Difference between revisions of "DVD Burning"

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[[Category:Optical]]
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#REDIRECT [[Optical_Disc_Drive#DVD_burning]]
{{i18n|DVD Burning}}
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{{Article summary start}}
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{{Article summary text|An overview of DVD writing tools and methods.}}
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{{Article summary heading|Series}}
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{{Article summary wiki|DVD Playing}}
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{{Article summary wiki|DVD Ripping}}
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{{Article summary wiki|DVD Burning}}
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{{Article summary heading|Related articles}}
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{{Article summary wiki|CD Burning Tips}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Video2dvdiso}}
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{{Article summary end}}
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Writing (or "burning") DVDs requires a different approach than burning CDs. DVDs offer much higher capacities, and the standard CD writing tools will not suffice.
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This HOWTO covers a narrow scope for now: writing data onto DVDs using the command line.
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==Required packages==
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# You still need the standard CD writing tools known as {{AUR|cdrtools}} (which can be replaced by {{Pkg|cdrkit}}, if desired).
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# You also need the new DVD writing tools known as {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} found in the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]].
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{{Note|Do not install the package known as {{Pkg|dvdrtools}}. It conflicts with {{AUR|cdrtools}}, and {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} is the superior DVD writing package.}}
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{{Note|1={{AUR|cdrtools}} provides all the functionality of {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}}, as growisofs depends on mkisofs. Also the development of dvd+rw-tools seems to be stalled for the past 5 years (the last release was in [http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/tools/?M=D 2008])}}
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{{Tip|If you wish to use a graphical front-end, install {{Pkg|k3b}} or {{Pkg|brasero}}, and you need to read no further.}}
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==Procedure==
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This HOWTO will use the command {{ic|growisofs}} from the {{Pkg|dvd+rw-tools}} package. If you have ever written CDs from the command line before, you will know the process of first creating an iso9660 file ({{ic|mkisofs}}), and then burning it to CD ({{ic|cdrecord}}). {{ic|growisofs}} merges these steps, so you do not need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession writing has been simplified.
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===Overview===
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Essentially, writing a '''new''' DVD follows this procedure:
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$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -r -J /path/to/files
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where {{ic|/dev/cdrw}} is your DVD writer device.
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To '''continue''' a DVD (write an additional session), you use:
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$ growisofs -M /dev/cdrw -r -J /path/to/files
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To burn an ISO '''image''' to disc, use:
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$ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/cdrw=/path/to/iso
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To create a video DVD, use the following (NOTE: rather than using {{ic|/dev/srN}} directly, consider {{ic|/dev/dvdN}} or even just plain {{ic|/dev/dvd}}):
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$ growisofs -Z /dev/sr0 -dvd-video /path/to/video
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; {{ic|-Z}}: start at the beginning of the DVD using the following device
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; {{ic|-M}}: start after the last session on the disc using the following device
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; {{ic|-r}}: [[Wikipedia:Rock Ridge|Rock Ridge]] support with sane permission settings (recommended, extended Unix info)
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; {{ic|-J}}: [[Wikipedia:Joliet (file system)|Joliet]] support (recommended, extended info for Windows NT and Windows 95)
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{{Note|{{ic|-r}} will choose different permissions than the real ones; to use the exact permissions use {{ic|-R}} instead. See the man page of {{ic|mkisofs}} for more information.}}
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{{Tip|1=If you want to copy an existing DVD, one way that works is to make an ISO using {{ic|readcd}}:
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$ readcd -v dev=/dev/cdrw -f image.iso
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as per [[CD Burning Tips]], then use the {{ic|growisofs}} example above to burn the ISO to a new blank disc.}}
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===Example===
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Although the above might suffice for you, some users require extra settings to successfully write DVDs.
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A simple DVD writing template:
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$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -v -l -dry-run -iso-level 3 -R -J -speed=2 -joliet-long -graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
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; {{ic|-Z}}: as seen above, this starts a new DVD; to continue a multisession DVD, use {{ic|-M}}
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; {{ic|-v}}: increase verbosity level (more output)
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; {{ic|-l}}: breaks DOS compatibility but allows for longer filenames
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; {{ic|-dry-run}}: simulate writing (remove this flag if you are sure that everything is set up correctly)
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; {{ic|-iso-level 3}}: defines how strict you want to adhere to the iso9660 standard ({{ic|-iso-level 1}} is very strict while {{ic|-iso-level 4}} is very loose)
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; {{ic|-R}}: see above
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; {{ic|-J}}: see above
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; {{ic|1=-speed=2}}: start burning at 2X speed
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; {{ic|-joliet-long}}: allows longer Joliet file names
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The final part needs more explanation:
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-graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
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This specifies that files will be stored in the subdirectory {{ic|/files}} rather than the DVD root. See the {{ic|mkisofs}} manual for details.
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{{Note|{{ic|growisofs}} is basically just a front-end to {{ic|mkisofs}}. That means that any option for {{ic|mkisofs}} also works with {{ic|growisofs}}. See the {{ic|mkisofs}} man page for details.}}
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==Re-writable DVDs==
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The process for burning re-writable discs is almost the same as for normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program {{ic|dvd+rw-format}} like this:
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$ dvd+rw-format /dev/cdrw
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where {{ic|/dev/cdrw}} is your DVD writer device.
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==Troubleshooting==
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===Permission denied===
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If you encounter a permissions error, make sure that you are a member of the [[Groups|group]] "optical":
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# usermod -aG optical username
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after which you will have to log off and then log on again.
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{{Note|{{ic|growisofs}} will not run via [[sudo]].}}
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Revision as of 18:07, 22 July 2013