Difference between revisions of "DVD Burning"

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[[Category:CD/DVD]]
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[[Category:Optical]]
==Introduction==
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[[es:DVD Burning]]
Writing (or "Burning") DVDs is different from CDs. DVDs can contain much more data (I use 4.7GB single-layer discs), and the standard CD writing tools don't suffice anymore.
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{{Article summary start}}
 +
{{Article summary text|An overview of DVD writing tools and methods.}}
 +
{{Article summary heading|Series}}
 +
{{Article summary wiki|DVD Playing}}
 +
{{Article summary wiki|DVD Ripping}}
 +
{{Article summary wiki|DVD Burning}}
 +
{{Article summary heading|Related articles}}
 +
{{Article summary wiki|CD Burning Tips}}
 +
{{Article summary wiki|Video2dvdiso}}
 +
{{Article summary end}}
  
This howto only covers a very simple part for now; writing data onto DVDs using the command line.
+
Writing (or "burning") DVDs requires a different approach than burning CDs. DVDs offer much higher capacities, and the standard CD writing tools will not suffice.
  
==Tools for the job==
+
This HOWTO covers a narrow scope for now: writing data onto DVDs using the command line.
#You still need the standard CD writing tools known as '''cdrtools'''.
+
#You also need the new DVD writing tools known as '''dvd+rw-tools''', found in the '''extra''' repository.
+
  
'''Note 1''': Do not install the package known as '''dvdrtools'''. It conflicts with cdrtools, and dvd+rw-tools is a better DVD writing package than dvdrtools.<br>
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==Required packages==
'''Note 2''': If you wish to use a graphical frontend, install '''k3b''' and you need to read no further.<br>
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# You still need the standard CD writing tools known as {{AUR|cdrtools}} (which can be replaced by {{Pkg|cdrkit}}, if desired).
'''Note 3''': I used to use '''xcdroast''' for my CD writing needs, but I found it to have grown buggy and outdated. I also don't trust its method for writing DVDs. However, if you can reconcile my view on xcdroast, feel free.
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# You also need the new DVD writing tools known as {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} found in the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]].
  
''Update 2006-07: I have found '''graveman''' to be an excellent replacement for xcdroast, so you can also use that instead.''
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{{Note|Do not install the package known as {{Pkg|dvdrtools}}. It conflicts with {{AUR|cdrtools}}, and {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} is the superior DVD writing package.}}
  
==Getting the job done==
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{{Note|1={{AUR|cdrtools}} provides all the functionality of {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}}, as growisofs depends on mkisofs. Also the development of dvd+rw-tools seems to be stalled for the past 5 years (the last release was in [http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/tools/?M=D 2008])}}
Your new friend to burning DVDs will be the command ''''growisofs'''' from the DVD+RW-tools package. If you've ever written CDs from the command line before, you'll know the process of first creating an iso9660 file('''mkisofs'''), and then burning it to CD('''cdrecord'''). growisofs merges these steps for you, so you don't need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession[http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:Multisession ?] writing has been simplified. I won't explain how it ''used'' to be done, but I will explain how it works with growisofs.
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===basics===
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{{Tip|If you wish to use a graphical front-end, install {{Pkg|k3b}} or {{Pkg|brasero}}, and you need to read no further.}}
In basics, writing a '''new''' DVD goes like this:
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growisofs -Z ''/dev/cdrw'' -R -J /path/to/files
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Where /dev/cdrw is your DVD writer device.
+
  
To '''continue''' a DVD (write an additional session) you use:
+
==Procedure==
growisofs -M ''/dev/cdrw'' -R -J /path/to/files
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This HOWTO will use the command {{ic|growisofs}} from the {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} package. If you have ever written CDs from the command line before, you will know the process of first creating an iso9660 file ({{ic|mkisofs}}), and then burning it to CD ({{ic|cdrecord}}). {{ic|growisofs}} merges these steps, so you do not need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession writing has been simplified.
  
'''-Z''': start at the beginning of the DVD using the following device,<br>
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===Overview===
'''-M''': start after the last session on the disc using the following device,<br>
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Essentially, writing a '''new''' DVD follows this procedure:
'''-R''': Rockridge support (Recommended, extended UNIX info),<br>
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$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -r -J /path/to/files
'''-J''': Joliet support (Recommended, extended info for Win NT and Win95).
+
  
 +
where {{ic|/dev/cdrw}} is your DVD writer device.
  
'''Burning DVDs from ISO Image Files'''
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To '''continue''' a DVD (write an additional session), you use:
 +
$ growisofs -M /dev/cdrw -r -J /path/to/files
  
To burn a DVD from an ISO image use:
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To burn an ISO '''image''' to disc, use:
  growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw=/path/to/iso
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  $ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/cdrw=/path/to/iso
  
If you want to copy an existing DVD one way that works is to make an iso using readcd:
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To create a video DVD, use the following (NOTE: rather than using {{ic|/dev/srN}} directly, consider {{ic|/dev/dvdN}} or even just plain {{ic|/dev/dvd}}):
 +
$ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -dvd-video /path/to/video
  
readcd -v dev=/dev/cdrw -f isoimage.iso
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; {{ic|-Z}}: start at the beginning of the DVD using the following device
 +
; {{ic|-M}}: start after the last session on the disc using the following device
 +
; {{ic|-r}}: [[Wikipedia:Rock Ridge|Rock Ridge]] support with sane permission settings (recommended, extended Unix info)
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; {{ic|-J}}: [[Wikipedia:Joliet (file system)|Joliet]] support (recommended, extended info for Windows NT and Windows 95)
  
as per the CD burning tips in the CD burning howto in this wiki, then use the growisofs example above to burn the iso to a new blank disc.
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{{Note|{{ic|-r}} will choose different permissions than the real ones; to use the exact permissions use {{ic|-R}} instead. See the man page of {{ic|mkisofs}} for more information.}}
  
===Better examples===
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{{Tip|1=If you want to copy an existing DVD, one way that works is to make an ISO using {{ic|readcd}}:
 +
$ readcd -v dev=/dev/cdrw -f image.iso
  
Although the above might suffice for you, I myself needed some extra settings to successfully write my DVD (I hope I didn't scare you off yet).
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as per [[CD Burning Tips]], then use the {{ic|growisofs}} example above to burn the ISO to a new blank disc.}}
  
The template that I use to start off my DVD writing:
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===Example===
growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -v -l -dry-run -iso-level 3 -R -J -speed=2 -joliet-long -graft-points /Magazines/=/home/citral/books/mags/
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Don't worry. I'll explain what everything does:
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Although the above might suffice for you, some users require extra settings to successfully write DVDs.
*'''-Z''': As seen above, this tells to start off a new DVD. If I wanted to continue a multisession DVD, I'd use -M.
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*'''-v''': Increase verbosity level (more output).
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*'''-l''': Breaks DOS compatibility but allows for longer filenames.
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*'''-dry-run''': Important flag: Simulate writing. Remove this flag if you are sure that everything is set up correctly.
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*'''-iso-level 3''': Basically this flag just defines how strict you want to adhere to the iso9660 standard. -iso-level 1 is very strict; while -iso-level 4 is very loose. I use level 3 because I don't want to be limited (length of filenames for example), and so far I haven't ran into problems.
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*'''-R/-J''': see above.
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*'''-speed=2''': Just to be sure, I start burning at 2x speed.
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*'''-joliet-long''': Allows longer joliet filenames. The manual advices caution, but so far I had no problems.
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The final part needs some more explanation:
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A simple DVD writing template:
  -graft-points /Magazines/=/home/citral/books/mags/
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  $ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -v -l -dry-run -iso-level 3 -R -J -speed=2 -joliet-long -graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
This specifies that I don't want the files at the root of my DVD, but in the subdirectory 'Magazines'.
+
  
From the mkisofs manual:
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; {{ic|-Z}}: as seen above, this starts a new DVD; to continue a multisession DVD, use {{ic|-M}}
<tt>
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; {{ic|-v}}: increase verbosity level (more output)
:This  is  easiest  to illustrate  with a couple of examples. Let's start by assuming that a local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom image.
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; {{ic|-l}}: breaks DOS compatibility but allows for longer filenames
::foo/bar/=../old.lis
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; {{ic|-dry-run}}: simulate writing (remove this flag if you are sure that everything is set up correctly)
:will  include  the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while
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; {{ic|-iso-level 3}}: defines how strict you want to adhere to the iso9660 standard ({{ic|-iso-level 1}} is very strict while {{ic|-iso-level 4}} is very loose)
::foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis
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; {{ic|-R}}: see above
:will include the file old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx. The same sort of syntax can be used with directories as well. mkisofs will create any directories required such that the graft points exist on the cdrom  image  - the  directories  do  not need to appear in one of the paths.</tt>
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; {{ic|-J}}: see above
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; {{ic|1=-speed=2}}: start burning at 2X speed
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; {{ic|-joliet-long}}: allows longer Joliet file names
  
''As a last note'': growisofs is basically just a frontend to mkisofs. That means that any option to mkisofs also works to growisofs. You can check the mkisofs manpage for options you want to add.
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The final part needs more explanation:
 +
-graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
  
==DVD Rewritables==
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This specifies that files will be stored in the subdirectory {{ic|/files}} rather than the DVD root. See the {{ic|mkisofs}} manual for details.
  
The process for burning rewritables is practically the same as normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program '''dvd+rw-format''', like this:
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{{Note|{{ic|growisofs}} is basically just a front-end to {{ic|mkisofs}}. That means that any option for {{ic|mkisofs}} also works with {{ic|growisofs}}. See the {{ic|mkisofs}} man page for details.}}
dvd+rw-format ''/dev/cdrw''
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Where /dev/cdrw is your DVD writer device.
+
  
==Further Readings==
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==Re-writable DVDs==
*[http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/ DVD+RW-tools site]
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*[http://www.jdrowell.com/archives/2005/03/backup_to_dvd_u.html Backup to DVD script]
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The process for burning re-writable discs is almost the same as for normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program {{ic|dvd+rw-format}} like this:
*[http://www.students.cs.uu.nl/people/wbeekhui/ Usage examples]
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$ dvd+rw-format /dev/cdrw
* The growisofs, mkisofs and cdrtools man pages.
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 +
where {{ic|/dev/cdrw}} is your DVD writer device.
 +
 
 +
==Troubleshooting==
 +
 
 +
===Permission denied===
 +
 
 +
If you encounter a permissions error, make sure that you are a member of the [[Groups|group]] "optical":
 +
# usermod -aG optical username
 +
 
 +
after which you will have to log off and then log on again.  
 +
 
 +
{{Note|{{ic|growisofs}} will not run via [[sudo]].}}

Revision as of 09:21, 13 June 2012

Summary help replacing me
An overview of DVD writing tools and methods.
Series
DVD Playing
DVD Ripping
DVD Burning
Related articles
CD Burning Tips
Video2dvdiso

Writing (or "burning") DVDs requires a different approach than burning CDs. DVDs offer much higher capacities, and the standard CD writing tools will not suffice.

This HOWTO covers a narrow scope for now: writing data onto DVDs using the command line.

Required packages

  1. You still need the standard CD writing tools known as cdrtoolsAUR (which can be replaced by cdrkit, if desired).
  2. You also need the new DVD writing tools known as dvd+rw-tools found in the official repositories.
Note: Do not install the package known as dvdrtools. It conflicts with cdrtoolsAUR, and dvd+rw-tools is the superior DVD writing package.
Note: cdrtoolsAUR provides all the functionality of dvd+rw-tools, as growisofs depends on mkisofs. Also the development of dvd+rw-tools seems to be stalled for the past 5 years (the last release was in 2008)
Tip: If you wish to use a graphical front-end, install k3b or brasero, and you need to read no further.

Procedure

This HOWTO will use the command growisofs from the dvd+rw-tools package. If you have ever written CDs from the command line before, you will know the process of first creating an iso9660 file (mkisofs), and then burning it to CD (cdrecord). growisofs merges these steps, so you do not need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession writing has been simplified.

Overview

Essentially, writing a new DVD follows this procedure:

$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -r -J /path/to/files

where /dev/cdrw is your DVD writer device.

To continue a DVD (write an additional session), you use:

$ growisofs -M /dev/cdrw -r -J /path/to/files

To burn an ISO image to disc, use:

$ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/cdrw=/path/to/iso

To create a video DVD, use the following (NOTE: rather than using /dev/srN directly, consider /dev/dvdN or even just plain /dev/dvd):

$ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -dvd-video /path/to/video
-Z
start at the beginning of the DVD using the following device
-M
start after the last session on the disc using the following device
-r
Rock Ridge support with sane permission settings (recommended, extended Unix info)
-J
Joliet support (recommended, extended info for Windows NT and Windows 95)
Note: -r will choose different permissions than the real ones; to use the exact permissions use -R instead. See the man page of mkisofs for more information.
Tip: If you want to copy an existing DVD, one way that works is to make an ISO using readcd:
$ readcd -v dev=/dev/cdrw -f image.iso
as per CD Burning Tips, then use the growisofs example above to burn the ISO to a new blank disc.

Example

Although the above might suffice for you, some users require extra settings to successfully write DVDs.

A simple DVD writing template:

$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -v -l -dry-run -iso-level 3 -R -J -speed=2 -joliet-long -graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
-Z
as seen above, this starts a new DVD; to continue a multisession DVD, use -M
-v
increase verbosity level (more output)
-l
breaks DOS compatibility but allows for longer filenames
-dry-run
simulate writing (remove this flag if you are sure that everything is set up correctly)
-iso-level 3
defines how strict you want to adhere to the iso9660 standard (-iso-level 1 is very strict while -iso-level 4 is very loose)
-R
see above
-J
see above
-speed=2
start burning at 2X speed
-joliet-long
allows longer Joliet file names

The final part needs more explanation:

-graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/

This specifies that files will be stored in the subdirectory /files rather than the DVD root. See the mkisofs manual for details.

Note: growisofs is basically just a front-end to mkisofs. That means that any option for mkisofs also works with growisofs. See the mkisofs man page for details.

Re-writable DVDs

The process for burning re-writable discs is almost the same as for normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program dvd+rw-format like this:

$ dvd+rw-format /dev/cdrw

where /dev/cdrw is your DVD writer device.

Troubleshooting

Permission denied

If you encounter a permissions error, make sure that you are a member of the group "optical":

# usermod -aG optical username

after which you will have to log off and then log on again.

Note: growisofs will not run via sudo.