Difference between revisions of "Cinnamon (简体中文)"

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[[Category:Desktop environments]]
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[[Category:Desktop environments (简体中文)]]
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{{Related articles start (简体中文)}}
[[tr:Cinnamon_Masaüstü_Ortamı]]
 
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[http://cinnamon.linuxmint.com/ Cinnamon] is a Linux desktop which provides advanced innovative features and a traditional user experience.
 
The desktop layout is similar to GNOME Panel (GNOME 2); however, the underlying technology was forked from GNOME Shell (GNOME 3).
 
The emphasis is put on making users feel at home and providing them with an easy to use and comfortable desktop experience. As of version 2.0, Cinnamon is a complete desktop environment and not merely a frontend for GNOME like GNOME Shell and Unity.
 
  
== Installation ==
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{{Translateme|本页面部分内容尚未翻译。}}
  
Cinnamon can be [[Pacman|installed]] with the package {{Pkg|cinnamon}}, available in the [[official repositories]].
+
{{TranslationStatus (简体中文)|Cinnamon|2016-09-12|436684}}
 +
[http://cinnamon.linuxmint.com/ Cinnamon] 是一个提供先进创新的特点和传统的用户体验的Linux桌面。然而,底层的技术是基于 [[GNOME]] 的分支. 在Cinnamon 2.2版本中,Cinnamon已经是一个完整的桌面环境,不仅仅是一个GNOME的前端。
  
== Starting Cinnamon ==
+
== 安装 ==
  
=== Graphical log-in ===
+
Cinnamon 通过包 {{Pkg|cinnamon}} 进行 [[安装]].
  
Choose ''Cinnamon'' or ''Cinnamon (Software Rendering)'' from the menu in a [[display manager]] of choice. Cinnamon is the 3D accelerated version, which should normally be used. If you experience problems with your video driver (e.g. artifacts or crashing), try the ''Cinnamon (Software Rendering)'' session, which disables 3D acceleration.
+
== 启动 Cinnamon ==
  
=== Starting Cinnamon manually ===
+
=== 图形化登录 ===
  
If you prefer to start Cinnamon manually from the console, add the following line to [[Xinitrc]] (cinnamon 1.9 and up):
+
在你喜欢的 [[display manager]] 选择 ''Cinnamon'' 或者是 ''Cinnamon (Software Rendering)'' 。Cinnamon选项是3D加速的版本,一般使用这个。如果你的显卡驱动出现问题,试试“'cinnamon(软件渲染)”,这个禁用了3D加速。
 +
 
 +
=== 手动启动Cinnamon ===
 +
 
 +
如果你喜欢控制台启动Cinnamon, 添加以下行到 [[Xinitrc]]:
  
 
{{hc|~/.xinitrc|
 
{{hc|~/.xinitrc|
Line 34: Line 35:
 
}}
 
}}
  
If the ''Cinnamon (Software Rendering)'' session is required, use {{ic|cinnamon-session-cinnamon2d}} instead of {{ic|cinnamon-session}}.
+
如果你想用 ''Cinnamon (Software Rendering)'' , {{ic|cinnamon-session-cinnamon2d}} 代替 {{ic|cinnamon-session}}.
  
== Configuration ==
+
== 配置 ==
  
Cinnamon is quite easy to configure — a lot of the configuration that most people will want can be done graphically. Its usability can be customized with [http://cinnamon-spices.linuxmint.com/applets applets] and [http://cinnamon-spices.linuxmint.com/extensions extensions], and also it supports [http://cinnamon-spices.linuxmint.com/themes theming].  
+
Cinnamon很容易配置,大部分的配置都是在图形化界面下完成。更多详情可查看以下网站[http://cinnamon-spices.linuxmint.com/applets applets]/ [http://cinnamon-spices.linuxmint.com/extensions extensions]/[http://cinnamon-spices.linuxmint.com/themes theming].  
  
=== Cinnamon settings ===
+
=== Cinnamon系统设置 ===
  
''cinnamon-settings'' launches a settings module specified on the command line. Without (correct) arguments, it launches ''System Settings''. For example, to start the panel settings:
+
启动''cinnamon系统设置''
  
  $ cinnamon-settings panel
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  $ cinnamon-settings
  
To list all available modules:
+
查看设置界面的模块:
  
$ pacman -Ql cinnamon | grep -o "cs_.*\.py" | awk -F'[_.]' '{ print $2 }'
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  $ pacman -Ql cinnamon | awk -F'[_.]' '/cs_.+\.py/ {print $2}'
  
==== Networking ====
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打开其中的一个模块
  
To add support for the networking module, enable [[NetworkManager#Configuration|Network Manager]].
+
$ cinnamon-settings 模块名称
  
==== Bluetooth ====
+
示例:
  
{{warning|{{AUR|cinnamon-bluetooth}} is incompatible with GNOME 3.10 and above. See the [[Bluetooth]] article for alternatives.}}
+
$ cinnamon-settings panel
  
A GNOME bluetooth frontend for Cinnamon Panel and Cinnamon Settings is available in the AUR under the name {{AUR|cinnamon-bluetooth}}.
+
;打印机
 +
:安装 {{Pkg|system-config-printer}} 进行打印机配置
 +
;网络
 +
:添加网络模块的支持, 请看 [[NetworkManager#Configuration|Network Manager]].要在 Network manager 里面保存 Wifi 密码,需要安装 [[GNOME Keyring]]。
 +
;蓝牙
 +
:安装软件包 {{Pkg|blueberry}}
  
=== Applets and extensions ===
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=== 应用程序和扩展 ===
  
While an '''applet''' is an addition to the Cinnamon panel, an '''extension''' can fully change the Cinnamon experience. They can be installed from the [[AUR]], ([https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=cinnamon-&do_Search=Go package search]), or from inside Cinnamon (''Get more online''):
+
许多cinnamon的应用程序和扩展可以在 [[AUR]], ([https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=cinnamon-&do_Search=Go package search])找到,也可以在Cinnamon的“小程序”和“拓展”中找到 (''在线获取更多''选项卡中):
  
 
  $ cinnamon-settings applets
 
  $ cinnamon-settings applets
 
  $ cinnamon-settings extensions
 
  $ cinnamon-settings extensions
  
Alternatively, install manually from [http://cinnamon-spices.linuxmint.com/ Cinnamon spices].
+
也可以从 [http://cinnamon-spices.linuxmint.com/ Cinnamon spices]下载并手动安装.
  
{{Note|If applets do not appear, restart Cinnamon with {{ic|r}} in the {{ic|Alt+F2}} dialog box.}}
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{{Note|如果你安装后没有发现这些拓展或者是应用程序, {{ic|Alt+F2}} 并在对话框键入 {{ic|r}} 重启 Cinnamon .}}
  
== Tips and tricks ==
+
===按下电源按钮睡眠===
  
=== Creating custom applets/themes ===
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这是电源按钮默认的操作。如需更改,打开{{ic|cinnamon-settings}}'''系统设置''',点击'''电源管理'''。更改'''按下电源按钮时'''选项,选择你所希望使用的操作。
  
The official tutorial on creating an '''applet''' can be found [http://cinnamon.linuxmint.com/?p=156 here], and on creating a '''custom theme''' can be found [http://cinnamon.linuxmint.com/?p=144 here].
+
=== 管理 Cinnamon 使用的语言 ===
  
=== Default desktop background wallpaper path ===
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{{Note|Cinnamon 控制面板从 2.2 版本开始删除了语言配置模块[http://segfault.linuxmint.com/2014/04/cinnamon-2-2/]}}
  
When you add a wallpaper from a custom path in Cinnamon Settings, Cinnamon copies it to {{ic|~/.cinnamon/backgrounds}}. Thus, with every change of your wallpaper you would have to add your updated wallpaper again from the settings menu or copy / symlink it manually to {{ic|~/.cinnamon/backgrounds}}.
+
* 要添加删除语言,请查看 [[Locale]].
 +
* 要在启用的语言间切换,请安装软件包 {{AUR|mintlocale}}.
 +
* 要修改键盘布局: '''System Settings > Hardware > Keyboard > Layouts'''.
  
=== Show home, filesystem desktop icons ===
+
== 小贴士 ==
  
By default Cinnamon starts with desktop icons enabled but with no desktop icons on screen. To show desktop icons for the home folder, the filesystem, the trash, mounted volumes and network servers open Cinnamon settings and click on desktop. Enable the checkboxes of the icons you want to see on screen.
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=== 创建自定义应用程序 ===
  
=== Adding custom command launchers to the Menu applet ===
+
关于创建自定义应用程序,可以在 [http://developer.linuxmint.com/reference/2.6/cinnamon-tutorials/write-applet.html 这里]和[http://cinnamon.linuxmint.com/?p=144 这里] 找到教程.
  
The Menu applet supports launching custom commands. Right click on the applet, click on ''Configure...'' and then ''Open the menu editor''. Select a sub-menu (or create a new one) and select ''New Item''. Set ''Name'', ''Command'' and ''Comment''. Check the launch in terminal checkbox if needed. Leave unchecked for graphical applications. Click ''OK'' and close the menu editor afterwards. The launcher is added to the menu.
+
=== 默认的桌面背景壁纸路径 ===
  
=== Workspaces ===
+
当你在Cinnamon设置自定义的路径的壁纸,, Cinnamon 会将其复制到 {{ic|~/.cinnamon/backgrounds}}. 因此, 每一个改变你的壁纸,你都得再次在设置菜单添加你的墙纸到或将其复制到 {{ic|~/.cinnamon/backgrounds}}.
  
A workspace pager can be added to the panel. Right click the panel and choose the option ''Add applets to the panel''. Add the ''Workspace switch'' applet to the panel. To change its position right click on the panel and change the ''Panel edit mode'' on/off switch to on. Click and drag the switcher to the desired position and turn the panel edit mode off when finished.
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=== 添加“计算机”“主目录”“回收站”等常用图标与新的启动器 ===
  
By default there are 2 workspaces. To add more, hit {{ic|Control+Alt+Up}} to show all workspaces. Then click on the plus sign button on the right of the screen to add more workspaces.
+
你可以在“设置”=>“桌面”添加部分常有图标,如“计算机”“主目录”“回收站”等。如要添加其它的启动器,右击桌面并选择“在此创建一个新的启动器”即可。
  
Alternatively, you can choose the number by command-line:
+
=== 菜单编辑器 ===
$ gsettings set org.cinnamon number-workspaces 4
 
Replacing 4 with the number of workspaces you want. To apply the change you need to reboot Cinnamon (for example : Alt-F2 and command r).
 
  
=== Hide desktop icons ===
+
菜单小程序支持自定义命令。右键单击"菜单"小程序,然后点击"配置...",然后点击“打开菜单编辑器”。选择一个子菜单(或者创建一个新的子菜单),然后选择“新建项目”。填好名称、命令和备注。如果需要在终端运行,选中“在终端运行”复选框,图形化应用程序不选中“在终端运行”复选框。然后点击”确定“并关闭菜单编辑器。启动器就添加到了菜单。
  
The desktop icons rendering feature is enabled in nemo by default. To disable this feature, change the setting with the following command:
+
=== 工作区 ===
  
$ gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false
+
默认情况下,有2个工作区。增加,按Ctrl+ Alt +上键显示所有的工作区。然后点击右边的加号按钮在屏幕添加更多的工作区。
  
=== GTK themes and icons ===
+
=== 隐藏桌面图标 ===
  
Linux Mint styled themes and icons can be installed from AUR using packages {{AUR|mint-themes}} and {{AUR|mint-x-icons}}. The themes can be edited in {{ic|Settings → Themes → Other settings}}.
+
用下面的命令更改设置:
  
=== Resize windows by mouse ===
+
  $ gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false
 
 
To resize windows with {{ic|Alt+Right click}}, use {{ic|gsettings}}:
 
 
 
  gsettings set org.cinnamon.desktop.wm.preferences resize-with-right-button true
 
 
 
=== Portable keybindings ===
 
 
 
To export your keyboard shortcut keys, you should do:
 
 
 
dconf dump /org/cinnamon/muffin/keybindings/ >keybindings-backup.dconf
 
 
 
To later import it (for example) on another computer, do:
 
 
 
dconf load /org/cinnamon/muffin/keybindings/ <keybindings-backup.dconf
 
  
== Troubleshooting ==
+
=== 图标和主题 ===
  
=== QGtkStyle unable to detect the current theme ===
+
Linux Mint风格的主题和图标可以在AUR安装: {{AUR|mint-x-theme}}{{Broken package link|package not found}}和{{AUR|mint-x-icons}}. 可以在 {{ic|Settings → Themes → Other settings}}编辑主题.
 +
 +
Linux Mint Cinnamon 官方主题可以通过 {{AUR|mint-cinnamon-themes}}{{Broken package link|package not found}} 软件包进行安装.
  
Installing {{Pkg|libgnome-data}} solves the problem partially, and QGtkStyle will detect the current GTK+ theme. However, to set the same icon and cursor theme, users must specify them explicitly.
+
=== 声音效果 ===
  
The icon theme for Qt apps can be configured by the following command:
+
Cinnamon没有附带那些Linux Mint默认使用的像桌面启动之类声音事件。这些声音效果可与安装{{AUR|cinnamon-sound-effects}}和{{AUR|mint-sounds}}。声音事件可以在{{ic|Settings → Sound → Sound Effects}}编辑。
  
$ gconftool-2 --set --type string /desktop/gnome/interface/icon_theme Faenza-Dark
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=== 调整窗口的大小 ===
  
This sets the icon theme to Faenza-Dark located in {{ic|/usr/share/icons/Faenza-Dark}}.
+
用Alt+右键调整窗口的大小,使用gsettings:
  
The cursor theme for Qt apps can be selected by creating a symbolic link:
+
$ gsettings set org.cinnamon.desktop.wm.preferences resize-with-right-button true
  
$ mkdir ~/.icons
+
=== 截图 ===
$ ln -s /usr/share/icons/Adwaita ~/.icons/default
 
  
This sets the cursor theme to Adwaita located in {{ic|/usr/share/icons/Adwaita}}.
+
As explained in [[Taking_a_screenshot#Cinnamon|Taking a screenshot]], installing {{Pkg|gnome-screenshot}} will add this functionality. The default shortcut key is {{ic|Prt Sc}} key. This binding ca be changed in the applet ''Menu > Preferences > Keyboard'' under ''Shortcuts > System > Screenshots and Recording''. The default save directory is {{ic|$HOME/Pictures}}, but can be customized with eg.
  
=== Pressing power buttons suspend the system ===
+
$ gsettings set org.gnome.gnome-screenshot auto-save-directory file:///home/''USER''/''some_path''
  
This is the default behaviour. To change the setting open the {{ic|cinnamon-settings}} panel and click on the "Power Management" option. Change the "When the power button is pressed" option to your desired behaviour.
+
== 故障排除 ==
  
=== Volume level is not saved ===
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=== cinnamon设置无法找到一个特定的模块 ===
  
The volume level is not be saved after reboot. The volume will be at 0 but not muted. Installing {{Pkg|alsa-utils}} will solve the problem.
+
If ''cinnamon-settings'' does not start with the message that it cannot find a certain module, e.g. the Image module, it is likely that it uses outdated compiled files which refer to no longer existing file locations. In this case remove all {{ic|*.pyc}} files in {{ic|/usr/lib/cinnamon-settings}} and its sub-folders. See the [https://github.com/linuxmint/Cinnamon/issues/2495 upstream bug report].
  
=== cinnamon-settings: No module named Image ===
+
=== Video tearing ===
  
If {{ic|cinnamon-settings}} does not start with the message that it cannot find a certain module, e.g. the Image module, it is likely that it uses outdated compiled files which refer to no longer existing file locations. In this case remove all {{ic|*.pyc}} files in {{ic|/usr/lib/cinnamon-settings}} and its sub-folders.
+
Because {{Pkg|muffin}} is based upon {{Pkg|mutter}}, video tearing fixes for [[GNOME]] should also work in Cinnamon. See [[GNOME/Troubleshooting#Tear-free video with Intel HD Graphics]] for more information.
  
=== Cannot add/remove/change languages used in Cinnamon ===
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=== 禁用''网络管理''小程序 ===
  
The language module was removed from the Cinnamon Control Panel with the release of Cinnamon 2.2 and provided a new package for changing the language settings.
+
即使你不使用[[NetworkManager]]或者从默认面板删除''网络管理''小程序,Cinnamon依然会载入''nm-applet'' 并显示在系统托盘上。你'''不能'''卸载[[NetworkManager]],因为[[NetworkManager]]被{{Pkg|cinnamon}}和{{Pkg|cinnamon-control-center}}需要,但是你可以很容易将其禁用。首先,你应该把自启动文件从{{ic|/etc/xdg/autostart/nm-applet.desktop}}复制到{{ic|~/.config/autostart/nm-applet.desktop}}。然后用你喜欢的文本编辑器打开,并在最后加上{{ic|1=X-GNOME-Autostart-enabled=false}}。
  
'''To add/remove languages''', see [[Locale]].
+
另外,你也可以通过创建以下符号链接来禁用:
  
'''To change between enabled languages''', install the {{AUR|mintlocale}} package.
+
$ ln -s /bin/true /usr/local/bin/nm-applet

Latest revision as of 15:02, 5 May 2018


Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.pngThis article or section needs to be translated.Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

Notes: 本页面部分内容尚未翻译。 (Discuss in Talk:Cinnamon (简体中文)#)
翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Cinnamon翻译,最后翻译时间:2016-09-12,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

Cinnamon 是一个提供先进创新的特点和传统的用户体验的Linux桌面。然而,底层的技术是基于 GNOME 的分支. 在Cinnamon 2.2版本中,Cinnamon已经是一个完整的桌面环境,不仅仅是一个GNOME的前端。

安装

Cinnamon 通过包 cinnamon 进行 安装.

启动 Cinnamon

图形化登录

在你喜欢的 display manager 选择 Cinnamon 或者是 Cinnamon (Software Rendering) 。Cinnamon选项是3D加速的版本,一般使用这个。如果你的显卡驱动出现问题,试试“'cinnamon(软件渲染)”,这个禁用了3D加速。

手动启动Cinnamon

如果你喜欢控制台启动Cinnamon, 添加以下行到 Xinitrc:

~/.xinitrc
 exec cinnamon-session

如果你想用 Cinnamon (Software Rendering) , 用 cinnamon-session-cinnamon2d 代替 cinnamon-session.

配置

Cinnamon很容易配置,大部分的配置都是在图形化界面下完成。更多详情可查看以下网站applets/ extensions/theming.

Cinnamon系统设置

启动cinnamon系统设置

$ cinnamon-settings

查看设置界面的模块:

 $ pacman -Ql cinnamon | awk -F'[_.]' '/cs_.+\.py/ {print $2}'

打开其中的一个模块

$ cinnamon-settings 模块名称

示例:

$ cinnamon-settings panel
打印机
安装 system-config-printer 进行打印机配置
网络
添加网络模块的支持, 请看 Network Manager.要在 Network manager 里面保存 Wifi 密码,需要安装 GNOME Keyring
蓝牙
安装软件包 blueberry

应用程序和扩展

许多cinnamon的应用程序和扩展可以在 AUR, (package search)找到,也可以在Cinnamon的“小程序”和“拓展”中找到 (在线获取更多选项卡中):

$ cinnamon-settings applets
$ cinnamon-settings extensions

也可以从 Cinnamon spices下载并手动安装.

Note: 如果你安装后没有发现这些拓展或者是应用程序, 用 Alt+F2 并在对话框键入 r 重启 Cinnamon .

按下电源按钮睡眠

这是电源按钮默认的操作。如需更改,打开cinnamon-settings系统设置,点击电源管理。更改按下电源按钮时选项,选择你所希望使用的操作。

管理 Cinnamon 使用的语言

Note: Cinnamon 控制面板从 2.2 版本开始删除了语言配置模块[1]
  • 要添加删除语言,请查看 Locale.
  • 要在启用的语言间切换,请安装软件包 mintlocaleAUR.
  • 要修改键盘布局: System Settings > Hardware > Keyboard > Layouts.

小贴士

创建自定义应用程序

关于创建自定义应用程序,可以在 这里这里 找到教程.

默认的桌面背景壁纸路径

当你在Cinnamon设置自定义的路径的壁纸,, Cinnamon 会将其复制到 ~/.cinnamon/backgrounds. 因此, 每一个改变你的壁纸,你都得再次在设置菜单添加你的墙纸到或将其复制到 ~/.cinnamon/backgrounds.

添加“计算机”“主目录”“回收站”等常用图标与新的启动器

你可以在“设置”=>“桌面”添加部分常有图标,如“计算机”“主目录”“回收站”等。如要添加其它的启动器,右击桌面并选择“在此创建一个新的启动器”即可。

菜单编辑器

菜单小程序支持自定义命令。右键单击"菜单"小程序,然后点击"配置...",然后点击“打开菜单编辑器”。选择一个子菜单(或者创建一个新的子菜单),然后选择“新建项目”。填好名称、命令和备注。如果需要在终端运行,选中“在终端运行”复选框,图形化应用程序不选中“在终端运行”复选框。然后点击”确定“并关闭菜单编辑器。启动器就添加到了菜单。

工作区

默认情况下,有2个工作区。增加,按Ctrl+ Alt +上键显示所有的工作区。然后点击右边的加号按钮在屏幕添加更多的工作区。

隐藏桌面图标

用下面的命令更改设置:

$ gsettings set org.nemo.desktop show-desktop-icons false

图标和主题

Linux Mint风格的主题和图标可以在AUR安装: mint-x-themeAUR[broken link: package not found]mint-x-iconsAUR. 可以在 Settings → Themes → Other settings编辑主题.

Linux Mint Cinnamon 官方主题可以通过 mint-cinnamon-themesAUR[broken link: package not found] 软件包进行安装.

声音效果

Cinnamon没有附带那些Linux Mint默认使用的像桌面启动之类声音事件。这些声音效果可与安装cinnamon-sound-effectsAURmint-soundsAUR。声音事件可以在Settings → Sound → Sound Effects编辑。

调整窗口的大小

用Alt+右键调整窗口的大小,使用gsettings:

$ gsettings set org.cinnamon.desktop.wm.preferences resize-with-right-button true

截图

As explained in Taking a screenshot, installing gnome-screenshot will add this functionality. The default shortcut key is Prt Sc key. This binding ca be changed in the applet Menu > Preferences > Keyboard under Shortcuts > System > Screenshots and Recording. The default save directory is $HOME/Pictures, but can be customized with eg.

$ gsettings set org.gnome.gnome-screenshot auto-save-directory file:///home/USER/some_path

故障排除

cinnamon设置无法找到一个特定的模块

If cinnamon-settings does not start with the message that it cannot find a certain module, e.g. the Image module, it is likely that it uses outdated compiled files which refer to no longer existing file locations. In this case remove all *.pyc files in /usr/lib/cinnamon-settings and its sub-folders. See the upstream bug report.

Video tearing

Because muffin is based upon mutter, video tearing fixes for GNOME should also work in Cinnamon. See GNOME/Troubleshooting#Tear-free video with Intel HD Graphics for more information.

禁用网络管理小程序

即使你不使用NetworkManager或者从默认面板删除网络管理小程序,Cinnamon依然会载入nm-applet 并显示在系统托盘上。你不能卸载NetworkManager,因为NetworkManagercinnamoncinnamon-control-center需要,但是你可以很容易将其禁用。首先,你应该把自启动文件从/etc/xdg/autostart/nm-applet.desktop复制到~/.config/autostart/nm-applet.desktop。然后用你喜欢的文本编辑器打开,并在最后加上X-GNOME-Autostart-enabled=false

另外,你也可以通过创建以下符号链接来禁用:

$ ln -s /bin/true /usr/local/bin/nm-applet