Difference between revisions of "Daemons (简体中文)"

From ArchWiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
m (cups -> cupsd)
(→‎守护进程列表: 翻译部分进程的说明)
Line 58: Line 58:
 
|[[Avahi|avahi-dnsconfd]]||
 
|[[Avahi|avahi-dnsconfd]]||
 
|-
 
|-
|crond||Daemon to schedule and time events.
+
|crond||预定日程和时间触发事件的守护进程.
 
|-
 
|-
|[[CUPS|cupsd]]||Common UNIX Printing System daemon.
+
|[[CUPS|cupsd]]||通用UNIX打印系统守护进程.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[D-Bus|dbus]]||Message bus system for software communication.
 
|[[D-Bus|dbus]]||Message bus system for software communication.
Line 106: Line 106:
 
|stbd ||This daemon was previously necessary for gnome-system-tools.  However, as of gnome-tools 2.28, it is no longer needed.
 
|stbd ||This daemon was previously necessary for gnome-system-tools.  However, as of gnome-tools 2.28, it is no longer needed.
 
|-
 
|-
|syslogd||This was the older and basic system logger.
+
|syslogd||这是基本的,但比较老旧的系统日志记录守护进程.
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Syslog-ng|syslog-ng]]||System logger next generation.
+
|[[Syslog-ng|syslog-ng]]||新一代系统日志记录守护进程.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Timidity|timidity++]]||Software synthesizer for MIDI.
 
|[[Timidity|timidity++]]||Software synthesizer for MIDI.
 
|-
 
|-
|[[Vsftpd|vsftpd]]||FTP server.
+
|[[Vsftpd|vsftpd]]||文件传输专用协议服务器(ftp)守护进程.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Wicd|wicd]]||Combine with dbus to replace network, a lightweigh alternative to networkmanager.
 
|[[Wicd|wicd]]||Combine with dbus to replace network, a lightweigh alternative to networkmanager.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}

Revision as of 10:57, 31 August 2011

This template has only maintenance purposes. For linking to local translations please use interlanguage links, see Help:i18n#Interlanguage links.


Local languages: Català – Dansk – English – Español – Esperanto – Hrvatski – Indonesia – Italiano – Lietuviškai – Magyar – Nederlands – Norsk Bokmål – Polski – Português – Slovenský – Česky – Ελληνικά – Български – Русский – Српски – Українська – עברית – العربية – ไทย – 日本語 – 正體中文 – 简体中文 – 한국어


External languages (all articles in these languages should be moved to the external wiki): Deutsch – Français – Română – Suomi – Svenska – Tiếng Việt – Türkçe – فارسی

Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end

守护进程(daemon),指后台运行的、等待特定事件发生并提供服务的程序。典型的例子如网页服务器,等待网页传输请求并提供传输服务;又如ssh服务器,等待用户登入操作。许多守护进程提供看不见的服务,比如记录日志(syslog,metalog)、CPU降频(cpufreq)。

尽管实际意义有所不同,守护进程也可以叫做系统服务。实际上,后者似乎是个更好理解的名称。

开机时启动

默认情况下,Arch Linux 设置了几个开机自启动的系统服务(守护进程),可以在rc.conf的DAEMONS数组配置开机启动的系统服务。最初,这个数组应该像下面一行:

DAEMONS=(hwclock syslog-ng network netfs crond)

这些进程会按顺序依次启动。在系统服务名称前面加上“!”即可禁止开机运行,而名称前加“@”表示该进程可以后台启动而无需等待。

手动启动、终止

系统服务的启动脚本都在Template:Filename目录中,可以通过这些脚本手动启动、终止守护进程(start——启动,stop——终止,restart——重新启动):

/etc/rc.d/名称 {start|stop|restart}

可能还有其他控制命令,具体参见它们的文档。

必要性

只有在确实需要时,再添加更多服务。不过有些服务多数人都要用到,比如D-Bus。如果使用打印机。CUPS也是必需的。用户需要自己把他们添加到Template:Filename

Note: 一些服务会自行启动其他相关服务。比如,HAL会启动D-BusAcpid。但据反映,有时HAL会启动D-Bus失败,所以最好把D-Bus设置在HAL之前启动。

后台启动服务

后台启动服务,指启动某个服务时,无需等待启动完毕,便可同时进行下一个操作。某些时候这样做可以节约开机时间。不要尝试把所有服务都设置后台启动。以下给出一个例子:

DAEMONS=(syslog-ng gensplash dbus hal network netfs @avahi-daemon @samba @crond @openntpd @cupsd @mpd)

后台启动openntpd(时间同步服务)可能导致同步出现错误。如果确实发生了,那就不要设置后台启动它。

Rc.conf 图形界面配置工具

Rc.conf GUI Frontends一文提供了图形化配置Template:Filename的工具。

守护进程列表

(此处是守护进程的不完全列表)

Daemon Description
acpid Delivers ACPI events.
alsa Advanced Linux Sound Architecture; provides device drivers for sound cards.
atd run jobs queued for later execution.
avahi-daemon Allows programs to automatically find local network services.
avahi-dnsconfd
crond 预定日程和时间触发事件的守护进程.
cupsd 通用UNIX打印系统守护进程.
dbus Message bus system for software communication.
fam File Alteration Monitor.
fbsplash Graphical boot splash screen for the user.
gensplash (see fbsplash)
hal Hardware Abstraction Layer.
mdadm MD Administration (Linux Software RAID).
mpd Music Player Daemon.
mysqld MySQL database server.
netfs Mounts network file systems.
network To bring up the network connections.
networkmanager Combine with HAL to replace network, and provide configuration and detection for automatic network connections.
nsyslogd
ntpd Network Time Protocol daemon (client and server).
openntpd alternate Network Time Protocol daemon (client and server).
pure-ftpd FTP server.
rsyslogd The latest version of a system logger.
slim Simple Login Manager
samba File and print services for Microsoft Windows clients.
saned To share the scanner system over network.
sensors Hardware (temperature, fans etc) monitoring.
sshd OpenSSH (secure shell) daemon.
stbd This daemon was previously necessary for gnome-system-tools. However, as of gnome-tools 2.28, it is no longer needed.
syslogd 这是基本的,但比较老旧的系统日志记录守护进程.
syslog-ng 新一代系统日志记录守护进程.
timidity++ Software synthesizer for MIDI.
vsftpd 文件传输专用协议服务器(ftp)守护进程.
wicd Combine with dbus to replace network, a lightweigh alternative to networkmanager.