Difference between revisions of "DVD Burning"

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[[Category:Optical (English)]]
#REDIRECT [[Optical_Disc_Drive#DVD_burning]]
{{i18n|DVD Burning}}
{{Article summary start}}
{{Article summary text|An overview of DVD writing tools and methods.}}
{{Article summary heading|Series}}
{{Article summary wiki|DVD Playing}}
{{Article summary wiki|DVD Ripping}}
{{Article summary wiki|DVD Burning}}
{{Article summary heading|Related articles}}
{{Article summary wiki|CD Burning Tips}}
{{Article summary wiki|Video2dvdiso}}
{{Article summary end}}
Writing (or "burning") DVDs requires a different approach than burning CDs. DVDs offer much higher capacities, and the standard CD writing tools will not suffice.
This HOWTO covers a narrow scope for now: writing data onto DVDs using the command line.
==Required packages==
# You still need the standard CD writing tools known as {{AUR|cdrtools}} (which can be replaced by {{Pkg|cdrkit}}, if desired).
# You also need the new DVD writing tools known as {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} found in the [[Official Repositories]].
{{Note|Do not install the package known as {{Pkg|dvdrtools}}. It conflicts with {{AUR|cdrtools}}, and {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} is the superior DVD writing package.}}
{{Tip|If you wish to use a graphical front-end, install {{Pkg|k3b}} or {{Pkg|brasero}}, and you need to read no further.}}
This HOWTO will use the command {{ic|growisofs}} from the {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} package. If you have ever written CDs from the command line before, you will know the process of first creating an iso9660 file ({{ic|mkisofs}}), and then burning it to CD ({{ic|cdrecord}}). {{ic|growisofs}} merges these steps, so you do not need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession writing has been simplified.
Essentially, writing a '''new''' DVD follows this procedure:
$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -r -J /path/to/files
where {{ic|/dev/cdrw}} is your DVD writer device.
To '''continue''' a DVD (write an additional session), you use:
$ growisofs -M /dev/cdrw -r -J /path/to/files
To burn an ISO '''image''' to disc, use:
$ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/cdrw=/path/to/iso
To create a video DVD, use the following (NOTE: rather than using {{ic|/dev/srN}} directly, consider {{ic|/dev/dvdN}} or even just plain {{ic|/dev/dvd}}):
$ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -dvd-video /path/to/video
; {{ic|-Z}}: start at the beginning of the DVD using the following device
; {{ic|-M}}: start after the last session on the disc using the following device
; {{ic|-r}}: [[Wikipedia:Rock Ridge|Rock Ridge]] support with sane permission settings (recommended, extended Unix info)
; {{ic|-J}}: [[Wikipedia:Joliet (file system)|Joliet]] support (recommended, extended info for Windows NT and Windows 95)
{{Note|{{ic|-r}} will choose different permissions than the real ones; to use the exact permissions use {{ic|-R}} instead. See the man page of {{ic|mkisofs}} for more information.}}
{{Tip|1=If you want to copy an existing DVD, one way that works is to make an ISO using {{ic|readcd}}:
$ readcd -v dev=/dev/cdrw -f image.iso
as per [[CD Burning Tips]], then use the {{ic|growisofs}} example above to burn the ISO to a new blank disc.}}
Although the above might suffice for you, some users require extra settings to successfully write DVDs.
A simple DVD writing template:
$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -v -l -dry-run -iso-level 3 -R -J -speed=2 -joliet-long -graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
; {{ic|-Z}}: as seen above, this starts a new DVD; to continue a multisession DVD, use {{ic|-M}}
; {{ic|-v}}: increase verbosity level (more output)
; {{ic|-l}}: breaks DOS compatibility but allows for longer filenames
; {{ic|-dry-run}}: simulate writing (remove this flag if you are sure that everything is set up correctly)
; {{ic|-iso-level 3}}: defines how strict you want to adhere to the iso9660 standard ({{ic|-iso-level 1}} is very strict while {{ic|-iso-level 4}} is very loose)
; {{ic|-R}}: see above
; {{ic|-J}}: see above
; {{ic|1=-speed=2}}: start burning at 2X speed
; {{ic|-joliet-long}}: allows longer Joliet file names
The final part needs more explanation:
-graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
This specifies that files will be stored in the subdirectory {{ic|/files}} rather than the DVD root. See the {{ic|mkisofs}} manual for details.
{{Note|{{ic|growisofs}} is basically just a front-end to {{ic|mkisofs}}. That means that any option for {{ic|mkisofs}} also works with {{ic|growisofs}}. See the {{ic|mkisofs}} man page for details.}}
==Re-writable DVDs==
The process for burning re-writable discs is almost the same as for normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program {{ic|dvd+rw-format}} like this:
$ dvd+rw-format /dev/cdrw
where {{ic|/dev/cdrw}} is your DVD writer device.
===Permission denied===
If you encounter a permissions error, make sure that you are a member of the [[Groups|group]] "optical":
# usermod -aG optical username
after which you will have to log off and then log on again.
{{Note|{{ic|growisofs}} will not run via [[sudo]].}}
As recent udev versions set the group ID of optical drives to ''disk'' you also have to create a custom udev rule: [[Udev#Optical_Drives_Have_Group_ID_Set_To_Disk | Create custom udev rule for optical drives]]

Revision as of 18:07, 22 July 2013