Difference between revisions of "Comparison of tiling window managers"

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[[Category:Tiling WMs (English)]]
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[[Category:Tiling WMs]]
 
This article provides an unbiased comparison of the most popular ''tiling'' [[window manager]]s (as opposed to ''floating'' window managers).
 
This article provides an unbiased comparison of the most popular ''tiling'' [[window manager]]s (as opposed to ''floating'' window managers).
  
 
== Comparison table ==
 
== Comparison table ==
The following table lists the most popular tiling window managers alongside notable features, providing readers with a quick overview. More in-depth descriptions follow this table.
+
The following table lists the most popular tiling window managers alongside notable features, providing readers with a quick overview.
  
 
{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0"
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! scope="col" | Library
 
! scope="col" | Library
 
! scope="col" class="unsortable" | Multiple (n) monitor behavior
 
! scope="col" class="unsortable" | Multiple (n) monitor behavior
 +
! scope="col" | Maintenance
 +
|-
 +
! [[alopex]]
 +
| C || C (recompile) || Hybrid || None || No || Built-in; call script/program as first argument || external || max, h-stack, v-stack, h-tab || Variable borders; titles in-statusbar || ||  Xlib || six tags, two views available by default || active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[Awesome]]
 
! [[Awesome]]
| C || Lua || Dynamic || Built-in || Yes || Built-in, images and text || Yes, with an external manager such as xcompmgr || || variable borders, optional h-tab titles || dbus (if enabled) || XCB || n-tags (workspaces). Per default 9  are enabled. [https://awesome.naquadah.org/images/6mon.medium.png Example]
+
| C || Lua || Dynamic || Built-in || Yes || Built-in, images and text || external || || variable borders, optional h-tab titles || dbus (if enabled) || XCB || n-tags (workspaces). Per default 9  are enabled. [https://awesome.naquadah.org/images/6mon.medium.png Example] || Active
 +
|-
 +
! [[bspwm]]
 +
| C || Anything || Hybrid || None || Yes || Can write internal state to a FIFO || External || v-split, h-split || Variable borders || via {{ic|bspc}} || XCB || Monitors hold Desktops || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[catwm]]
 
! [[catwm]]
| C || C (recompile) || Dynamic || None || No || None || No || v-stack, max || 1-pix borders || || Xlib ||  
+
| C || C (recompile) || Dynamic || None || No || None || No || v-stack, max || 1-pix borders || || Xlib || || Abandoned
 
|-
 
|-
! [[dswm]]
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! dswm
| Lisp || Lisp || Manual || None || Yes || Yes || No || || || || ||
+
| Lisp || Lisp || Manual || None || Yes || Yes || No || || || || || || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[dwm]]
 
! [[dwm]]
| C || C (recompile) || Dynamic || None || [[Dwm#Restart dwm without logging out or closing programs | Optional]] || Built-in, reads from root window name || Yes, with an external manager such as xcompmgr || v-stack, max || || || Xlib || n regions, 9 workspaces fixed to each region
+
| C || C (recompile) || Dynamic || None || [[Dwm#Restart dwm without logging out or closing programs | Optional]] || Built-in, reads from root window name || external || v-stack, max || || || Xlib || n regions, 9 workspaces fixed to each region || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[echinus]]
 
! [[echinus]]
| C || Text || Dynamic || None || Yes || [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=ourico&do_Search=Go ourico] || Yes, with an external manager such as xcompmgr || v-stack, b-stack, max || Variable borders & optional titles || || Xlib ||
+
| C || Text || Dynamic || None || Yes || {{AUR|ourico}} || external || v-stack, b-stack, max || Variable borders & optional titles || || Xlib || || Unknown
 
|-
 
|-
! [[euclid-wm]]
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! euclid-wm
| C || Text || Hybrid || None || Yes || External ([[dzen]]) ||  || rows, columns || 1-pix borders || || Xlib ||
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| C || Text || Hybrid || None || Yes || External ([[dzen]]) ||  || rows, columns || 1-pix borders || || Xlib || || Dormant
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[herbstluftwm]]
 
! [[herbstluftwm]]
| C || Text || Manual || None || Yes ||  ||  || rows, columns || 1-pix borders || commands via herbstclient || Xlib and Glib || n regions, 9 workspaces visible in any region
+
| C || Text || Manual || None || Yes ||  ||  || rows, columns || 1-pix borders || commands via herbstclient || Xlib and Glib || n regions, 9 workspaces visible in any region || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[i3]]  
 
! [[i3]]  
| C || Text || Manual || i3bar || Yes || text piped to i3bar ({{Pkg|i3status}} or {{Pkg|conky}} can be used) || Yes, with an external manager such as xcompmgr || tree, v-split, h-split, stacked, tabbed, max || 2-pix borders with titles or 1-pix with no titles || commands via ipc (or i3-msg, which uses ipc) || XCB || n regions
+
| C || Text || Manual || i3bar || Yes || text piped to i3bar ({{Ic|i3status}}/{{Ic|conky}} can be used) || external || tree, v-split, h-split, stacked, tabbed, max || none, 1-pix or 2-pix, optional titlebars || commands via ipc (or i3-msg, which uses ipc) || XCB || n regions || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[Ion3]]  
 
! [[Ion3]]  
| C || Lua || Manual || trayion || Yes || configurable || ? || h-tab, max || || || ||
+
| C || Lua || Manual || trayion || Yes || configurable || ? || h-tab, max || || || || || Abandoned
 +
|-
 +
! [[monsterwm]]
 +
| C || C (recompile) || Dynamic || None || Optional, but windows are lost || No, outputs information to stdout, which can easily be parsed and displayed by an external monitor or panel ({{ic|dzen2}}, {{ic|conky}}, etc) || external || h-stack, v-stack, grid, max || || supports {{ic|_NET_ACTIVE_WINDOW}}, so external control can be supplied by {{ic|xdotool}} and similar tools || [[Monsterwm#Installation|Xlib primary and XCB fork]] || n workspaces per monitor || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[Musca]]
 
! [[Musca]]
| C || Text, own command set, C(recompile) || Manual || None || No, but allows running of musca commands on the fly || None || No || h-split, v-split, max || || commands, hooks || Xlib ||
+
| C || Text, own command set, C(recompile) || Manual || None || No, but allows running of musca commands on the fly || None || No || h-split, v-split, max || || commands, hooks || Xlib || || Abandoned
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[Notion]]  
 
! [[Notion]]  
| C || Lua, compatible with Ion3 configs || Manual || trayion, stalonetray || Yes || configurable || ? || h-tab, max || Configurable borders and titlebars/tabs || || || "Takes into account changes to the screen topology without needing to restart Notion"
+
| C, Lua || Lua, compatible with Ion3 configs || Manual || trayion, stalonetray || Yes || configurable || ? || h-tab, max || Configurable borders and titlebars/tabs || EWMH, arbitrary Lua scripts which have access to the rich internal API || Xlib || n workspaces on each monitor. Supports on-the-fly changes in topology || Active
 +
|-
 +
! [[qtile]]
 +
| Python || Python || Dynamic || Yes || Yes || Yes || ? || tree, v-split, h-split, stacked, tabbed, max || No borders, although customizable || Hooks, Server mode || XCB || || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[Ratpoison]]
 
! [[Ratpoison]]
| C || Text || Manual || None || Yes || Yes || Yes, with an external manager such as xcompmgr || max || || || ||
+
| C || Text || Manual || None || Yes || Yes || external || max || || || || || Active
 
|-
 
|-
! [[Scrotwm]]
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! [[Snapwm]]
| C || Text || Dynamic || None || Yes || Built-in, reads from user script || No || nv-stack, nh-stack, max || 1-pix borders, no titles || || Xlib || n regions, 10 workspaces visible in any region
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| C || Text || Dynamic || None || Yes || Built-in, reads from root window name || External || nVertical, Fullscreen, nHorizontal, Grid, Center Stacking || variable borders, no titles || || Xlib || Number of desktops distributed evenly between monitors || Active
 +
|-
 +
! [[Spectrwm]]
 +
| C || Text || Dynamic || None || Yes || Built-in, reads from user script || No || nv-stack, nh-stack, max || 1-pix borders, no titles || || XCB || n regions, 10 workspaces visible in any region || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[Stumpwm]]
 
! [[Stumpwm]]
| Lisp || Lisp || Manual || None || Yes || Yes || No || || || || ||
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| Lisp || Lisp || Manual || None || Yes || Yes || No || || || || || || Dormant
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[subtle]]
 
! [[subtle]]
| C || Ruby || Manual || Built-in || Yes || Built-in (Ruby), external can be used as well || Yes, with an external manager such as xcompmgr || Variable grid || Variable borders, no titles || Hooks (Ruby), subtler (CLI), subtlext (Ruby extension) || Xlib || One workspace (view) per monitor (screen), placement on views via tags and per runtime
+
| C || Ruby || Manual || Built-in || Yes || Built-in (Ruby), external can be used as well || external || Variable grid || Variable borders, no titles || Hooks (Ruby), subtler (CLI), subtlext (Ruby extension) || Xlib || One workspace (view) per monitor (screen), placement on views via tags and per runtime || Active
 +
|-
 +
! [[Wingo]]
 +
| Go || Text || Dynamic || None || Yes || No || external || floating, nv-stack, nh-stack, max || title bars in floating, skinny borders in tiling || via [https://github.com/BurntSushi/wingo/blob/master/HOWTO-COMMANDS wingo-cmd] or UNIX sockets in any programming language || [https://github.com/BurntSushi/xgb X Go Binding] || n regions, workspaces visible in any region || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[WMFS]]
 
! [[WMFS]]
| C || Text || Dynamic || Built-in || Yes || Built-in, set with command, color text, images || May with external manager such as {d,x}compmgr || nh-stack (and invert), nv-stack (and invert), mirror-v, mirror-h, grid, free, max || variable borders, titles or no titles || commands  || Xlib || Up to 36 tags(workspaces) per screen
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| C || Text || Dynamic || Built-in || Yes || Built-in, set with command, color text, images || external || nh-stack (and invert), nv-stack (and invert), mirror-v, mirror-h, grid, free, max || variable borders, titles or no titles || commands  || Xlib || Up to 36 tags(workspaces) per screen || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[wmii]]
 
! [[wmii]]
| C || Anything || Manual || witray || Yes || Built-in || Yes, with an external manager such as xcompmgr  || columns, max, v-tab || titles || [http://9p.cat-v.org 9P filesystem] || || one big region
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| C || Anything || Manual || witray || Yes || Built-in || external || columns, max, v-tab || titles || [http://9p.cat-v.org 9P filesystem] || || one big region || active
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [[xmonad]]
 
! [[xmonad]]
| Haskell || Haskell || Dynamic || None || Yes || No || Yes, with xmonad-contrib and an external manager || nv-stack, nh-stack, max || variable borders, no titles || via [http://xmonad.org/xmonad-docs/xmonad-contrib/XMonad-Hooks-ServerMode.html XMonad-Hooks-ServerMode] || Xlib || n regions, 9 workspaces visible in any region
+
| Haskell || Haskell || Dynamic || None || Yes || No || Yes, with xmonad-contrib and an external manager || nv-stack, nh-stack, max || variable borders, no titles || via [http://xmonad.org/xmonad-docs/xmonad-contrib/XMonad-Hooks-ServerMode.html XMonad-Hooks-ServerMode] || Xlib || n regions, 9 workspaces visible in any region || Active
 
|-
 
|-
 
|-class="sortbottom"
 
|-class="sortbottom"
! Window Manager !! Written in !! Configured with !! Management style !! System tray support !! On-the-fly reload !! Information bars !! Compositing !! Default layouts !! Pixel usage || External control !! Library !! Multiple (n) monitor behavior
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! Window Manager !! Written in !! Configured with !! Management style !! System tray support !! On-the-fly reload !! Information bars !! Compositing !! Default layouts !! Pixel usage || External control !! Library !! Multiple (n) monitor behavior !! Maintenance
 
|}
 
|}
  
{{Tip|External control can also be achieved by programs like {{Package Official|xdotool}} which simulate keystrokes.}}
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{{Tip|External control can also be achieved by programs like {{Pkg|xdotool}} which simulate keystrokes.}}
  
 
=== Management style ===
 
=== Management style ===
Line 86: Line 105:
 
=== Layouts ===
 
=== Layouts ===
 
A number of common layout types appear in several tiling WMs, although the terminology varies somewhat.
 
A number of common layout types appear in several tiling WMs, although the terminology varies somewhat.
* max: one window shown fullscreen (with or without a status bar, title and borders). Aka: monocle (dwm).
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* max: one window shown fullscreen (with or without a status bar, title and borders). Aka: monocle (dwm, monsterwm).
* h-stack: master area in top half, other windows stack up horizontally in the bottom half. The master area may be resizable. May be inverted top-bottom (wmfs). Aka: bottom stack (dwm).
+
* h-stack: master area in top half, other windows stack up horizontally in the bottom half. The master area may be resizable. May be inverted top-bottom (wmfs). Aka: bottom stack (dwm), bstack(monsterwm).
* v-stack: master area in left half, other windows stack up vertically in the right half. The master area may be resizable. May be inverted left-right (wmfs). Aka: tile (dwm).
+
* v-stack: master area in left half, other windows stack up vertically in the right half. The master area may be resizable. May be inverted left-right (wmfs). Aka: tile (dwm, monsterwm).
 
* nh-stack: h-stack allowing >=1 windows in master area. Aka: nbstack (dwm)
 
* nh-stack: h-stack allowing >=1 windows in master area. Aka: nbstack (dwm)
 
* nv-stack: v-stack allowing >=1 windows in master area. Aka: ntile (dwm)
 
* nv-stack: v-stack allowing >=1 windows in master area. Aka: ntile (dwm)
Line 99: Line 118:
 
* columns: manual layout style which treats windows as belonging to vertical columns
 
* columns: manual layout style which treats windows as belonging to vertical columns
 
* rows: manual layout style which treats windows as belonging to horizontal rows
 
* rows: manual layout style which treats windows as belonging to horizontal rows
* grid: window positions and sizes based on a regular NxM grid. May be automatic (like wmfs) or manual (like Subtle).
+
* grid: window positions and sizes based on a regular NxM grid. May be automatic (like wmfs, monsterwm) or manual (like Subtle).
  
 
=== Key bindings ===
 
=== Key bindings ===
 
Tiling window managers are usually designed to be used entirely with the keyboard or with keyboard & mouse. This is for speed (reaching for and moving a mouse is slow) and ease of use. Sensible key bindings are crucial to making workflow fast and efficient. Some default sets are better than others, but generally the keys can be rebound as desired by the user.
 
Tiling window managers are usually designed to be used entirely with the keyboard or with keyboard & mouse. This is for speed (reaching for and moving a mouse is slow) and ease of use. Sensible key bindings are crucial to making workflow fast and efficient. Some default sets are better than others, but generally the keys can be rebound as desired by the user.
 +
 +
== External links ==
 +
* [http://sawfish.wikia.com/wiki/Comparison_of_extensible_window_managers Comparison of extensible window managers] compares WMs "extensible" by scripting, like Xmonad and Sawfish.

Revision as of 08:55, 25 June 2013

This article provides an unbiased comparison of the most popular tiling window managers (as opposed to floating window managers).

Comparison table

The following table lists the most popular tiling window managers alongside notable features, providing readers with a quick overview.

Comparison of tiling window managers
Window Manager Written in Configured with Management style System tray support On-the-fly reload Information bars Compositing Default layouts Pixel usage External control Library Multiple (n) monitor behavior Maintenance
alopex C C (recompile) Hybrid None No Built-in; call script/program as first argument external max, h-stack, v-stack, h-tab Variable borders; titles in-statusbar Xlib six tags, two views available by default active
Awesome C Lua Dynamic Built-in Yes Built-in, images and text external variable borders, optional h-tab titles dbus (if enabled) XCB n-tags (workspaces). Per default 9 are enabled. Example Active
bspwm C Anything Hybrid None Yes Can write internal state to a FIFO External v-split, h-split Variable borders via bspc XCB Monitors hold Desktops Active
catwm C C (recompile) Dynamic None No None No v-stack, max 1-pix borders Xlib Abandoned
dswm Lisp Lisp Manual None Yes Yes No Active
dwm C C (recompile) Dynamic None Optional Built-in, reads from root window name external v-stack, max Xlib n regions, 9 workspaces fixed to each region Active
echinus C Text Dynamic None Yes ouricoAUR external v-stack, b-stack, max Variable borders & optional titles Xlib Unknown
euclid-wm C Text Hybrid None Yes External (dzen) rows, columns 1-pix borders Xlib Dormant
herbstluftwm C Text Manual None Yes rows, columns 1-pix borders commands via herbstclient Xlib and Glib n regions, 9 workspaces visible in any region Active
i3 C Text Manual i3bar Yes text piped to i3bar (i3status/conky can be used) external tree, v-split, h-split, stacked, tabbed, max none, 1-pix or 2-pix, optional titlebars commands via ipc (or i3-msg, which uses ipc) XCB n regions Active
Ion3 C Lua Manual trayion Yes configurable  ? h-tab, max Abandoned
monsterwm C C (recompile) Dynamic None Optional, but windows are lost No, outputs information to stdout, which can easily be parsed and displayed by an external monitor or panel (dzen2, conky, etc) external h-stack, v-stack, grid, max supports _NET_ACTIVE_WINDOW, so external control can be supplied by xdotool and similar tools Xlib primary and XCB fork n workspaces per monitor Active
Musca C Text, own command set, C(recompile) Manual None No, but allows running of musca commands on the fly None No h-split, v-split, max commands, hooks Xlib Abandoned
Notion C, Lua Lua, compatible with Ion3 configs Manual trayion, stalonetray Yes configurable  ? h-tab, max Configurable borders and titlebars/tabs EWMH, arbitrary Lua scripts which have access to the rich internal API Xlib n workspaces on each monitor. Supports on-the-fly changes in topology Active
qtile Python Python Dynamic Yes Yes Yes  ? tree, v-split, h-split, stacked, tabbed, max No borders, although customizable Hooks, Server mode XCB Active
Ratpoison C Text Manual None Yes Yes external max Active
Snapwm C Text Dynamic None Yes Built-in, reads from root window name External nVertical, Fullscreen, nHorizontal, Grid, Center Stacking variable borders, no titles Xlib Number of desktops distributed evenly between monitors Active
Spectrwm C Text Dynamic None Yes Built-in, reads from user script No nv-stack, nh-stack, max 1-pix borders, no titles XCB n regions, 10 workspaces visible in any region Active
Stumpwm Lisp Lisp Manual None Yes Yes No Dormant
subtle C Ruby Manual Built-in Yes Built-in (Ruby), external can be used as well external Variable grid Variable borders, no titles Hooks (Ruby), subtler (CLI), subtlext (Ruby extension) Xlib One workspace (view) per monitor (screen), placement on views via tags and per runtime Active
Wingo Go Text Dynamic None Yes No external floating, nv-stack, nh-stack, max title bars in floating, skinny borders in tiling via wingo-cmd or UNIX sockets in any programming language X Go Binding n regions, workspaces visible in any region Active
WMFS C Text Dynamic Built-in Yes Built-in, set with command, color text, images external nh-stack (and invert), nv-stack (and invert), mirror-v, mirror-h, grid, free, max variable borders, titles or no titles commands Xlib Up to 36 tags(workspaces) per screen Active
wmii C Anything Manual witray Yes Built-in external columns, max, v-tab titles 9P filesystem one big region active
xmonad Haskell Haskell Dynamic None Yes No Yes, with xmonad-contrib and an external manager nv-stack, nh-stack, max variable borders, no titles via XMonad-Hooks-ServerMode Xlib n regions, 9 workspaces visible in any region Active
Window Manager Written in Configured with Management style System tray support On-the-fly reload Information bars Compositing Default layouts Pixel usage External control Library Multiple (n) monitor behavior Maintenance
Tip: External control can also be achieved by programs like xdotool which simulate keystrokes.

Management style

Dynamic management emphasizes automatic management of window layouts for speed and simplicity. Manual management emphasizes manual adjustment of layout and sizing with potentially more precise control, at the cost of more time spent moving and sizing windows.

Layouts

A number of common layout types appear in several tiling WMs, although the terminology varies somewhat.

  • max: one window shown fullscreen (with or without a status bar, title and borders). Aka: monocle (dwm, monsterwm).
  • h-stack: master area in top half, other windows stack up horizontally in the bottom half. The master area may be resizable. May be inverted top-bottom (wmfs). Aka: bottom stack (dwm), bstack(monsterwm).
  • v-stack: master area in left half, other windows stack up vertically in the right half. The master area may be resizable. May be inverted left-right (wmfs). Aka: tile (dwm, monsterwm).
  • nh-stack: h-stack allowing >=1 windows in master area. Aka: nbstack (dwm)
  • nv-stack: v-stack allowing >=1 windows in master area. Aka: ntile (dwm)
  • mirror-h: nh-stack with stacks above and below the master area
  • mirror-v: nv-stack with stacks to the left and right of the master area
  • h-tab: one window shown fullscreen with all window titles shown horizontally (like browser tabs)
  • v-tab: one window shown fullscreen with all window titles shown vertically. Aka: stack (wmii).
  • h-split: a keybinding splits the current window horizontally creating space for another
  • v-split: a keybinding splits the current window horizontally creating space for another
  • columns: manual layout style which treats windows as belonging to vertical columns
  • rows: manual layout style which treats windows as belonging to horizontal rows
  • grid: window positions and sizes based on a regular NxM grid. May be automatic (like wmfs, monsterwm) or manual (like Subtle).

Key bindings

Tiling window managers are usually designed to be used entirely with the keyboard or with keyboard & mouse. This is for speed (reaching for and moving a mouse is slow) and ease of use. Sensible key bindings are crucial to making workflow fast and efficient. Some default sets are better than others, but generally the keys can be rebound as desired by the user.

External links