Chroot is an operation that changes the apparent root directory for the current running process and their children. A program that is run in such a modified environment cannot access files and commands outside that environmental directory tree. This modified environment is called a chroot jail.
Changing root is commonly done for performing system maintenance on systems where booting and/or logging in is no longer possible. Common examples are:
- Reinstalling the bootloader.
- Rebuilding the initramfs image.
- Upgrading or downgrading packages.
- Resetting a forgotten password.
See also Wikipedia:Chroot#Limitations.
- Root privilege.
- Another Linux environment, e.g. a LiveCD or USB flash media, or from another existing Linux distribution.
- Matching architecture environments; i.e. the chroot from and chroot to. The architecture of the current environment can be discovered with:
uname -m(e.g. i686 or x86_64).
- Kernel modules loaded that are needed in the chroot environment.
- Swap enabled if needed:
# swapon /dev/sdxY
- Internet connection established if needed.
There are two main options for using chroot, described below.
The bash script
arch-chroot is part of the package. Before it runs
/usr/bin/chroot, the script mounts api filesystems like
/proc and makes
/etc/resolv.conf available from the chroot.
Enter a chroot
Run arch-chroot with the new root directory as first argument:
# arch-chroot /location/of/new/root
For example, in the installation guide this directory would be
# arch-chroot /mnt
To exit the chroot simply use:
Run a single command and exit
To run a command from the chroot, and exit again append the command to the end of the line:
# arch-chroot /location/of/new/root mycommand
For example, to run
mkinitcpio -p linux for a chroot located at
# arch-chroot /mnt/arch mkinitcpio -p linux
--rbind, some subdirectories of
sys/will not be unmountable. Attempting to unmount with
umount -lin this situation will break your session, requiring a reboot. If possible, use
In the following example /location/of/new/root is the directory where the new root resides.
First, mount the temporary api filesystems:
# cd /location/of/new/root # mount -t proc proc proc/ # mount --rbind /sys sys/ # mount --rbind /dev dev/
# mount --rbind /run run/
Next, in order to use an internet connection in the chroot environment copy over the DNS details:
# cp /etc/resolv.conf etc/resolv.conf
Finally, to change root into /location/of/new/root using a bash shell:
# chroot /location/of/new/root /bin/bash
chroot: cannot run command '/usr/bin/bash': Exec format error, it is likely that the architectures of the host environment and chroot environment do not match.
chroot: '/usr/bin/bash': permission denied, remount with the exec permission:
mount -o remount,exec /mnt/arch.
After chrooting it may be necessary to load the local bash configuration:
# source /etc/profile # source ~/.bashrc
# export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"
When finished with the chroot, you can exit it via:
Then unmount the temporary file systems:
# cd / # umount --recursive /location/of/new/root
umount: /path: device is busythis usually means that either: a program (even a shell) was left running in the chroot or that a sub-mount still exists. Quit the program and use
mountto find and
umountsub-mounts). It may be tricky to
umountsome things and one can hopefully have
umount --forcework, as a last resort use
umount --lazywhich just releases them. In either case to be safe,
rebootas soon as possible if these are unresolved to avoid future, possible conflicts.
Run graphical applications from chroot
If you have an X server running on your system, you can start graphical applications from the chroot environment.
To allow the chroot environment to connect to an X server, open a virtual terminal inside the X server (i.e. inside the desktop of the user that is currently logged in), then run the xhost command, which gives permission to anyone to connect to the user's X server:
$ xhost +local:
Then, to direct the applications to the X server from chroot, set the DISPLAY environment variable inside the chroot to match the DISPLAY variable of the user that owns the X server. So for example, run
$ echo $DISPLAY
as the user that owns the X server to see the value of DISPLAY. If the value is ":0" (for example), then in the chroot environment run
# export DISPLAY=:0
Without root privileges
Chroot requires root privileges, which may not be desirable or possible for the user to obtain in certain situations. There are, however, various ways to simulate chroot-like behavior using alternative implementations.
Proot may be used to change the apparent root directory and use
mount --bind without root privileges. This is useful for confining applications to a single directory or running programs built for a different CPU architecture, but it has limitations due to the fact that all files are owned by the user on the host system. Proot provides a
--root-id argument that can be used as a workaround for some of these limitations in a similar (albeit more limited) manner to fakeroot.
is a library shim which intercepts the chroot call and fakes the results. It can be used in conjunction with to simulate a chroot as a regular user.
# fakechroot fakeroot chroot ~/my-chroot bash