Difference between revisions of "DSDT"

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(Recompiling it yourself: Last addition tonight)
(fixed missing step to make grub load the DSDT)
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[[Category:Kernel]]
 
[[Category:Kernel]]
 
[[Category:Power management]]
 
[[Category:Power management]]
{{Poor writing}}
+
DSDT (Differentiated System Description Table) is a part of the [[Wikipedia:ACPI|ACPI]] specification. It supplies information about supported power events in a given system. ACPI tables are provided in firmware from the manufacturer. A common Linux problems are missing ACPI functionality, such as: fans not running, screens not turning off when the lid is closed, etc. This can stem from DSDTs made with Windows specifically in mind, which can be patched after installation. The goal of this article is to analyze and rebuild a faulty DSDT, so that the kernel can override the default one.
DSDT (Differentiated System Description Table) is a part of the [[Wikipedia:ACPI|ACPI]] specification and it supplies configuration information about a base system. ACPI capable computers come with a DSDT in firmware from the manufacturer. A common Linux problem is missing ACPI functionality (fans not running, screens not turning off when the lid is closed, etc.) stemming from DSDTs made with Windows specifically in mind. The solution that this article will try to detail is replacing the default DSDT with a 'fixed' version. Note that this fix can also be accomplished during installation ("Will you need support for custom DSDT?") but requires you to have a custom DSDT ready at hand.
+
  
{{Note|It is possible that your hardware manufacture has released updated firmware which fixes ACPI related problems.  Installing an updated firmware is often preferred over this method because it can fix the problem without needing to apply a separate fix for each operating system installed.}}
+
Basically a DSDT table is the code run on ACPI (Power Management) events.
  
 
{{Note|The goal of the [http://www.lesswatts.org/projects/acpi/ Linux ACPI] project is that Linux should work on unmodified firmware.  If you still find this type of workaround necessary on modern kernels then you should consider [[Reporting Bug Guidelines|submiting a bug report]]. }}
 
{{Note|The goal of the [http://www.lesswatts.org/projects/acpi/ Linux ACPI] project is that Linux should work on unmodified firmware.  If you still find this type of workaround necessary on modern kernels then you should consider [[Reporting Bug Guidelines|submiting a bug report]]. }}
  
 
==Before you start...==
 
==Before you start...==
 +
* It is possible that the hardware manufacturer has released an updated firmware which fixes ACPI related problems.  Installing an updated firmware is often preferred over this method because it would avoid duplication of effort.
 +
* This process does tamper with some fairly fundamental code on your installation. You will want to be absolutely sure of the changes you make. You might also wish to [[Disk cloning | clone your disk]] beforehand.
 +
* Even before attempting to fix your DSDT yourself, you can attempt a couple of different shortcuts:
  
This process does tamper with some fairly fundamental code on your installation. You will want to be absolutely sure of the changes you make. You might also wish to [[Disk cloning | clone your disk]] beforehand.
+
===Tell the kernel to report a version of Windows===
  
Even before attempting to fix your DSDT yourself, you can attempt a couple different venues of attack:
+
Use the variable '''acpi_os_name''' as a kernel parameter. For example:
 
+
===Alternative #1:===
+
Tell the kernel to report a version of Windows.
+
The trick is to use the variable '''acpi_os_name''' as kernel parameter. For example:
+
  
 
   acpi_os_name="Microsoft Windows NT"
 
   acpi_os_name="Microsoft Windows NT"
in the kernel line in grub legacy configuration
+
appended to the kernel line in grub legacy configuration
  
other strings to test for:
+
other strings to test:
 
* "Microsoft Windows XP"
 
* "Microsoft Windows XP"
 
* "Microsoft Windows 2000"
 
* "Microsoft Windows 2000"
Line 29: Line 27:
 
* "Windows 2001"
 
* "Windows 2001"
 
* "Windows 2006"
 
* "Windows 2006"
 +
* "Windows 2009"
 
* when all that fails, you can even try "Linux"
 
* when all that fails, you can even try "Linux"
  
If that does not work, you can follow the steps below not to recompile or fix your DSDT but just to find out what test is made on the OS inside it and find the string to use as acpi_os_name. Just search for "Microsoft" string in the decompiled DSDT and look at the test made.
+
Out of curiousity, you can follow the steps below to extract your DSDT and search the .dsl file.  Just grep for "Windows" and see what pops up.
  
===Alternative #2:===
+
===Find a fixed DSDT===
Get hold of fixed DSDT.
+
A DSDT file is originally written in ACPI Source language (an .asl/.dsl file). Using a compiler this can produce an 'ACPI Machine Language' file (.aml) or a hex table (.hex). To incorporate the file in your Arch install, you will need to get hold of a compiled .aml file. - whether this means compiling it yourself or trusting some stranger on the Internet is at your discretion.  If you do download a file from the world wide web, it will most likely be a compressed .asl file.  So you will need to unzip it and compile it. The upside to this is that you won't have to research specific code fixes yourself.
A DSDT file is originally written in ACPI Source language (an .asl/.dsl file). Using a compiler this can produce an 'ACPI Machine Language' file (.aml) or a hex table (.hex). To incorporate the file in your Arch install, you'll need to get hold of a compiled .aml file. - whether this means compiling it yourself or trusting some stranger on the Internet is at your discretion.  If you do download a file from the world wide web, it'll most likely be a compressed .asl file, so you'll need to unzip it and compile it. You should really read the Gentoo wiki for that but the upshot is that you won't have to research specific code fixes yourself.
+
  
* Arch users with the same laptop as you: are a minority of a minority of a minority. Try browsing other distro/linux forums for talk about the same model. Likelihood is that they have the same problems and either because there is a lot of them, or because they're tech wizards -- someone there has produced a working DSDT and maybe even provides a precompiled version (again, use at your own risk).
+
Arch users with the same laptop as you are: a minority of a minority of a minority. Try browsing other distro/linux forums for talk about the same model. Likelihood is that they have the same problems and either because there is a lot of them, or because they're tech savvy -- someone there has produced a working DSDT and maybe even provides a precompiled version (again, use at your own risk).
* Google Is Your Friend: Try keeping it sweet and short - model name and dsdt will probably produce results.
+
Search engines are your best tools. Try keeping it short: 'model name' + 'dsdt' will probably produce results.
  
 
== Recompiling it yourself ==
 
== Recompiling it yourself ==
 
 
Your best resources in this endeavor are going to be [http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/wiki/ACPI/Fix_common_problems  The Gentoo wiki article], [http://www.acpi.info ACPI Spec homepage], and [http://www.lesswatts.org/projects/acpi/ Linux ACPI Project] which supercedes the activity that occurred at ''acpi.sourceforge.net''.
 
Your best resources in this endeavor are going to be [http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/wiki/ACPI/Fix_common_problems  The Gentoo wiki article], [http://www.acpi.info ACPI Spec homepage], and [http://www.lesswatts.org/projects/acpi/ Linux ACPI Project] which supercedes the activity that occurred at ''acpi.sourceforge.net''.
 +
In a nutshell, you can use Intel's ASL compiler to turn your systems DSDT table into source code, locate/fix the errors, and recompile. This process is detailed more comprehensively at the [http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/wiki/ACPI/Fix_common_problems Gentoo wiki].
 +
You'll need to install {{Pkg|iasl}} to modify code, and be familiar with [[Kernel_Compilation#Compilation]] to install it.
  
In a nutshell, you can use Intel's ASL compiler to turn your systems DSDT table into source code, locate and fix the errors (the compiled files will typically have been made using Microsoft's compiler rather than Intel's more stringent one... need we say more?), and recompile. This process is detailed more comprehensively at the [http://en.gentoo-wiki.com/wiki/ACPI/Fix_common_problems Gentoo wiki].
+
'''What compiled the original code?'''
 
+
'''Who compiled the original code?'''
+
 
Check if your system's DSDT was compiled using Intel or Microsoft compiler:
 
Check if your system's DSDT was compiled using Intel or Microsoft compiler:
 
{{hc|<nowiki> $ dmesg|grep DSDT</nowiki> |
 
{{hc|<nowiki> $ dmesg|grep DSDT</nowiki> |
Line 52: Line 49:
 
ACPI: EC: Look up EC in DSDT
 
ACPI: EC: Look up EC in DSDT
 
}}
 
}}
In case Microsoft's compiler had been used, words INTL would instead be MSFT.
+
In case Microsoft's compiler had been used, abbreviation INTL would instead be MSFT.
In the example, there were 5 errors on decompiling/recompiling the DSDT. Two of them were easy to fix after a bit of googling and delving into the ACPI specification. Three of them were due to different versions of compiler used and are, as later discovered, handled by the ACPICA at boot-time. The ACPICA component of the kernel can handle most of the trivial errors you get while compiling the DSDT. So do not fret yourself over compile errors if your system is working the way it should.
+
In the example, there were 5 errors on decompiling/recompiling the DSDT. Two of them were easy to fix after a bit of googling and delving into the ACPI specification. Three of them were due to different versions of compiler used and are, as later discovered, handled by the ACPICA at boot-time. The ACPICA component of the kernel can handle most of the trivial errors you get while compiling the DSDT. So do not fret yourself over compile errors if your system is ''working the way it should''.
  
1.) Extracting ACPI tables: {{ic|cat /sys/firmware/acpi/tables/DSDT > dsdt.dat}}
+
1.) Extract ACPI tables (as root): {{ic|# cat /sys/firmware/acpi/tables/DSDT > dsdt.dat}}
  
 
2.) Decompile: {{ic|iasl -d dsdt.dat}}
 
2.) Decompile: {{ic|iasl -d dsdt.dat}}
Line 61: Line 58:
 
3.) Recompile: {{ic|iasl -tc dsdt.dsl}}
 
3.) Recompile: {{ic|iasl -tc dsdt.dsl}}
  
4.) Examine errors and fix: {{bc|
+
4.) Examine errors and fix. e.g.:{{bc|
 
dsdt.dsl  6727:                        Name (_PLD, Buffer (0x10)   
 
dsdt.dsl  6727:                        Name (_PLD, Buffer (0x10)   
 
Error    4105 -          Invalid object type for reserved name ^  (found BUFFER, requires Package) }}
 
Error    4105 -          Invalid object type for reserved name ^  (found BUFFER, requires Package) }}
 +
{{hc| nano +6727 dsdt.dsl|
 +
(_PLD, Package(1) {Buffer (0x10)...}}
  
5.) Compile fixed code: {{ic|iasl -tc {.asl/.dsl file}}}
+
5.) Compile fixed code: {{ic|iasl -tc dsdt.dsl}} (Might want to try option -ic for C include file to insert into kernel source)
  
 
If it says no errors and no warnings you should be good to go.
 
If it says no errors and no warnings you should be good to go.
 +
 +
== Using modified code ==
 +
{{Expansion| Detail each method}}
 +
 +
There are 2 ways to use a custom DSDT Table:
 +
* loading the custom DSDT at runtime (recommended, since easier)
 +
* compiling the custom DSDT into the kernel
 +
 +
=== Loading at runtime ===
 +
Luckily the Arch stock kernel supports using a custom DSDT so, first copy the '''.aml''' file compiled by iasl to:
 +
/boot/dsdt.aml
 +
 +
The bootloader will replace the DSDT so we need a method to include our custom DSDT table into the bootloader image.
 +
Copy the following to '''/etc/grub.d/01_acpi'''
 +
 +
#!/bin/sh
 +
set -e
 +
 +
# Uncomment to load custom ACPI table
 +
GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI="/boot/dsdt.aml"
 +
 +
 +
# DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE!
 +
 +
 +
prefix=/usr
 +
exec_prefix=${prefix}
 +
libdir=${exec_prefix}/lib
 +
 +
 +
. /usr/share/grub/grub-mkconfig_lib
 +
#. ${libdir}/grub/grub-mkconfig_lib
 +
 +
 +
# Load custom ACPI table
 +
if [ x${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI} != x ] && [ -f ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI} ] \
 +
        && is_path_readable_by_grub ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI}; then
 +
    echo "Found custom ACPI table: ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI}" >&2
 +
    prepare_grub_to_access_device `${grub_probe} --target=device ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI}` | sed -e "s/^/  /"
 +
    cat << EOF
 +
acpi (\$root)`make_system_path_relative_to_its_root ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI}`
 +
EOF
 +
fi
 +
 +
Make sure to make this file executable, or it will be ignored by '''grub-mkconfig'''
 +
chmod +x /etc/grub.d/01_acpi
 +
 +
This will tell GRUB to include the DSDT into its core.img (change GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI to reflect the path to your .aml file).
 +
Next you will need a new boot image. If you use GRUB run:
 +
grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
 +
 +
Lastly, recreate your initrd
 +
mkinitcpio -p linux
 +
and reboot. Done!
 +
 +
To check if you are really using your own DSDT read your table again {{ic|# cat /sys/firmware/acpi/tables/DSDT > dsdt.dat}}
 +
and decompile it with {{ic|iasl -d dsdt.dat}}
 +
 +
=== Compile into kernel ===
 +
You'll want to be familiar with [[Kernels | compiling your own kernel]].  The most straightforward way is with the "traditional" approach.
 +
 +
'''Using {{ic|menuconfig}}:'''
 +
* Disable "Select only drivers that don't need compile-time external firmware".
 +
* Enable "Include Custom DSDT" and specify the absolute path of your fixed DSDT file.

Revision as of 08:41, 19 June 2013

DSDT (Differentiated System Description Table) is a part of the ACPI specification. It supplies information about supported power events in a given system. ACPI tables are provided in firmware from the manufacturer. A common Linux problems are missing ACPI functionality, such as: fans not running, screens not turning off when the lid is closed, etc. This can stem from DSDTs made with Windows specifically in mind, which can be patched after installation. The goal of this article is to analyze and rebuild a faulty DSDT, so that the kernel can override the default one.

Basically a DSDT table is the code run on ACPI (Power Management) events.

Note: The goal of the Linux ACPI project is that Linux should work on unmodified firmware. If you still find this type of workaround necessary on modern kernels then you should consider submiting a bug report.

Before you start...

  • It is possible that the hardware manufacturer has released an updated firmware which fixes ACPI related problems. Installing an updated firmware is often preferred over this method because it would avoid duplication of effort.
  • This process does tamper with some fairly fundamental code on your installation. You will want to be absolutely sure of the changes you make. You might also wish to clone your disk beforehand.
  • Even before attempting to fix your DSDT yourself, you can attempt a couple of different shortcuts:

Tell the kernel to report a version of Windows

Use the variable acpi_os_name as a kernel parameter. For example:

 acpi_os_name="Microsoft Windows NT"

appended to the kernel line in grub legacy configuration

other strings to test:

  • "Microsoft Windows XP"
  • "Microsoft Windows 2000"
  • "Microsoft Windows 2000.1"
  • "Microsoft Windows ME: Millennium Edition"
  • "Windows 2001"
  • "Windows 2006"
  • "Windows 2009"
  • when all that fails, you can even try "Linux"

Out of curiousity, you can follow the steps below to extract your DSDT and search the .dsl file. Just grep for "Windows" and see what pops up.

Find a fixed DSDT

A DSDT file is originally written in ACPI Source language (an .asl/.dsl file). Using a compiler this can produce an 'ACPI Machine Language' file (.aml) or a hex table (.hex). To incorporate the file in your Arch install, you will need to get hold of a compiled .aml file. - whether this means compiling it yourself or trusting some stranger on the Internet is at your discretion. If you do download a file from the world wide web, it will most likely be a compressed .asl file. So you will need to unzip it and compile it. The upside to this is that you won't have to research specific code fixes yourself.

Arch users with the same laptop as you are: a minority of a minority of a minority. Try browsing other distro/linux forums for talk about the same model. Likelihood is that they have the same problems and either because there is a lot of them, or because they're tech savvy -- someone there has produced a working DSDT and maybe even provides a precompiled version (again, use at your own risk). Search engines are your best tools. Try keeping it short: 'model name' + 'dsdt' will probably produce results.

Recompiling it yourself

Your best resources in this endeavor are going to be The Gentoo wiki article, ACPI Spec homepage, and Linux ACPI Project which supercedes the activity that occurred at acpi.sourceforge.net. In a nutshell, you can use Intel's ASL compiler to turn your systems DSDT table into source code, locate/fix the errors, and recompile. This process is detailed more comprehensively at the Gentoo wiki. You'll need to install iasl to modify code, and be familiar with Kernel_Compilation#Compilation to install it.

What compiled the original code? Check if your system's DSDT was compiled using Intel or Microsoft compiler:

 $ dmesg|grep DSDT 
ACPI: DSDT 00000000bf7e5000 0A35F (v02 Intel  CALPELLA 06040000 INTL 20060912)
ACPI: EC: Look up EC in DSDT

In case Microsoft's compiler had been used, abbreviation INTL would instead be MSFT. In the example, there were 5 errors on decompiling/recompiling the DSDT. Two of them were easy to fix after a bit of googling and delving into the ACPI specification. Three of them were due to different versions of compiler used and are, as later discovered, handled by the ACPICA at boot-time. The ACPICA component of the kernel can handle most of the trivial errors you get while compiling the DSDT. So do not fret yourself over compile errors if your system is working the way it should.

1.) Extract ACPI tables (as root): # cat /sys/firmware/acpi/tables/DSDT > dsdt.dat

2.) Decompile: iasl -d dsdt.dat

3.) Recompile: iasl -tc dsdt.dsl

4.) Examine errors and fix. e.g.:
dsdt.dsl   6727:                         Name (_PLD, Buffer (0x10)  
Error    4105 -          Invalid object type for reserved name ^  (found BUFFER, requires Package) 
 nano +6727 dsdt.dsl
(_PLD, Package(1) {Buffer (0x10)...

5.) Compile fixed code: iasl -tc dsdt.dsl (Might want to try option -ic for C include file to insert into kernel source)

If it says no errors and no warnings you should be good to go.

Using modified code

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Detail each method (Discuss in Talk:DSDT#)

There are 2 ways to use a custom DSDT Table:

  • loading the custom DSDT at runtime (recommended, since easier)
  • compiling the custom DSDT into the kernel

Loading at runtime

Luckily the Arch stock kernel supports using a custom DSDT so, first copy the .aml file compiled by iasl to:

/boot/dsdt.aml

The bootloader will replace the DSDT so we need a method to include our custom DSDT table into the bootloader image. Copy the following to /etc/grub.d/01_acpi

#!/bin/sh
set -e
# Uncomment to load custom ACPI table
GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI="/boot/dsdt.aml"


# DON'T MODIFY ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE!


prefix=/usr
exec_prefix=${prefix}
libdir=${exec_prefix}/lib


. /usr/share/grub/grub-mkconfig_lib
#. ${libdir}/grub/grub-mkconfig_lib


# Load custom ACPI table
if [ x${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI} != x ] && [ -f ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI} ] \
        && is_path_readable_by_grub ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI}; then
    echo "Found custom ACPI table: ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI}" >&2
    prepare_grub_to_access_device `${grub_probe} --target=device ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI}` | sed -e "s/^/  /"
    cat << EOF
acpi (\$root)`make_system_path_relative_to_its_root ${GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI}`
EOF
fi

Make sure to make this file executable, or it will be ignored by grub-mkconfig

chmod +x /etc/grub.d/01_acpi

This will tell GRUB to include the DSDT into its core.img (change GRUB_CUSTOM_ACPI to reflect the path to your .aml file). Next you will need a new boot image. If you use GRUB run:

grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg

Lastly, recreate your initrd

mkinitcpio -p linux

and reboot. Done!

To check if you are really using your own DSDT read your table again # cat /sys/firmware/acpi/tables/DSDT > dsdt.dat and decompile it with iasl -d dsdt.dat

Compile into kernel

You'll want to be familiar with compiling your own kernel. The most straightforward way is with the "traditional" approach.

Using menuconfig:

  • Disable "Select only drivers that don't need compile-time external firmware".
  • Enable "Include Custom DSDT" and specify the absolute path of your fixed DSDT file.