in {{ic|/etc/cups/cups-files.conf}} (you might have to add this line). See [http://www.cups.org/articles.php?L237+T+Qprintadmin these instructions at cups.org].  You might also want to read [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=35567 this post]. Create the group[s] ({{ic|man groupadd}}) and add the group[s] to users ({{ic|man usermod}}). cupsd must be restarted and the user must re-login for these changes to take affect.
+
 
+
If the root account has been locked (i.e. when using sudo), it is not possible to log in the CUPS administration interface with the default username (root) and password. Follow the instructions above to add other users as cups administrators.
+
 
+
====Remote access to web interface====
+
By default, the CUPS web interface can only be accessed by the ''localhost''; i.e. the computer that it is installed on. To remotely access the interface, make the following changes to the {{ic|/etc/cups/cupsd.conf}} file. Replace the line:
+
Listen localhost:631
+
with
+
Port 631
+
so that CUPS listens to incoming requests.
+
 
+
Three levels of access can be granted:
+
<Location />          #access to the server
+
<Location /admin> #access to the admin pages
+
<Location /admin/conf> #access to configuration files
+
 
+
To give remote hosts access to one of these levels, add an {{ic|Allow}} statement to that level's section. An {{ic|Allow}} statement can take one or more of the forms listed below:
+
Allow from all
+
Allow from host.domain.com
+
Allow from *.domain.com
+
Allow from ip-address
+
Allow from ip-address/netmask
+
 
+
Deny statements can also be used. For example, if wanting to give all hosts on the 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 subnet full access, file {{ic|/etc/cups/cupsd.conf}} would include this:
+
# Restrict access to the server...
+
# By default only localhost connections are possible
+
<Location />
+
    Order allow,deny
+
    Allow from localhost
+
    '''Allow from 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0'''
+
</Location>
+
+
# Restrict access to the admin pages...
+
<Location /admin>
+
    # Encryption disabled by default
+
    #Encryption Required
+
    Order allow,deny
+
    Allow from localhost
+
    '''Allow from 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0'''
+
</Location>
+
+
# Restrict access to configuration files...
+
<Location /admin/conf>
+
    AuthType Basic
+
    Require user @SYSTEM
+
    Order allow,deny
+
    Allow From localhost
+
    '''Allow From 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0'''
+
</Location>
+
 
+
You might also need to add:
+
 
+
DefaultEncryption Never
+
 
+
This should avoid the error: 426 - Upgrade Required when using the CUPS web interface from a remote machine.
+
 
+
===Command-line configuration===
+
 
+
CUPS can be fully controlled from command-line with nice tools, ''i.e.'' the lp* and the cups* command families.
+
 
+
On Arch Linux, most commands support auto-completion with common shells.
+
Also note that command-line switches cannot be grouped.
+
  
 
;List the devices
 
;List the devices
  # lpinfo -v
+
  # lpinfo -v #
 +
$ /usr/lib/cups/backend/snmp ''ip_address'' # Use SNMP to find a URI
  
 
;List the drivers
 
;List the drivers
  # lpinfo -m
+
  $ lpinfo -m
  
;Add a new printer
+
;Add a new queue
  # lpadmin -p <printer> -E -v <device> -P <ppd>
+
  # lpadmin -p ''queue_name'' -E -v ''uri'' -m ''model''
  
The <printer> is up to you. The device can be retrieved from the 'lpinfo -i' command.
+
The ''queue_name'' is up to you.
 
Example:
 
Example:
  # lpadmin -p HP_DESKJET_940C -E -v "usb://HP/DESKJET%20940C?serial=CN16E6C364BH" -P /usr/share/ppd/HP/hp-deskjet_940c.ppd.gz
+
  # lpadmin -p HP_DESKJET_940C -E -v "usb://HP/DESKJET%20940C?serial=CN16E6C364BH" -m drv:///HP/hp-deskjet_940c.ppd.gz
 
+
# lpadmin -p SHARED_PRINTER -m raw    # Raw queue; no PPD or filter
In the following, the <printer> references the name you have used here to set up the printer.
+
  
 
;Set the default printer
 
;Set the default printer
  $ lpoptions -d <printer>
+
  $ lpoptions -d ''queue_name''
 +
 
 +
;Change the options
 +
$ lpoptions -p ''queue_name'' -l # List the options
 +
$ lpoptions -p ''queue_name'' -o ''option''=''value'' # Set an option
 +
 
 +
Example:
 +
$ lpoptions -p HP_DESKJET_940C -o PageSize=A4
  
 
;Check the status
 
;Check the status
 
  $ lpstat -s
 
  $ lpstat -s
  $ lpstat -p <printer>
+
  $ lpstat -p ''queue_name''
  
 
;Deactivate a printer
 
;Deactivate a printer
  # cupsdisable <printer>
+
  # cupsdisable ''queue_name''
  
 
;Activate a printer
 
;Activate a printer
  # cupsenable <printer>
+
  # cupsenable ''queue_name''
 +
 
 +
;Set the printer to accept jobs
 +
# cupsaccept ''queue_name''
  
 
;Remove a printer
 
;Remove a printer
 
First set it to reject all incoming entries:
 
First set it to reject all incoming entries:
  # cupsreject <printer>
+
  # cupsreject ''queue_name''
 
Then disable it.
 
Then disable it.
  # cupsdisable <printer>
+
  # cupsdisable ''queue_name''
 
Finally remove it.
 
Finally remove it.
  # lpadmin -x <printer>
+
  # lpadmin -x ''queue_name''
  
 
;Print a file
 
;Print a file
  $ lpr <file>
+
  $ lpr ''file''
  $ lpr -# 17 <file>              # print the file 17 times
+
  $ lpr -# 17 ''file''            # print the file 17 times
 
  $ echo "Hello, world!" | lpr -p # print the result of a command. The -p switch adds a header.
 
  $ echo "Hello, world!" | lpr -p # print the result of a command. The -p switch adds a header.
  
;Check the printing queue
+
;Check the queue
 
  $ lpq
 
  $ lpq
  $ lpq -a # on all printers
+
  $ lpq -a # on all queues
  
;Clear the printing queue
+
;Clear the queue
 
  # lprm  # remove last entry only
 
  # lprm  # remove last entry only
 
  # lprm - # remove all entries
 
  # lprm - # remove all entries
  
===GNOME CUPS interface===
+
=== Web interface ===
If using [[GNOME]], a possibility is to manage and configure the printer by [[pacman|installing]] {{Pkg|system-config-printer}}.
+
 
+
For system-config-printer to work as it should, running as root may be required, or alternatively set up a "normal" user to administer CUPS (if so '''follow steps 1-3''')
+
 
+
* 1. Create group, and add a user to it
+
# groupadd lpadmin
+
# usermod -aG lpadmin <username>
+
 
+
* 2. Add "lpadmin" (without the quotes) to this line in {{ic|/etc/cups/cupsd.conf}}
+
SystemGroup sys root <insert here>
+
 
+
* 3. Restart cups, log out and in again (or restart computer)
+
{{bc|# systemctl restart cups}}
+
 
+
[[KDE]] users can modify their printers from the Control Center. Both should refer to those desktop environments' documentation for more information on how to use the interfaces.
+
 
+
There is also {{AUR|gtklp}} in the [[AUR]].
+
 
+
==PDF virtual printer==
+
CUPS-PDF is a nice package that allows one to setup a virtual printer that will generate a PDF from anything sent to it. This package is not necessary, but it can be quite useful. It can be installed using the following command:
+
# pacman -S cups-pdf
+
 
+
After installing the package, set it up as if it were for any other printer by using the web interface. Access the cups print manager: http://localhost:631 and select:
+
Administration -> Add Printer
+
Select CUPS-PDF (Virtual PDF), choose for the make and driver:
+
Make: Generic
+
Driver: Generic CUPS-PDF Printer
+
 
+
Find generated PDF documents in a sub-directory located at {{ic|/var/spool/cups-pdf}}. Normally, the subdirectory is named after the user who performed the job. A little tweak helps you to find your printed PDF documents more easily. Edit {{ic|/etc/cups/cups-pdf.conf}} by changing the line
+
#Out /var/spool/cups-pdf/${USER}
+
 
+
to
+
 
+
Out ${HOME}
+
 
+
=== Print to PostScript ===
+
The CUPS-PDF (Virtual PDF Printer) actually creates a PostScript file and then creates the PDF using the ps2pdf utility. To print to PostScript, just print as usual, in the print dialog choose "CUPS-PDF" as the printer, then select the checkbox for "print to file", hit print, enter the filename.ps and click save. This is handy for faxes, etc...
+
 
+
==Troubleshooting==
+
The best way to get printing working is to set 'LogLevel' in {{ic|/etc/cups/cupsd.conf}} to:
+
LogLevel debug
+
 
+
And then viewing the output from {{ic|/var/log/cups/error_log}} like this:
+
# tail -n 100 -f /var/log/cups/error_log
+
 
+
The characters at the left of the output stand for:
+
*D=Debug
+
*E=Error
+
*I=Information
+
*And so on
+
 
+
These files may also prove useful:
+
*{{ic|/var/log/cups/page_log}} -  Echoes a new entry each time a print is successful
+
*{{ic|/var/log/cups/access_log}} - Lists all cupsd http1.1 server activity
+
 
+
Of course, it is important to know how CUPS works if wanting to solve related issues:
+
# An application sends a .ps file (PostScript, a script language that details how the page will look) to CUPS when 'print' has been selected (this is the case with most programs).
+
# CUPS then looks at the printer's PPD file (printer description file) and figures out what filters it needs to use to convert the .ps file to a language that the printer understands (like PJL, PCL), usually GhostScript.
+
# GhostScript takes the input and figures out which filters it should use, then applies them and converts the .ps file to a format understood by the printer.
+
# Then it is sent to the back-end. For example, if the printer is connected to a USB port, it uses the USB back-end.
+
 
+
Print a document and watch {{ic|error_log}} to get a more detailed and correct image of the printing process.
+
 
+
===Problems resulting from upgrades===
+
''Issues that appeared after CUPS and related program packages underwent a version increment''
+
 
+
====CUPS stops working====
+
The chances are that a new configuration file is needed for the new version to work properly. Messages such as "404 - page not found" may result from trying to manage CUPS via localhost:631, for example.
+
 
+
To use the new configuration, copy {{ic|/etc/cups/cupsd.conf.default}} to {{ic|/etc/cups/cupsd.conf}} (backup the old configuration if needed) and restart CUPS to employ the new settings.
+
 
+
====All jobs are "stopped"====
+
If all jobs sent to the printer become "stopped", delete the printer and add it again.
+
Using the [http://localhost:631 CUPS web interface], go to Printers > Delete Printer.
+
 
+
To check the printer's settings go to ''Printers'', then ''Modify Printer''. Copy down the information displayed, click 'Modify Printer' to proceed to the next page(s), and so on.
+
 
+
====All jobs are "The printer is not responding"====
+
On networked printers, you should check that the name that CUPS uses as its connection URI resolves to the printer's IP via DNS, e.g.
+
If your printer's connection looks like this:
+
lpd://BRN_020554/BINARY_P1
+
 
+
then the hostname 'BRN_020554' needs to resolve to the printer's IP from the server running CUPS
+
 
+
====The PPD version is not compatible with gutenprint====
+
Run:
+
# /usr/sbin/cups-genppdupdate
+
 
+
And restart CUPS (as pointed out in gutenprint's post-install message)
+
 
+
===Other===
+
 
+
=====CUPS permission errors=====
+
*Some users fixed 'NT_STATUS_ACCESS_DENIED' (Windows clients) errors by using a slightly different syntax:
+
smb://workgroup/username:password@hostname/printer_name
+
 
+
*Sometimes, the block device has wrong permissions:
+
# ls /dev/usb/
+
lp0
+
# chgrp lp /dev/usb/lp0
+
 
+
====HPLIP printer sends "/usr/lib/cups/backend/hp failed" error====
+
Make sure dbus is installed and running. If the error persists, try starting avahi-daemon.
+
 
+
Try adding the printer as a Network Printer using the http:// protocol. Generate the printer URI with {{ic|hp-makeuri}}.
+
 
+
{{Note|There might need to set permissions issues right. Follow indications here: [[CUPS#Device node permissions]].}}
+
 
+
====HPLIP printer claims job is complete but printer does nothing====
+
This happens on HP printers when you select the (old) hpijs driver (e.g. the Deskjet D1600 series). Instead, use the hpcups driver when adding the printer.
+
 
+
Some HP printers (e.g HP LaserJet) require their firmware to be downloaded from the computer every time the printer is switched on. If there is an issue with udev (or equivalent) and the firmware download rule is never fired, you may experience this issue.
+
As a workaround, you can manually download the firmware to the printer. Ensure the printer is plugged in and switched on, then enter
+
hp-firmware -n
+
 
+
====hp-toolbox sends an error, "Unable to communicate with device"====
+
If running hp-toolbox as a regular user results in:
+
# hp-toolbox
+
# error: Unable to communicate with device (code=12): hp:/usb/<printer id>
+
or, "{{ic|Unable to communicate with device"}}", then it may be needed to [[Groups#Group management|add the user to the lp and sys groups]].
+
 
+
This can also be caused by printers such as the P1102 that provide a virtual cd-rom drive for MS-Windows drivers. The lp dev appears and then disappears. In that case try the '''usb-modeswitch''' and '''usb-modeswitch-data''' packages, that lets one switch off the "Smart Drive" (udev rules included in said packages).
+
 
+
This can also occur with network attached printers if the [[Avahi|avahi-daemon]] is not running.
+
 
+
====CUPS returns '"foomatic-rip" not available/stopped with status 3' with a HP printer====
+
If receiving any of the following error messages in {{ic|/var/log/cups/error_log}} while using a HP printer, with jobs appearing to be processed while they all end up not being completed with their status set to 'stopped':
+
Filter "foomatic-rip" for printer "<printer_name>" not available: No such file or director
+
or:
+
PID 5771 (/usr/lib/cups/filter/foomatic-rip) stopped with status 3!
+
make sure {{pkg|hplip}} has been [[pacman|installed]], in addition to [[#Packages|the packages mentioned above]]. See [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=65615 this forum post] for more information.
+
 
+
====Printing fails with unauthorised error====
+
If the user has been added to the lp group, and allowed to print (set in {{ic|cupsd.conf}}), then the problem lies in {{ic|/etc/cups/printers.conf}}. This line could be the culprit:
+
AuthInfoRequired negotiate
+
 
+
Comment it out and restart CUPS.
+
 
+
====Print button greyed-out in GNOME print dialogs====
+
:''<small>Source: [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=70418 I can't print from gnome applications. - Arch Forums]</small>''
+
 
+
Be sure the package: '''libgnomeprint''' is installed
+
 
+
Edit {{ic|/etc/cups/cupsd.conf}} and add
+
# HostNameLookups Double
+
 
+
Restart CUPS:
+
# systemctl restart cups
+
 
+
====Unknown supported format: application/postscript====
+
Comment the lines:
+
application/octet-stream        application/vnd.cups-raw        0      -
+
from {{ic|/etc/cups/mime.convs}}, and:
+
application/octet-stream
+
in {{ic|/etc/cups/mime.types}}.
+
  
====Finding URIs for Windows Print Servers====
+
The CUPS server can be fully administered through the web interface, available on http://localhost:631/.
  
Sometimes Windows is a little less than forthcoming about exact device URIs (device locations).  If having trouble specifying the correct device location in CUPS, run the following command to list all shares available to a certain windows username:
+
{{Note|If an HTTPS connection to CUPS is used, it ''may'' take a very long time before the interface appears the first time the it is accessed. This is because the first request triggers the generation of SSL certificates which can be a time-consuming job.}}
$ smbtree -U ''windowsusername''
+
This will list every share available to a certain Windows username on the local area network subnet, as long as Samba is set up and running properly.  It should return something like this:
+
{{bc| WORKGROUP
+
\\REGULATOR-PC 
+
\\REGULATOR-PC\Z             
+
\\REGULATOR-PC\Public       
+
\\REGULATOR-PC\print$        Printer Drivers
+
\\REGULATOR-PC\G             
+
\\REGULATOR-PC\EPSON Stylus CX8400 Series EPSON Stylus CX8400 Series}}
+
What is needed here is first part of the last line, the resource matching the printer description. So to print to the EPSON Stylus printer, one would enter:
+
smb://username.password@REGULATOR-PC/EPSON Stylus CX8400 Series
+
as the URI into CUPS.  Notice that whitespaces are allowed in URIs, whereas backslashes get replaced with forward slashes.
+
If it won't work try '%20' instead of spaces.
+
  
====Print-Job client-error-document-format-not-supported====
+
;Add a queue
Try installing the foomatic packages and use a foomatic driver.
+
Go to the '''Administration''' page.  
  
====/usr/lib/cups/backend/hp failed====
+
;Modify existing queues
Change
+
Go to the '''Printers''' page, and select a queue to modify.
  SystemGroup sys root
+
to
+
  SystemGroup lp root
+
in {{ic|/etc/cups/cupsd.conf}}
+
  
 +
;Test a queue
 +
Go to the '''Printers''' page, and select a queue.
  
Following steps 1-3 in the Alternative CUPS interfaces below may be a better solution, since newer versions of cups will not allow the same group for both normal and admin operation.
+
=== GUI applications ===
  
==== Unable to get list of printer drivers ====
+
If your user does not have sufficient privileges to administer CUPS, the applications will request the root password when they start. To give users administrative privileges without needing root access, see [[#Configuration]].
* Check your ServerName in /etc/cups/client.conf is written without http://
+
ServerName localhost:631
+
* Try to remove Foomatic drivers.
+
  
====lp: Error - Scheduler Not Responding====
+
* {{App|print-manager|A tool for managing print jobs and printers ([[KDE]]).|https://projects.kde.org/projects/kde/kdeutils/print-manager|{{Pkg|print-manager}}}}
If you get this error when printing a document using:
+
* {{App|system-config-printer|A CUPS printer configuration tool and status applet ([[GNOME]] and others)|http://cyberelk.net/tim/software/system-config-printer/|{{Pkg|system-config-printer}}}}
 +
* {{App|gtklp|GTK+ interface to CUPS.|http://gtklp.sirtobi.com/index.shtml|{{AUR|gtklp}}}}
  
$ lp document-to-print
+
== Configuration ==
  
Try setting the CUPS_SERVER environment variable:
+
The CUPS server configuration is located in {{ic|/etc/cups/cupsd.conf}} and {{ic|/etc/cups/cups-files.conf}}. After editing either file, [[restart]] {{ic|org.cups.cupsd.service}} to apply any changes. The default configuration is sufficient for most users.
  
$ export CUPS_SERVER=localhost
+
[[Groups]] with printer administration privileges are defined in {{ic|SystemGroup}} in the {{ic|/etc/cups/cups-files.conf}}. The {{ic|sys}} group is used by default.
  
If this solves your problem, make the solution permanent by adding the export line above to ~/.bash_profile.
+
{{pkg|cups}} is built with {{pkg|libpaper}} support and libpaper defaults to the '''Letter''' paper size. To avoid having to change the paper size for each print queue you add, edit {{ic|/etc/papersize}} and set your system default paper size. See {{man|5|papersize}}.
  
====CUPS prints only an empty and an error-message page on HP LaserJet====
+
By default, all logs are sent to files in {{ic|/var/log/cups/}}. By changing the values of the {{ic|AccessLog}}, {{ic|ErrorLog}}, and {{ic|PageLog}} directives in {{ic|/etc/cups/cups-files.conf}} to {{ic|syslog}}, CUPS can be made to log to the [[systemd journal]] instead. See [https://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Changes/CupsJournalLogging the fedora wiki page] for information on the original proposed change.
  
There is a bug that causes CUPS to fail when printing images on HP LaserJet (in my case 3380). The bug has been reported and fixed by [https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/cups-filters/+bug/998087 Ubuntu].
+
=== cups-browsed ===
The first page is empty, the second page contains the following error message:
+
  ERROR:
+
  invalidaccess
+
  OFFENDING COMMAND:
+
  filter
+
  STACK:
+
  /SubFileDecode
+
  endstream
+
  ...
+
  
In order to fix the issue, use the following command (as superuser):
+
CUPS can use [[Avahi]] browsing to discover unknown shared printers in your network. This can be useful in large setups where the server is unknown. To use this feature, set up [[Avahi#Hostname_resolution|.local hostname resolution]], and start both {{ic|avahi-daemon.service}} and {{ic|cups-browsed.service}}. Note that jobs are sent directly to the printer without any processing so the created queues may not work.
  lpadmin -p <printer> -o pdftops-renderer-default=pdftops
+
  
===="Using invalid Host" error message====
+
=== Printer sharing ===
  
Try to add "ServerAlias *" into cupsd.conf
+
See [[CUPS/Printer sharing]].
  
====Printer doesn't print with an "Filter failed" message on CUPS web interface (HP printer)====
+
=== Without a local CUPS server ===
  
Change the permissions of the printer USB port:
+
CUPS can be configured to directly connect to remote printer servers instead of running a local print server. This requires [[install]]ation of the {{Pkg|libcups}} package. Some applications will still require the {{Pkg|cups}} package for printing.
  
Get the bus and device number from lsusb, then set the permission using:
+
{{Warning|Accessing remote printers without a local CUPS server is not recommended by the developers.[http://www.cups.org/pipermail/cups/2015-October/027229.html]}}
  
{{ic|chmod 0666 /dev/bus/usb/<bus number>/<device number>}}
+
To use a remote CUPS server, set the {{ic|CUPS_SERVER}} [[environment variable]] to {{ic|printerserver.mydomain:port}}. For instance, if you want to use a different print server for a single [[Firefox]] instance (substitute {{ic|printserver.mydomain:port}} with your print server name/port):
  
To make the persistent permission change that will be triggered automatically each time the computer is rebooted, add the following line.
+
$ CUPS_SERVER=printserver.mydomain:port firefox
  
{{hc|/etc/udev/rules.d/10-local.rules|<nowiki>SUBSYSTEM=="usb", ATTRS{idVendor}=="Printer_idVendor", ATTRS{idProduct}=="Printer_idProduct", GROUP="lp", MODE:="666"</nowiki>}}
+
==== client.conf ====
  
Obtain the right information by using {{ic|lsusb}} command, and don't forget to substitute {{ic|Printer_idVendor}} & {{ic|Printer_idProduct}} with the relevant ones.
+
{{Note|1={{ic|/etc/cups/client.conf}} is [https://www.cups.org/doc/man-client.conf.html deprecated], it is removed in [https://git.archlinux.org/svntogit/packages.git/commit/trunk?h=packages/cups&id=41fefa22ac5189d726e0e35e2f87ad12fa2855f3 cups 2.2.0]}}
  
Each system may vary, so consult [[udev#List_attributes_of_a_device]] wiki page.
+
An alternative, deprecated method, involves editing {{ic|/etc/cups/client.conf}} and setting the {{ic|ServerName}} directive:
  
====HPLIP 3.13: Plugin is installed, but HP Device Manager complains it is not====
+
{{hc|/etc/cups/client.conf|
 +
# (Substitute printserver.mydomain with your print server name)
 +
ServerName printserver.mydomain
 +
}}
  
The issue might have to do with the file permission change that had been made to {{ic|/var/lib/hp/hplip.state}}. To correct the issue, a simple {{ic|chmod 644 /var/lib/hp/hplip.state}} and {{ic|chmod 755 /var/lib/hp}} should be sufficient. For further information, please read this [https://bugs.launchpad.net/hplip/+bug/1131596 link].
+
The remote system's default printer setting will be used by default.
  
====Printer is not recognized by CUPS====
+
== Troubleshooting ==
  
If your printer is not listed in the "Add Printers" page of the CUPS web interface, nor by lpinfo -v, try the following (suggested in [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1037279#p1037279 this thread]):
+
See [[CUPS/Troubleshooting]].
  
# Remove {{ic|usblp}} from blacklist
+
== See also ==
# Load {{ic|usblp}} module
+
modprobe usblp
+
# Stop cups (sudo systemctl stop cups)
+
# Add the following udev rule in the following new rule /etc/udev/rules.d/10-cups_device_link.rules
+
KERNEL=="lp[0-9]", SYMLINK+="%k", GROUP="lp"
+
# Reload udev rules
+
sudo udevadm control --reload-rules
+
# Unplug and re-plug the printer
+
# Wait a few seconds and then start cups again (sudo systemctl start cups)
+
  
==See also==
+
* [http://localhost:631/help Official CUPS documentation], ''locally installed''
* [http://localhost:631/documentation.html Official CUPS documentation], ''locally installed''
+
* [[Wikipedia:CUPS]]
* [http://www.cups.org/ Official CUPS Website]
+
* [http://www.linuxfoundation.org/collaborate/workgroups/openprinting OpenPrinting homepage]
* [http://www.linuxprinting.org/ Linux Printing], ''[http://www.linuxfoundation.org The Linux Foundation]''
+
* [https://en.opensuse.org/Concepts_printing OpenSuSE Concepts printing guide - explains the full printing workflow]
* [http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/printing-howto.xml Gentoo's Printing Guide], ''[http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en  Gentoo Documentation Resources]''
+
* [https://en.opensuse.org/SDB:CUPS_in_a_Nutshell OpenSuSE CUPS in a Nutshell - a quick CUPS overview]
* [https://bbs.archlinux.org/ Arch Linux User Forums]
+
* [https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Printing Gentoo's printing guide]
* [http://wiki.gotux.net/tutorials/software/hp-printer Install HP Printers Easy Way]
+

Latest revision as of 07:44, 23 September 2016

CUPS is the standards-based, open source printing system developed by Apple Inc. for macOS® and other UNIX®-like operating systems.

Installation

Install the cups package.

If you intend to "print" into a PDF document, also install the cups-pdf package. By default, pdf files are stored in /var/spool/cups-pdf/$USER. The location can be changed in /etc/cups/cups-pdf.conf.

Start and enable org.cups.cupsd.service.

Connection Interfaces

Additional steps for printer detection are listed below for various connection interfaces.

Note: CUPS helper programs are run using the lp group and daemon user. This allows the helper programs to access printer devices and read config files in /etc/cups/, which all belong to the lp group. This default may conflict with non-printer parallel port device access:
  • Adding extra users to the lp group will allow those users to read CUPS files, and
  • CUPS helpers may gain access to any non-printer parallel port devices.
If this is a concern, consider using a Udev rule to assign a different group for any non-printer parallel port device (FS#50009). The group and user that CUPS uses can be changed, but the permissions of some files may need to be manually fixed.

USB

To see if your USB printer is detected:

$ lsusb
(...)
Bus 001 Device 007: ID 03f0:1004 Hewlett-Packard DeskJet 970c/970cse

Parallel port

To use a parallel port printer, the lp, parport and parport_pc kernel modules are required.

$ dmesg | grep -i parport
 parport0: Printer, Hewlett-Packard HP LaserJet 2100 Series
 lp0: using parport0 (polling)

Network

To use Avahi hostnames to connect to networked printers, set up .local hostname resolution and restart org.cups.cupsd.service.

If the system is connected to a networked printer using the Samba protocol, or if the system is to be a print server for Windows clients, install the samba package.

Printer Drivers

The drivers for a printer may come from any of the sources shown below. See CUPS/Printer-specific problems for an incomplete list of drivers that others have managed to get working.

To drive a printer, CUPS needs a PPD file and, for most printers, some filters. For details on how CUPS uses PPDs and filters, see [1].

The OpenPrinting Printer List provides driver recommendations for many printers. It also supplies PPD files for each printer, but most are available through foomatic or the recommended driver package.

When a PPD file is provided to CUPS, the CUPS server will regenerate the PPD files and save them in /etc/cups/ppd/.

CUPS

CUPS provides a few PPDs and filter binaries by default, which should work out of the box.

Foomatic

The foomatic project provides PPDs for many printer drivers, both free and nonfree. For more information about what foomatic does, see Foomatic from the Developer's View.

To use foomatic, install foomatic-db-engine, and at least one of foomatic-db-ppds, foomatic-db-nonfree-ppds, or foomatic-db-gutenprint-ppds.

The foomatic PPDs may require additional filters, such as gutenprint, ghostscript, or another source (for instance min12xxwAUR). For ghostscript, gsfonts may also be required.

Manufacturer-specific drivers

Many printer manufacturers supply their own Linux drivers. These are often available in the official Arch repositories or in the AUR.

Some of those drivers are described in more detail in CUPS/Printer-specific problems.

Printer URI

Listed below are additional steps to manually generate the URI if required.

USB

CUPS should be able to automatically generate a URI for USB printers, for example usb://HP/DESKJET%20940C?serial=CN16E6C364BH.

If it doesn't, see CUPS/Troubleshooting#USB printers for troubleshooting steps.

Parallel port

The URI should be of the form parallel:device. For instance, if the printer is connected on /dev/lp0, use parallel:/dev/lp0. If you are using a USB to parallel port adapter, use parallel:/dev/usb/lp0 as the printer URI.

Network

If you have set up Avahi as in #Network, CUPS should detect the printer URI. You can also use avahi-discover to find the name of your printer and its address (for instance, BRN30055C6B4C7A.local/10.10.0.155:631).

The URI can also be generated manually, without using Avahi. A list of the available URI schemes for networked printers is available in the CUPS documentation [2]. As exact details of the URIs differ between printers, check either the manual of the printer or CUPS/Printer-specific problems.

Remote CUPS print servers can be accessed through a URI of the form ipp://hostname:631/printers/queue_name. See CUPS/Printer sharing#Between GNU/Linux systems for details on setting up the remote print server.

See CUPS/Troubleshooting#Networking issues for additional issues and solutions.

Warning: Avoid configuring both the server and the client with a printer filter - either the print queue on the client or the server should be 'raw'. This avoids sending a print job through the filters for a printer twice, which can cause problems (for instance, [3]). See #Usage for an example of setting a print queue to 'raw'.

Usage

CUPS can be fully controlled using the lp* and cups* command-line tools. Alternatively, the web interface or one of several GUI applications can be used.

  • The queue name is a short but descriptive name used on the system to identify the queue. This name should not contain spaces or any special characters. For instance, a print queue corresponding to a HP LaserJet 5P could be named "hpljet5p". More than one queue can be associated with each physical printer.
  • The location is a description of the printer's physical location (for instance "bedroom", or "kitchen"). This is to aid in maintaining several printers.
  • The description is a full description of the printer. A common use is the full printer name (like "HP LaserJet 5P").

CLI tools

See CUPS local documentation for more tips on the command-line tools.

Note: Command-line switches cannot be grouped
List the devices
# lpinfo -v # 
$ /usr/lib/cups/backend/snmp ip_address # Use SNMP to find a URI
List the drivers
$ lpinfo -m
Add a new queue
# lpadmin -p queue_name -E -v uri -m model

The queue_name is up to you. Example:

# lpadmin -p HP_DESKJET_940C -E -v "usb://HP/DESKJET%20940C?serial=CN16E6C364BH" -m drv:///HP/hp-deskjet_940c.ppd.gz
# lpadmin -p SHARED_PRINTER -m raw    # Raw queue; no PPD or filter
Set the default printer
$ lpoptions -d queue_name
Change the options
$ lpoptions -p queue_name -l # List the options
$ lpoptions -p queue_name -o option=value # Set an option

Example:

$ lpoptions -p HP_DESKJET_940C -o PageSize=A4
Check the status
$ lpstat -s
$ lpstat -p queue_name
Deactivate a printer
# cupsdisable queue_name
Activate a printer
# cupsenable queue_name
Set the printer to accept jobs
# cupsaccept queue_name
Remove a printer

First set it to reject all incoming entries:

# cupsreject queue_name

Then disable it.

# cupsdisable queue_name

Finally remove it.

# lpadmin -x queue_name
Print a file
$ lpr file
$ lpr -# 17 file            # print the file 17 times
$ echo "Hello, world!" | lpr -p # print the result of a command. The -p switch adds a header.
Check the queue
$ lpq
$ lpq -a # on all queues
Clear the queue
# lprm   # remove last entry only
# lprm - # remove all entries

Web interface

The CUPS server can be fully administered through the web interface, available on http://localhost:631/.

Note: If an HTTPS connection to CUPS is used, it may take a very long time before the interface appears the first time the it is accessed. This is because the first request triggers the generation of SSL certificates which can be a time-consuming job.
Add a queue

Go to the Administration page.

Modify existing queues

Go to the Printers page, and select a queue to modify.

Test a queue

Go to the Printers page, and select a queue.

GUI applications

If your user does not have sufficient privileges to administer CUPS, the applications will request the root password when they start. To give users administrative privileges without needing root access, see #Configuration.

  • print-manager — A tool for managing print jobs and printers (KDE).
https://projects.kde.org/projects/kde/kdeutils/print-manager || print-manager
  • system-config-printer — A CUPS printer configuration tool and status applet (GNOME and others)
http://cyberelk.net/tim/software/system-config-printer/ || system-config-printer
  • gtklp — GTK+ interface to CUPS.
http://gtklp.sirtobi.com/index.shtml || gtklpAUR

Configuration

The CUPS server configuration is located in /etc/cups/cupsd.conf and /etc/cups/cups-files.conf. After editing either file, restart org.cups.cupsd.service to apply any changes. The default configuration is sufficient for most users.

Groups with printer administration privileges are defined in SystemGroup in the /etc/cups/cups-files.conf. The sys group is used by default.

cups is built with libpaper support and libpaper defaults to the Letter paper size. To avoid having to change the paper size for each print queue you add, edit /etc/papersize and set your system default paper size. See papersize(5).

By default, all logs are sent to files in /var/log/cups/. By changing the values of the AccessLog, ErrorLog, and PageLog directives in /etc/cups/cups-files.conf to syslog, CUPS can be made to log to the systemd journal instead. See the fedora wiki page for information on the original proposed change.

cups-browsed

CUPS can use Avahi browsing to discover unknown shared printers in your network. This can be useful in large setups where the server is unknown. To use this feature, set up .local hostname resolution, and start both avahi-daemon.service and cups-browsed.service. Note that jobs are sent directly to the printer without any processing so the created queues may not work.

Printer sharing

See CUPS/Printer sharing.

Without a local CUPS server

CUPS can be configured to directly connect to remote printer servers instead of running a local print server. This requires installation of the libcups package. Some applications will still require the cups package for printing.

Warning: Accessing remote printers without a local CUPS server is not recommended by the developers.[4]

To use a remote CUPS server, set the CUPS_SERVER environment variable to printerserver.mydomain:port. For instance, if you want to use a different print server for a single Firefox instance (substitute printserver.mydomain:port with your print server name/port):

$ CUPS_SERVER=printserver.mydomain:port firefox

client.conf

Note: /etc/cups/client.conf is deprecated, it is removed in cups 2.2.0

An alternative, deprecated method, involves editing /etc/cups/client.conf and setting the ServerName directive:

/etc/cups/client.conf
# (Substitute printserver.mydomain with your print server name)
ServerName printserver.mydomain

The remote system's default printer setting will be used by default.

Troubleshooting

See CUPS/Troubleshooting.

See also