CUPS (ไทย)

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คำแนะนำเบื้องต้น

CUPS คืออะไร

คัดมาจากเว็บไซท์ของ CUPS "The Common UNIX Printing System (CUPS) เป็นระบบการพิมพ์ cross-platform สำหรับสภาพแวดล้อมการทำงานบน UNIX มันถูกสร้างขึ้นมาให้รองรับกับ "Internet Printing Protocol" และสามารถทำงานได้อย่างสมบูรณ์แบบกับเครื่องพิมพ์แบบ Postscript และ Raster ส่วนใหญ่ CUPS เป็นโปรแกรม open-source ภายใต้ลิขสิทธิ์แบบ GNU GPL" ถึงแม้ว่าจะมีระบบการพิมพ์อื่นๆ เช่น LPRNG แต่ CUPS ก็ยังเป็นที่นิยมและยังง่ายต่อการใช้งาน CUPS เป็นระบบการพิมพ์มาตรฐานบน Arch Linux รวมถึง Linux distro อื่นๆ ด้วยเช่นกัน


การแก้ปัญหา CUPS

วิธีที่ง่ายที่สุดในการแก้ปัญหาที่เกิดขึ้น คือตั้งค่า LogLevel ในไฟล์ '/etc/cups/cupsd.conf' ให้เป็น

LogLevel debug2

และดูรายละเอียดข้อผิดพลาดจากไฟล์ '/var/log/cups/error_log' ดังนี้

tail -n 100 -f /var/log/cups/error_log

ตัวอักษรทางซ้ายของการแสดงผลมีความหมายดังนี้

D = Debug
E = Error
I = Information
etc...

ไฟล์อื่นๆ เหล่านี้อาจจะมีประโยชน์ในการแก้ปัญหา

/var/log/cups/page_log 'แสดงรายละเีอียดทุกครั้งที่การพิมพ์เสร็จสิ้น'
/var/log/cups/access_log 'แสดงรายละเอียดการเรียกใช้งาน web console'

และอีกสิ่งหนึ่งที่สำคัญคือ คุณต้องเข้าใจการทำงานของ CUPS เพื่อที่จะสามารถแก้ปัญหาที่เกิดขึ้นได้

  1. Application ส่งไฟล์ .ps (PostScript เป็นไฟล์ที่เก็บรายละเอียดของเอกสารแต่ละหน้า) ไปยัง CUPS เมื่อคุณสั่งพิมพ์งาน (99% ของโปรแกรม)
  2. ต่อจากนั้น CUPS จะค้นหาไฟล์ PPD (ไฟล์เก็บรายละเอียดของเครื่องพิมพ์) และพิจารณาว่าจะต้องใช้ filter อะไรในการแปลงข้อมูลจาก .ps ไปเป็นรูปแบบที่เครื่องพิมพ์เข้าใจ เช่น PJL หรือ PCL โดยส่วนมากจะเรียกใช้งาน ผ่านทาง GhostScript
  3. GhostScript รับข้อมูลและพิจารณาว่าต้องใช้งาน filter อะไรเพื่อแปลงเอกสารจาก .ps ให้อยู่ในรูปแบบที่เครื่องพิมพ์เข้าใจได้
  4. หลังจากนั้นข้อมูลก็จะถูกส่งกลับมาที่ backend ตัวอย่างเช่น หากคุณมีเครื่องพิม์เชื่อมต่ออยู่กับ USB port ระบบจะเรียกใช้งาน USB backend

คุณสามารถทดลองพิมพ์เอกสารและดูรายละเอียดในไฟล์ 'error_log' เพื่อความเข้าใจมากขึ้นในกระบวนการทำงานของ CUPS

การติดตั้ง CUPS

Packages

คุณต้องการ CUPS และ Ghostscript

# pacman -S cups ghostscript
  • cups - คือแพคเกจของ CUPS
  • ghostscript - ตัวแปลภาษา Postscript


เหล่านี้คือชุดของ driver ซึ่งสามารถทำงานได้กับเครื่องพิมพ์ของคุณ หากคุณไม่แน่ใจ ให้ติดตั้ง gutenprint

  • gutenprint - เป็นชุดของ driver ความละเอียดสูงสำหรับ Canon, Epson, Lexmark, Sony, Olympus และเครื่องพิมพ์ PCL สำหรับใช้งานกับ Ghostscript, CUPS, Foomatic และ the GIMP.
  • foomatic, foomatic-db, foomatic-db-engine, foomatic-db-ppd และ foomatic-filters - Foomatic เป็นระบบที่ทำงานบนฐานข้อมูล สำหรับการรวม driver ซอฟท์แวร์ฟรีเข้าไว้กับระบบการพิมพ์ของ Unix
  • การติดตั้ง foomatic-filters น่าจะแก้ปัญหาได้ หากคุณพบข้อผิดพลาด "stopped with status 22!" ในไฟล์ error.log
  • hplip - HP Linux inkjet driver สามารถใช้งานได้กับ DeskJet, OfficeJet, Photosmart, Business Inkjet และ LaserJet บางรุ่น
  • cups-pdf - แพคเกจที่ช่วยให้คุณสร้าง Virtual PDF Printer ซึ่งจะแปลงเอกสารต่างๆ ให้เป็นไฟล์ PDF


หากระบบของคุณเชื่อมต่ออยู่กับเครื่องพิมพ์ที่อยู่บนเครือข่ายซึ่งใช้โปรโตคอลของ samba (Windows Networking) หรือคุณต้องการให้เครื่องของคุณแบ่งปันเครื่องพิมพ์บนระบบเครือข่ายของ Windows คุณต้องติดตั้ samba

# pacman -S samba

Download Printer PPD (ไฟล์รายละเอียดเครื่องพิมพ์)

Depending on your printer, this step is optional and may not be needed as the standard CUPS installation already comes with quite a few PPD (Postscript Printer Description) files. Moreover, the foomatic-filters, gimp-print and hplip packages already include quite a few PPD files which will automatically be detected by CUPS.


Here's an explanation of what a PPD file is from the Linux Printing website: "For every PostScript printer the manufacturers provide a PPD file which contains all printer-specific information about the particular printer model: Basic printer capabilities as whether the printer is a color printer, fonts, PostScript level, etc., and especially the user-adjustable options, as paper size, resolution, etc."



  • Now, you will need to copy the file to the cups folder so it can detect the file. If you are in the folder where you downloaded the PPD file, you can use the following command:
# cp your_printer.ppd /usr/share/cups/model/


If you cannot find your printer on the website, you may want to try similar models or using generic printer drivers. Just do some googling or ask your manufacturer (good luck with that...).

Configuring Cups

Options

Now that you have cups installed, you have a variety of options on how to setup CUPS. You can always use the tried and true command line. Likewise, various desktop environments such as Gnome and KDE have useful programs that can help you manage your printers. However, in order to make this process easy for the largest amount of users, we will use the web interface provided by CUPS.

Please note that if you are planning on connecting to a network printer, rather than one that is directly connected to your computer, you may wish to jump to the Printer Sharing section first. Linux to Linux printer sharing is quite easy and involves very little configuration. Windows to Linux and vice-versa requires a little bit more effort, but is relatively easy as well.

Kernel Modules

Before we can use the CUPS web interface, we must install the appropriate kernel modules. The following are steps that I got from the Gentoo Printing Guide.

USB printers

If you want to use a USB printer with a 2.6.x kernel, use the following command:

# modprobe usblp

If you are using a USB printer and a 2.4.x kernel, use the following command:

# modprobe printer

Note, this assumes that you are using the stock kernels from Arch Linux. If you custom-rolled your own, you may need to run this first:

# modprobe usbcore

Once you have the modules installed, you should plug in your printer and check if the kernel detected it by running the following:

# tail /var/log/messages

or

# dmesg


You should see something like this:

 Feb 19 20:17:11 kernel: printer.c: usblp0: USB Bidirectional
 printer dev 2 if 0 alt 0 proto 2 vid 0x04E8 pid 0x300E
 Feb 19 20:17:11 kernel: usb.c: usblp driver claimed interface cfef3920
 Feb 19 20:17:11 kernel: printer.c: v0.13: USB Printer Device Class driver

Parallel port printers

If you plan on using a parallel port printer, the configuration is pretty much the same. Kernel 2.6.x users have to first type in:

# modprobe lp

And then both 2.4.x and 2.6.x kernel users can enter in:

# modprobe parport
# modprobe parport_pc

Once again, you can check your setup by running:

# tail /var/log/messages

You should see something like this:

# lp0: using parport0 (polling).


Note: Installing my Brother HL 1250 i found that permissions for the device don't let cups to write on the device, so pratically it doesn't print. To fix it:

[root@mihal usb]# cd /dev/usb/
[root@mihal usb]# ls
lp0
[root@mihal usb]# chgrp lp lp0

Auto-loading

You may also want to have the system automatically load the kernel module every time the computer starts up. To do this use your favorite text editor to open up /etc/rc.conf and add the appropriate module to the MODULES=() line. Here's a portion of the text from my rc.conf file:

MODULES=(!usbserial scsi_mod sd_mod snd-ymfpci snd-pcm-oss printer ide-scsi)

CUPS Daemon

With the kernel modules installed, you are now ready to start the actual CUPS daemon. To do this, simply run this command:

# /etc/rc.d/cups start

If you want to have cups start up automatically every time you start your computer, than you need to add it to your DAEMONS=() line in the /etc/rc.conf file. For example:

# DAEMONS=(pcmcia syslogd klogd !fam esd mono network autofs cups crond gdm)

Web Interface and tool kit.

Once the daemon is running, if a web interface is available. Open up your browser and go to:

http://localhost:631

or install "Gnome Cups Manager" GUI frontend (see Appendix: A.1 Alternative CUPS Interfaces)

From here, all you have to do is follow the various wizards to add your printer. To setup my Samsung ML-1250 printer, I started out by click on Manage Printers, and then Add Printer. I was then prompted for a username and password. I just logged in as root. I entered in ml1250 for my printer name, My Room for location and then Peter's Samsung ML-1250 Laster Printer for description. Next you will select the device. Since my printer is a USB device, I just selected USB Printer #1. The name of my printer also showed up next to the label USB Printer #1, so look for that. Next, I simply chose the appropriate drivers and the installation was complete.

Once the installation is complete, you can test your configuration by pressing the Print Test Page button.

Printer Sharing

Linux to Linux

Once you have CUPS setup on your Linux print server, sharing the printer with another Linux box is relatively easy. There are several ways to configure such a scenario, here we will describe the manual setup. On the server computer (the one managing and connecting to the printer) simply open up the /etc/cups/cupsd.conf file and allow access to the server by modifying the location lines. For instance:

<Location />
  Order Deny,Allow
  Deny From All
  Allow From 127.0.0.1
  Allow From 10.0.0.*
</Location>

You will also need to make sure the server is listening on the IP address your client will be addressing. Add the following line after "Listen localhost:631":

Listen 10.0.0.1:631

using your server's IP address instead of 10.0.0.1.

Add the IP address of the client computer by doing Allow From client_ip_address. After you make your modifications, you will want to restart CUPS by doing:

# /etc/rc.d/cups restart

On the client side, open up /etc/cups/client.conf and edit the ServerName option to match the ip address or the name of your server. For instance I named my server beast and have entry in my hosts file to point to it. So in my client.conf file, I just editted this line:

ServerName beast

Next, run the following command to update the client computer:

# lpq

You should see something like this:

ml1250 is ready
no entries

There are more configuartion possibilities including an automatic configuration which are described in detail on http://localhost:631/sam.html#CLIENT_SETUP (this link works on your printer server).

when prompted for username and password use root to access then follow the instructions from here http://www.digitalhermit.com/linux/printing/ if its a TCP/IP printer use Jetdirect

That's it for Linux to Linux printer sharing.

Linux to Windows

If you are connected to a Windows print server (or any other Samba capable print server), you can skip the section about kernel modules and such. All you have to do is start the CUPS daemon and complete the web interface as specified in section 3.3 and 3.4. Before this, you need to activate the Samba CUPS backend. You can do this by entering the following command:

# ln -s `which smbspool` /usr/lib/cups/backend/smb

Note that the symbol before is ` (underneath the ~ on a standard US keyboard) and not '. After this, you will have to restart CUPS using the command specified in the previous section. Next, simply login into the CUPS web interface and choose to add a new printer. For device, there should be an option that says something to the effect Windows Printer Via Samba near the button of the device list. For the device location enter:

smb://username:password@hostname/printer_name

Or without a password:

smb://username@hostname/printer_name

Make sure that the user actually has access to the printer on Windows computer. Select the appropriate drivers and that's about it. If the computer is located on a domain, make sure the username includes the domain:

smb://username:password@domain/hostname/printer_name

Note: if your network contains many printers use "lpoptions -d your_desired_default_printer_name" to set your preferred printer

Windows to Linux

Sometimes, you might want to allow a Windows computer to connect to your computer. There are a few ways to do this, and the one I am most familiar with is using Samba. In order to do this, you will have to edit your /etc/samba/smb.conf file to allow access to your printers. Your smb.conf can look something like this:

[global]
workgroup = Heroes
server string = Arch Linux Print Server
security = user

[printers]
    comment = All Printers
    path = /var/spool/samba
    browseable = yes
    # to allow user 'guest account' to print.
    guest ok = no
    writable = no
    printable = yes
    create mode = 0700
    write list = @adm root neocephas

That should be enough to share your printer, but you just might want to add an individual printer entry:

[ML1250]
    comment = Samsung ML-1250 Laser Printer
    printer=ml1250
    path = /var/spool/samba
    printing = cups
    printable = yes
    printer admin = @admin root neocephas
    user client driver = yes
    # to allow user 'guest account' to print.
    guest ok = no
    writable = no
    write list = @adm root neocephas
    valid users = @adm root neocephas

Please note that in my configuration I made it so that users must have a valid account to access the printer. To have a public printer, set guest ok to yes, and remove the valid users line. To add accounts, you must setup a regular Linux account and then setup a Samba password on the server. For instance:

# useradd neocephas
# smbpasswd -a neocephas

After setting up any user accounts that you need, you will also need to set up the samba spool folder:

# mkdir /var/spool/samba
# chmod 777 /var/spool/samba

The next items that need changing are /etc/cups/mime.convs and /etc/cups/mime.types:

mime.convs:

# The following line is found at near the end of the file. Uncomment it.
application/octet-stream        application/vnd.cups-raw        0       -

mime.types:

# Again near the end of the file.
application/octet-stream

The changes to mime.convs and mime.types are needed to make CUPS print Microsoft Office document files. Many people seem to need that.

After this restart your Samba daemon:

# /etc/rc.d/samba restart

Obvious, there are a lot of tweaks and customization that can be done with setting up a Samba print server, so I advise you to look at the Samba and CUPS documentation for more help. The smb.conf.example file also has some good samples to that you might want to look at.

Windows 2000 and Windows XP to Linux

For the most modern flavours of Windows an alternative way of connecting to your Linux printer server is to use the CUPS protocol directly. The Windows client will need to be using Windows 2000 or Windows XP. Make sure you allows the clients to access the print server by editing the location settings as specified in section 4.1.

On the Windows computer, go to the printer control panel and choose to Add a New Printer. Next, choose to give an url. For the url type in the location of your printer:

http://host_ip_address:631/printers/printer_name

where host_ip_address is the Linux server's IP address and printer_name is the name of the printer you are connecting to. After this, install the printer drivers for the Windows computer. If you setup the CUPS server to use its own printer drivers, then you can just select a generic postscript printer for the Windows client. You can then test your print setup by printing a test page.

Others to Linux, Linux to others

More information on interfacing CUPS with other printing systems can be found in the CUPS manual, e.g. on http://localhost:631/sam.html#PRINTING_OTHER

Appendix

Alternative CUPS Interfaces

If you are a GNOME user, you can manage and configure your printer by using the gnome-cups-manager.

Update: this package is now available through pacman if you have the "community" repository uncommented in /etc/pacman.conf

pacman -S gnome-cups-manager

The package is also still available from the AUR.

KDE users can modify their printers from the Control Center. Both should refer the those desktop environments' documentation for more information on how to use the interfaces.

There is also gtklp. It is in the "extra" repository.

pacman -S gtklp

PDF Virtual Printer

A nice little package that I submitted to the incoming folder (ftp://ftp.archlinux.org/incoming) is CUPS-PDF. This package allows one to setup a virtual printer that will generate a PDF from anything sent to it. For example, I wrote this document in AbiWord and then printed it to the Virtual Printer which generated a pdf in my /var/spool/cups-pdf/neocephas folder. Obviously, this package is not necessary, but it can be quite useful. After downloading the package from the ftp server and installing it, you can set it up as you would for any other printer in the web interface. Select Virtual PDF Printer as the device and choose Postscript -> Postscript Color Printer for the drivers.

Online Resources

Here is a listing of websites that may be of use to you:

Specialized Cases

This section is dedicated to specific problems and their solutions. If you managed to get some unusual printer working, please put the solution here.

Printing does not work/aborts with the HP Deskjet 700 Series Printers.

  • The solution is to install pnm2ppa printer filter for the HP Deskjet 700 series. Without this the print jobs will be aborted by the system. A PKGBUILD for pnm2ppa can be found in AUR.

Getting HP LaserJet 1010 to work

I had to compile ghostscript myself because ESP gs in rep was 7.07 and had not fixed some bugs like ESP 8.15.1 had. I never downloaded 'foomatic' in rep. I think that is an old package.

kris|~/temp$ P -Qs cups a2ps psutils foo ghost local/cups 1.1.23-3

   The CUPS Printing System

local/a2ps 4.13b-3

   a2ps is an Any to PostScript filter

local/psutils p17-3

   A set of postscript utilities.

local/foomatic-db 3.0.2-1

   Foomatic is a system for using free software printer drivers with common
   spoolers on Unix

local/foomatic-db-engine 3.0.2-1

   Foomatic is a system for using free software printer drivers with common
   spoolers on Unix

local/foomatic-db-ppd 3.0.2-1

   Foomatic is a system for using free software printer drivers with common
   spoolers on Unix

local/foomatic-filters 3.0.2-1

   Foomatic is a system for using free software printer drivers with common
   spoolers on Unix

local/espgs 8.15.1-1

   ESP Ghostscript

I also had to set LogLevel in /etc/cups/cupsd.conf to debug2 before i saw that I missed some "Nimbus" fonts. Then I had to rename & put them where the log told me to. Some fancy google searching had to be applied, example: http://www.google.com/search?q=n019003l+filetype%3Apfb since the fonts turned out to be propriatory(i'm sure windows comes with these default). Nevertheless after downloading them(about 7 fonts) and putting them in the correct folder printing started working.

Before that i were getting all the errors said here: http://linuxprinting.org/show_printer.cgi?recnum=HP-LaserJet_1010 'Unsupport PCL' etc...

I'm sure it could have worked with ESP gs 7.07 too(in rep) if i was smart enough to turn on DebugLevel2 sooner :/ UPDATE: yeah it did... maybe this info is useful for someone else though.. sorry for the inconvienice

Another Source for Printer Drivers

On http://www.turboprint.de/english.html is a really good printer driver for many printers not yet supported by Linux (especially Canon i*). The only problem is that high-quality-prints are either marked with a turboprint-logo or you have to pay for it... It's not Open-Source.

Template:Wikipedia

Troubleshooting

As a result of upgrade

After updating, if you get something like :

 /usr/sbin/cupsd: error while loading shared libraries: libgnutls.so.13: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

You need to update gnutls:

 Pacman -Sy gnutls

In addition, in /etc/cups, there will be a file named cupsd.conf.pacnew. Rename it cupsd.conf.