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Writing (or "burning") DVDs requires a different approach than burning CDs. DVDs offer much higher capacities, and the standard CD writing tools will not suffice.
This HOWTO covers a narrow scope for now: writing data onto DVDs using the command line.
- You still need the standard CD writing tools known as (which can be replaced by , if desired).
- You also need the new DVD writing tools known as official repositories. found in the
This HOWTO will use the command
growisofs from the package. If you have ever written CDs from the command line before, you will know the process of first creating an iso9660 file (
mkisofs), and then burning it to CD (
growisofs merges these steps, so you do not need extra storage space for the ISO file anymore. Another advantage is that multisession writing has been simplified.
Essentially, writing a new DVD follows this procedure:
$ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -r -J /path/to/files
/dev/dvd is your DVD writer device.
To continue a DVD (write an additional session), you use:
$ growisofs -M /dev/dvd -r -J /path/to/files
To burn an ISO image to disc, use:
$ growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/dvd /path/to/iso
To create a video DVD, use the following:
$ growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -dvd-video /path/to/video
- start at the beginning of the DVD using the following device
- start after the last session on the disc using the following device
- Rock Ridge support with sane permission settings (recommended, extended Unix info)
- Joliet support (recommended, extended info for Windows NT and Windows 95)
-rwill choose different permissions than the real ones; to use the exact permissions use
-Rinstead. See the man page of
mkisofsfor more information.
$ readcd -v dev=/dev/dvd -f image.isoas per CD Burning Tips, then use the
growisofsexample above to burn the ISO to a new blank disc.
Although the above might suffice for you, some users require extra settings to successfully write DVDs.
A simple DVD writing template:
$ growisofs -Z /dev/cdrw -v -l -dry-run -iso-level 3 -R -J -speed=2 -joliet-long -graft-points /files/=/path/to/files/
- as seen above, this starts a new DVD; to continue a multisession DVD, use
- increase verbosity level (more output)
- breaks DOS compatibility but allows for longer filenames
- simulate writing (remove this flag if you are sure that everything is set up correctly)
- defines how strict you want to adhere to the iso9660 standard (
-iso-level 1is very strict while
-iso-level 4is very loose)
- see above
- see above
- start burning at 2X speed
- allows longer Joliet file names
The final part needs more explanation:
This specifies that files will be stored in the subdirectory
/files rather than the DVD root. See the
mkisofs manual for details.
growisofsis basically just a front-end to
mkisofs. That means that any option for
mkisofsalso works with
growisofs. See the
mkisofsman page for details.
The process for burning re-writable discs is almost the same as for normal DVDs. However, keep in mind that virgin DVD+RW media needs to be initially formatted ("blanked") prior to usage. Blanking can be done using the program
dvd+rw-format like this:
$ dvd+rw-format /dev/cdrw
/dev/cdrw is your DVD writer device.