Difference between revisions of "Desktop environment"

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[[Category:Desktop environments]]
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{{Related articles start}}
 
{{Related articles start}}
{{Related|Display Manager}}
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{{Related|Comparison of desktop environments}}
{{Related|Window Manager}}
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{{Related|:Category:Freedesktop.org}}
{{Related|Default Applications}}
 
 
{{Related articles end}}
 
{{Related articles end}}
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A [[Wikipedia:Desktop environment|desktop environment]] ('''DE''') is an implementation of the [[Wikipedia:Desktop metaphor|desktop metaphor]] made of a bundle of programs, which share a common graphical user interface (GUI).
  
A [[Wikipedia:Desktop environment|desktop environment]] provides a ''complete'' graphical user interface (GUI) for a system by bundling together a variety of X clients written using a common widget toolkit and set of libraries.
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== Overview ==
  
== X Window System == <!-- please keep this section synchronized with [[Window Manager#X Window System]] -->
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A desktop environment bundles together a variety of components to provide common graphical user interface elements such as icons, toolbars, wallpapers, and desktop widgets. Additionally, most desktop environments include a set of integrated applications and utilities. Most importantly, desktop environments provide their own [[window manager]], which can however usually be replaced with another compatible one.
  
The [[Wikipedia:X Window System|X Window System]] provides the foundation for a graphical user interface. Prior to installing a desktop environment, a functional X server installation is required. See [[Xorg]] for detailed information.
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The user is free to configure their GUI environment in any number of ways. Desktop environments simply provide a complete and convenient means of accomplishing this task. Note that users are free to mix-and-match applications from multiple desktop environments. For example, a [[KDE]] user may install and run [[GNOME]] applications such as the [[Epiphany]] web browser, should he/she prefer it over KDE's Konqueror web browser. One drawback of this approach is that many applications provided by desktop environment projects rely heavily upon their DE's respective underlying libraries. As a result, installing applications from a range of desktop environments will require installation of a larger number of dependencies. Users seeking to conserve disk space often avoid such mixed environments, or chose alternatives which do depend on only few external libraries.
  
:''X provides the basic framework, or primitives, for building such GUI environments: drawing and moving windows on the screen and interacting with a mouse and keyboard. X does not mandate the user interface — individual client programs known as window managers handle this. As such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly; different programs may present radically different interfaces. X is built as an additional (application) abstraction layer on top of the operating system kernel.''
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Furthermore, DE-provided applications tend to integrate better with their native environments. Superficially, mixing environments with different widget toolkits will result in visual discrepancies (that is, interfaces will use different icons and widget styles). In terms of usability, mixed environments may not behave similarly (e.g. single-clicking versus double-clicking icons; drag-and-drop functionality) potentially causing confusion or unexpected behavior.
  
The user is free to configure their GUI environment in any number of ways. Desktop environments simply provide a complete and convenient means of accomplishing this task.
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Prior to installing a desktop environment, a functional X server installation is required. See [[Xorg]] for detailed information. Some desktop environments may also support [[Wayland]] as an alternative to X, but most of these are still experimental.
  
== Desktop environments ==
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== List of desktop environments ==
  
A desktop environment bundles together a variety of X clients to provide common graphical user interface elements such as icons, windows, toolbars, wallpapers, and desktop widgets. Additionally, most desktop environments include a set of integrated applications and utilities.
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=== Officially supported ===
  
Note that users are free to mix-and-match applications from multiple desktop environments. For example, a KDE user may install and run GNOME applications such as the Epiphany web browser, should he/she prefer it over KDE's Konqueror web browser. One drawback of this approach is that many applications provided by desktop environment projects rely heavily upon their DE's respective underlying libraries. As a result, installing applications from a range of desktop environments will require installation of a larger number of dependencies. Users seeking to conserve disk space and avoid [[Wikipedia:software bloat|software bloat]] often avoid such mixed environments, or look into lightweight alternatives.
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* {{App|[[Budgie]]|Budgie is a desktop environment designed with the modern user in mind, it focuses on simplicity and elegance. |https://budgie-desktop.org/|{{Pkg|budgie-desktop}}}}
  
Furthermore, DE-provided applications tend to integrate better with their native environments. Superficially, mixing environments with different widget toolkits will result in visual discrepancies (that is, interfaces will use different icons and widget styles). In terms of user experience, mixed environments may not behave similarly (e.g. single-clicking versus double-clicking icons; drag-and-drop functionality) potentially causing confusion or unexpected behavior.
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* {{App|[[Cinnamon]]|Cinnamon strives to provide a traditional user experience. Cinnamon is a fork of GNOME 3.|http://cinnamon.linuxmint.com/|{{Pkg|cinnamon}}}}
  
=== List of desktop environments ===
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* {{App|[[Deepin]]|Deepin desktop interface and apps feature an intuitive and elegant design. Moving around, sharing and searching etc. has become simply a joyful experience. |https://www.deepin.org/|{{grp|deepin}}}}
  
==== Officially supported ====
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* {{App|[[Enlightenment]]|The Enlightenment desktop shell provides an efficient window manager based on the Enlightenment Foundation Libraries along with other essential desktop components like a file manager, desktop icons and widgets. It supports themes, while still being capable of performing on older hardware or embedded devices.|https://www.enlightenment.org/|{{Pkg|enlightenment}}}}
  
* {{App|[[Cinnamon]]|Cinnamon is a fork of GNOME 3. Cinnamon strives to provide a traditional user experience, similar to GNOME 2.|http://cinnamon.linuxmint.com/|{{Pkg|cinnamon}}}}
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* {{App|[[GNOME]]|The GNOME desktop environment is an attractive and intuitive desktop with both a modern (''GNOME'') and a classic (''GNOME Classic'') session.|https://www.gnome.org/gnome-3/|{{grp|gnome}}}}
  
* {{App|[[Enlightenment]]|The Enlightenment desktop shell provides an efficient yet breathtaking window manager based on the Enlightenment Foundation Libraries along with other essential desktop components like a file manager, desktop icons and widgets. It boasts a unprecedented level of theme-ability while still being capable of performing on older hardware or embedded devices.|http://www.enlightenment.org/|{{Pkg|enlightenment}}}}
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* {{App|[[GNOME Flashback]]| GNOME Flashback is a shell for GNOME 3 which was initially called GNOME fallback mode. The desktop layout and the underlying technology is similar to GNOME 2.|https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/GnomeFlashback|{{Pkg|gnome-flashback}}}}
  
* {{App|[[GNOME]]|The GNOME project provides two things: The GNOME desktop environment, an attractive and intuitive desktop for users, and the GNOME development platform, an extensive framework for building applications that integrate into the rest of the desktop. GNOME is free, usable, accessible, international, developer-friendly, organized, supported, and a community.|http://www.gnome.org/about/|{{grp|gnome}}}}
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* {{App|[[KDE Plasma]]|The KDE Plasma desktop environment is a familiar working environment. Plasma offers all the tools required for a modern desktop computing experience so you can be productive right from the start.|https://www.kde.org/plasma-desktop|{{grp|plasma}}}}
  
* {{App|[[KDE]]|KDE software consists of a large number of individual applications and a desktop workspace as a shell to run these applications. You can run KDE applications just fine on any desktop environment as they are built to integrate well with your system's components. By also using the KDE workspace, you get even better integration of your applications with the working environment while lowering system resource demands.|http://www.kde.org/|{{grp|kdebase}}}}
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* {{App|[[LXDE]]|The Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment is a fast and energy-saving desktop environment. It comes with a modern interface, multi-language support, standard keyboard short cuts and additional features like tabbed file browsing. Fundamentally designed to be lightweight, LXDE strives to be less CPU and RAM intensive than other environments.|http://lxde.org/|GTK+ 2: {{grp|lxde}}, GTK+ 3: {{grp|lxde-gtk3}}}}
  
* {{App|[[LXDE]]|The "Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment" is a fast and energy-saving desktop environment. Maintained by an international community of developers, it comes with a beautiful interface, multi-language support, standard keyboard short cuts and additional features like tabbed file browsing. Fundamentally designed to be lightweight, LXDE uses less CPU and RAM than other environments. It is especially beneficial for cloud computers with low hardware specifications, such as netbooks, mobile devices (e.g. MIDs) or older computers.|http://lxde.org/|{{grp|lxde}}}}
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* {{App|[[LXQt]]|LXQt is the Qt port and the upcoming version of LXDE, the Lightweight Desktop Environment. It is the product of the merge between the LXDE-Qt and the Razor-qt projects: A lightweight, modular, blazing-fast and user-friendly desktop environment.|http://lxqt.org/|{{grp|lxqt}}}}
  
* {{App|[[MATE]]|MATE is a fork of GNOME 2. Mate provides an intuitive and attractive desktop to Linux users using traditional metaphors.|http://www.mate-desktop.org/|{{grp|mate}}}}
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* {{App|[[MATE]]|Mate provides an intuitive and attractive desktop to Linux users using traditional metaphors. MATE started as a fork of GNOME 2, but now uses GTK+ 3.|http://www.mate-desktop.org/|{{grp|mate}}}}
  
* {{App|[[Xfce]]|Xfce embodies the traditional UNIX philosophy of modularity and re-usability. It consists of a number of components that provide the full functionality one can expect of a modern desktop environment, while remaining relatively light. They are packaged separately and you can pick among the available packages to create the optimal personal working environment.|http://www.xfce.org/|{{grp|xfce4}}}}
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* {{App|[[Sugar]]|The Sugar Learning Platform is a computer environment composed of Activities designed to help children from 5 to 12 years of age learn together through rich-media expression. Sugar is the core component of a worldwide effort to provide every child with the opportunity for a quality education — it is currently used by nearly one-million children worldwide speaking 25 languages in over 40 countries. Sugar provides the means to help people lead fulfilling lives through access to a quality education that is currently missed by so many.|https://sugarlabs.org/|{{Pkg|sugar}} + {{Grp|sugar-fructose}}}}
  
==== Unofficially supported ====
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* {{App|[[Xfce]]|Xfce embodies the traditional [[Wikipedia:UNIX philosophy|UNIX philosophy]] of modularity and re-usability. It consists of a number of components that provide the full functionality one can expect of a modern desktop environment, while remaining relatively light. They are packaged separately and you can pick among the available packages to create the optimal personal working environment.|http://www.xfce.org/|{{grp|xfce4}}}}
  
* {{App|Deepin|Deepin desktop interface and apps feature an intuitive and elegant design. Moving around, sharing and searching etc. has become simply a joyful experience. |http://www.linuxdeepin.com/|{{AUR|deepin-desktop-environment}}}}
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=== Unofficially supported ===
  
 
* {{App|[[Equinox Desktop Environment|EDE]]|The "Equinox Desktop Environment" is a DE designed to be simple, extremely light-weight and fast.|http://equinox-project.org/|{{AUR|ede}}}}
 
* {{App|[[Equinox Desktop Environment|EDE]]|The "Equinox Desktop Environment" is a DE designed to be simple, extremely light-weight and fast.|http://equinox-project.org/|{{AUR|ede}}}}
  
* {{App|[[GNOME Flashback]]| GNOME Flashback is a shell for GNOME 3 which was initially called GNOME fallback mode. The desktop layout and the underlying technology is similar to GNOME 2.|https://wiki.gnome.org/GnomeFlashback|{{AUR|gnome-panel}}}}
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* {{App|[[Liri]]|Liri is a desktop environment with modern design and features. Liri is the merge between [http://hawaiios.org/ Hawaii], [http://papyros.io/ Papyros] and the [https://github.com/liri-project Liri Project]. Highly experimental.|https://liri.io/|{{AUR|liri-shell-git}}}}
  
* {{App|GNUstep|GNUstep is a free, object-oriented, cross-platform development environment that strives for simplicity and elegance.|http://gnustep.org/|{{Pkg|windowmaker}}}}
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* {{App|[[Lumina]]|Lumina is a lightweight desktop environment written in Qt 5 for FreeBSD that uses Fluxbox for window management.|https://lumina-desktop.org/|{{AUR|lumina-desktop}}}}
  
* {{App|Hawaii|Hawaii is a lightweight, coherent and fast desktop environment that relies on Qt 5, QtQuick and Wayland and is designed to offer the best UX for the device where it is running.|http://www.maui-project.org/|{{AUR|hawaii-meta-git}}}}
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* {{App|[[Moksha]]|Fork of Enlightenment currently used as default desktop environment in Ubuntu-based Bodhi Linux.|http://www.bodhilinux.com/moksha-desktop/|{{AUR|moksha}}}}
  
* {{App|[[Pantheon]]|Pantheon is the default desktop environment originally created for the elementary OS distribution. It is written from scratch using Vala and the GTK3 toolkit. With regards to usability and appearance, the desktop has some similarities with GNOME Shell and Mac OS X.|http://elementaryos.org/|{{AUR|pantheon-session-bzr}}}}
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* {{App|[[Pantheon]]|Pantheon is the default desktop environment originally created for the elementary OS distribution. It is written from scratch using Vala and the GTK3 toolkit. With regards to usability and appearance, the desktop has some similarities with GNOME Shell and macOS.|https://elementary.io/|{{AUR|pantheon-session-git}}}}
  
* {{App|[[Razor-qt]]|Razor-qt is an advanced, easy-to-use, and fast desktop environment based on Qt technologies. It has been tailored for users who value simplicity, speed, and an intuitive interface. While still a new project, Razor-qt already contains all the key DE components.|http://razor-qt.org/|{{AUR|razor-qt}}}}
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* {{App|theShell|theShell is a desktop environment that tries to be as transparent as possible. It uses Qt 5 as its widget toolkit and KWin as its window manager.|https://vicr123.github.io/theshell|{{AUR|theshell}}}}
 
 
* {{App|[[ROX]]|ROX is a fast, user friendly desktop which makes extensive use of drag-and-drop. The interface revolves around the file manager, following the traditional UNIX view that 'everything is a file' rather than trying to hide the filesystem beneath start menus, wizards, or druids. The aim is to make a system that is well designed and clearly presented. The ROX style favors using several small programs together instead of creating all-in-one mega-applications.|http://rox.sourceforge.net/desktop/|{{AUR?|rox-}}}}
 
 
 
* {{App|[[Sugar]]|The Sugar Learning Platform is a computer environment composed of Activities designed to help children from 5 to 12 years of age learn together through rich-media expression. Sugar is the core component of a worldwide effort to provide every child with the opportunity for a quality education &mdash; it is currently used by nearly one-million children worldwide speaking 25 languages in over 40 countries. Sugar provides the means to help people lead fulfilling lives through access to a quality education that is currently missed by so many.|http://wiki.sugarlabs.org/|{{AUR|sugar}}}}
 
  
 
* {{App|[[Trinity]]|The Trinity Desktop Environment (TDE) project is a computer desktop environment for Unix-like operating systems with a primary goal of retaining the overall KDE 3.5 computing style.|http://www.trinitydesktop.org/|See [[Trinity]]}}
 
* {{App|[[Trinity]]|The Trinity Desktop Environment (TDE) project is a computer desktop environment for Unix-like operating systems with a primary goal of retaining the overall KDE 3.5 computing style.|http://www.trinitydesktop.org/|See [[Trinity]]}}
  
* {{App|[[Unity]]|Unity is a shell for GNOME designed by Canonical for Ubuntu.|http://unity.ubuntu.com/|{{AUR|unity}}}}
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== Custom environments ==
  
=== Comparison of desktop environments ===
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Desktop environments represent the simplest means of installing a ''complete'' graphical environment. However, users are free to build and customize their graphical environment in any number of ways if none of the popular desktop environments meet their requirements. Generally, building a custom environment involves selection of a suitable [[window manager]], a [[List of applications#Taskbars|taskbar]] and a number of applications (a minimalist selection usually includes a [[terminal emulator]], [[List of applications#File managers|file manager]], and [[text editor]]).
  
''This section attempts to draw a comparison between popular desktop environments. Note that first-hand experience is the only effective way to truly evaluate whether a desktop environment best suits your needs.''
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Other components usually provided by desktop environments are:
  
{{Wikipedia|Comparison of X Window System desktop environments}}
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* Application launcher: [[List of applications#Application launchers]]
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* Audio volume control: [[List of applications#Volume control]]
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* Clipboard manager: [[Clipboard#List of clipboard managers]]
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* Desktop compositor: [[Xorg#Composite]]
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* Desktop wallpaper setter and desktop icon: [[List of applications#Wallpaper setters]] and [[Openbox#Icon programs]]
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* Display manager: [[Display manager#List of display managers]]
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* Display power saving settings: [[Display Power Management Signaling]]
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* Logout dialogue: [[Oblogout]]
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* Mount tool: [[List of applications#Mount tools]]
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* Notification daemon: [[Desktop notifications]]
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* Polkit authentication agent: [[Polkit#Authentication agents]]
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* Screen locker: [[List of applications#Screen lockers]]
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* Default applications: [[XDG MIME Applications#mimeapps.list]]
  
{| class="wikitable" border="1" cellpadding="2"
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=== Use a different window manager ===
|+ Overview of desktop environments <!-- PLEASE DO NOT OVER-CLUTTER THIS TABLE! -->
 
! Desktop environment !! Widget toolkit !! Window manager !! Taskbar !! Terminal emulator !! File manager !! Calculator !! Text editor !! Image viewer  !! Media player !! Web browser !! Display manager
 
|-
 
| [[Cinnamon]] || [[GTK+]] 3<br>{{pkg|gtk3}} || Muffin<br>{{pkg|muffin}} || Cinnamon<br>{{pkg|cinnamon}} || [[Wikipedia:GNOME Terminal|GNOME&nbsp;Terminal]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-terminal}} || [[Nemo]]<br>{{pkg|nemo}} || [[Wikipedia:GCalctool|Calculator]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-calculator}} || [[gedit]]<br>{{pkg|gedit}} || [[Wikipedia:Eye of GNOME|Eye&nbsp;of&nbsp;GNOME]]<br>{{pkg|eog}} || [[Wikipedia:Totem (software)|Totem]]<br>{{pkg|totem}} || [[Firefox]]<br>{{pkg|firefox}} || [[LightDM]] GTK+ Greeter<br>{{pkg|lightdm-gtk3-greeter}}
 
|-
 
| Deepin || [[GTK+]] 2/3<br>{{pkg|gtk2}} {{pkg|gtk3}} || [[Compiz]]<br>{{AUR|compiz-devel}} || Dock<br>{{AUR|deepin-desktop-environment}} || Deepin Terminal<br>{{AUR|deepin-terminal}} || [[Nautilus]]<br>{{pkg|nautilus}} || [[Wikipedia:GCalctool|Calculator]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-calculator}} || [[gedit]]<br>{{pkg|gedit}} || [[Wikipedia:Eye of GNOME|Eye of GNOME]]<br>{{pkg|eog}} || DPlayer<br>{{AUR|deepin-media-player}} || [[Firefox]]<br>{{pkg|firefox}} || [[LightDM]] Deepin Greeter<br>{{AUR|deepin-desktop-environment}}
 
|-
 
| [[Equinox Desktop Environment|EDE]] || [http://www.fltk.org/ FLTK]<br>{{pkg|fltk}} || [[PekWM]]<br>{{AUR|ede}} || EDE Panel<br>{{AUR|ede}} || [[Xterm|XTerm]]<br>{{Pkg|xterm}} || Fluff<br>{{AUR|fluff}} || Calculator<br>{{AUR|ede}} || Editor<br>{{AUR|fltk-editor}} || Image Viewer<br>{{AUR|ede}} || flmusic<br>{{AUR|flmusic}} || [[Dillo]]<br>{{Pkg|dillo}} || [[XDM]]<br>{{Pkg|xorg-xdm}}
 
|-
 
| [[Enlightenment]] || [https://phab.enlightenment.org/w/elementary/ Elementary]<br>{{pkg|elementary}} || Enlightenment<br>{{pkg|enlightenment}} || Enlightenment<br>{{pkg|enlightenment}} || [http://www.enlightenment.org/p.php?p=about/terminology Terminology]<br>{{pkg|terminology}} || [https://trac.enlightenment.org/e/wiki/EFM EFM]<br>{{pkg|enlightenment}} || Equate<br>{{AUR|equate-git}} || Ecrire<br>{{AUR|ecrire-git}} || [https://trac.enlightenment.org/e/wiki/Ephoto Ephoto]<br>{{AUR|ephoto-git}} || [https://trac.enlightenment.org/e/wiki/Enjoy Enjoy]<br>{{AUR|enjoy-git}} || [https://trac.enlightenment.org/e/wiki/Eve Eve]<br>{{AUR|eve-git}} || [[XDM]]<br>{{Pkg|xorg-xdm}}
 
|-
 
| [[GNOME]] || [[GTK+]] 3<br>{{pkg|gtk3}} || [[Wikipedia:Mutter (window manager)|Mutter]]<br>{{pkg|mutter}} || [[Wikipedia:GNOME Shell|GNOME Shell]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-shell}} || [[Wikipedia:GNOME Terminal|GNOME Terminal]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-terminal}} || [[Nautilus]]<br>{{pkg|nautilus}} || [[Wikipedia:GCalctool|Calculator]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-calculator}} || [[gedit]]<br>{{pkg|gedit}} || [[Wikipedia:Eye of GNOME|Eye of GNOME]]<br>{{pkg|eog}} || [[Wikipedia:Totem (software)|Totem]]<br>{{pkg|totem}} || [[Epiphany]]<br>{{pkg|epiphany}} || [[GDM]]<br>{{pkg|gdm}}
 
|-
 
| [[GNOME Flashback]] || [[GTK+]] 2/3<br>{{pkg|gtk2}} {{pkg|gtk3}} || [[Wikipedia:Metacity|Metacity]]<br>{{pkg|metacity}} || [[Wikipedia:GNOME Panel|GNOME Panel]]<br>{{AUR|gnome-panel}} || [[Wikipedia:GNOME Terminal|GNOME Terminal]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-terminal}} || [[Nautilus]]<br>{{pkg|nautilus}} || [[Wikipedia:GCalctool|Calculator]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-calculator}} || [[gedit]]<br>{{pkg|gedit}} || [[Wikipedia:Eye of GNOME|Eye of GNOME]]<br>{{pkg|eog}} || [[Wikipedia:Totem (software)|Totem]]<br>{{pkg|totem}} || [[Epiphany]]<br>{{pkg|epiphany}} || [[GDM]]<br>{{pkg|gdm}}
 
|-
 
| GNUstep || [http://gnustep.org/ GNUstep]<br>{{Grp|gnustep-core}} || [[Window Maker]]<br>{{pkg|windowmaker}} || [[Window Maker]]<br>{{pkg|windowmaker}} || [http://gap.nongnu.org/terminal/index.html Terminal]<br>{{AUR|gnustep-terminal}} || [http://www.gnustep.org/experience/GWorkspace.html GWorkspace]<br>{{AUR|gworkspace}} || [http://www.gnustep.org/experience/examples.html Calculator]<br>{{AUR|gnustep-examples}} || [http://www.gnustep.org/experience/examples.html Ink]<br>{{AUR|gnustep-examples}} || [http://gap.nongnu.org/laternamagica/index.html LaternaMagica]<br>{{AUR|laternamagica}} || [http://gap.nongnu.org/cynthiune/index.html Cynthiune]<br>{{AUR|cynthiune}} || [http://wiki.gnustep.org/index.php/SimpleWebKit SWK Browser]<br>{{AUR|swkbrowser-svn}} || [[XDM]]<br>{{Pkg|xorg-xdm}}
 
|-
 
| Hawaii || [[Qt]] 5<br>{{Grp|qt5}} || Weston<br>{{pkg|weston}} || Hawaii Shell<br>{{AUR|hawaii-shell-git}} || Terminal<br>{{AUR|hawaii-terminal-git}} || Swordfish<br>{{AUR|swordfish-git}} || Calculator<br>{{AUR?|qt5-calculator}} || TEA<br>{{AUR?|tea-qt5}} || EyeSight<br>{{AUR|eyesight-git}} || Cinema<br>{{AUR?|cinema-git}} || QupZilla<br>{{Pkg|qupzilla-qt5}} || SDDM<br>{{AUR|sddm-qt5}}
 
|-
 
| [[KDE]] || [[Qt]] 4<br>{{pkg|qt4}} || [[Wikipedia:KWin|KWin]]<br>{{pkg|kdebase-workspace}} || [[Wikipedia:KDE Plasma Workspaces#Desktop|Plasma&nbsp;Desktop]]<br>{{pkg|kdebase-workspace}} || [http://konsole.kde.org/ Konsole]<br>{{pkg|kdebase-konsole}} || [http://dolphin.kde.org/ Dolphin]<br>{{pkg|kdebase-dolphin}} || [http://www.kde.org/applications/utilities/kcalc/ KCalc]<br>{{pkg|kdeutils-kcalc}} || [http://kate-editor.org/ KWrite/Kate]<br>{{pkg|kdebase-kwrite}} {{pkg|kdesdk-kate}} || [http://gwenview.sourceforge.net/ Gwenview]<br>{{pkg|kdegraphics-gwenview}} || [http://www.kde.org/applications/multimedia/dragonplayer/ Dragon&nbsp;Player]<br>{{pkg|kdemultimedia-dragonplayer}} || [http://www.konqueror.org/ Konqueror]<br>{{pkg|kdebase-konqueror}} || [[KDM]]<br>{{pkg|kdebase-workspace}}
 
|-
 
| [[LXDE]] || [[GTK+]] 2<br>{{pkg|gtk2}} || [[Openbox]]<br>{{pkg|openbox}} || [http://wiki.lxde.org/en/LXPanel LXPanel]<br>{{pkg|lxpanel}} || [http://wiki.lxde.org/en/LXTerminal LXTerminal]<br>{{pkg|lxterminal}} || [[PCManFM]]<br>{{pkg|pcmanfm}} || [http://galculator.sourceforge.net/ Galculator]<br>{{Pkg|galculator-gtk2}} || [http://tarot.freeshell.org/leafpad/ Leafpad]<br>{{pkg|leafpad}} || [http://wiki.lxde.org/en/GPicView GPicView]<br>{{pkg|gpicview}} || [http://wiki.lxde.org/en/LXMusic LXMusic]<br>{{pkg|lxmusic}} || [[Firefox]]<br>{{pkg|firefox}} || [[LXDM]]<br>{{pkg|lxdm}}
 
|-
 
| [[MATE]] || [[GTK+]] 2<br>{{pkg|gtk2}} || Marco<br>{{pkg|mate-window-manager}} || MATE Panel<br>{{pkg|mate-panel}} || MATE Terminal<br>{{pkg|mate-terminal}} || Caja<br>{{pkg|mate-file-manager}} || Calculator<br>{{pkg|mate-calc}} || pluma<br>{{pkg|mate-text-editor}} || Eye of MATE<br>{{pkg|mate-image-viewer}} || Whaaw!<br>{{pkg|whaawmp}} || [[Midori]]<br>{{pkg|midori}} || [[LightDM]] GTK+ Greeter<br>{{pkg|lightdm-gtk2-greeter}}
 
|-
 
| [[Pantheon]] || [[GTK+]] 3<br>{{pkg|gtk3}} || [https://launchpad.net/gala Gala]<br>{{AUR|gala-bzr}} || [https://launchpad.net/plank Plank]/[https://launchpad.net/wingpanel Wingpanel]<br>{{Pkg|plank}} {{AUR|wingpanel}} || [https://launchpad.net/pantheon-terminal Pantheon&nbsp;Terminal]<br>{{Pkg|pantheon-terminal}} || [https://launchpad.net/pantheon-files Pantheon Files]<br>{{AUR|pantheon-files}} || [[Wikipedia:GCalctool|Calculator]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-calculator}} || [https://launchpad.net/scratch Scratch]<br>{{AUR|scratch-text-editor}} || [[Wikipedia:Shotwell (software)|Shotwell]]<br>{{pkg|shotwell}} || [[Wikipedia:Totem (software)|Totem]]<br>{{pkg|totem}} || [[Midori]]<br>{{pkg|midori-gtk3}} || [[LightDM]] Pantheon&nbsp;Greeter<br>{{AUR|lightdm-pantheon-greeter}}
 
|-
 
| [[Razor-qt]] (LXDE-Qt) || [[Qt]] 4 <br>{{pkg|qt4}}|| [[Openbox]]<br>{{pkg|openbox}} || Razor Panel<br>{{AUR|razor-qt}}<br>({{AUR|lxqt-panel-git}}) || QTerminal<br>{{AUR|qterminal-git}} || PCManFM-Qt<br>{{AUR|pcmanfm-qt-git}} || [http://speedcrunch.org/ SpeedCrunch]<br>{{AUR|speedcrunch}} || JuffEd<br>{{AUR|juffed}} || LxImage-Qt<br>{{AUR|lximage-qt-git}} || Qmmp<br>{{Pkg|qmmp}} || QupZilla<br>{{Pkg|qupzilla}} || [[LightDM]]&nbsp;Razor-qt&nbsp;Greeter (SDDM)<br>{{AUR|lightdm-razor-greeter}}<br>({{AUR|sddm}})
 
|-
 
| [[ROX]] || [[GTK+]] 2<br>{{pkg|gtk2}} || [http://rox.sourceforge.net/desktop/OroboROX.html OroboROX]<br>{{AUR|oroborox}} || [http://rox.sourceforge.net/desktop/ROX-Filer.html ROX-Filer]<br>{{pkg|rox}} || [http://roxterm.sourceforge.net/ ROXTerm]<br>{{Pkg|roxterm}} ({{AUR|roxterm-gtk2}}) || [http://rox.sourceforge.net/desktop/ROX-Filer.html ROX-Filer]<br>{{pkg|rox}} || [http://galculator.sourceforge.net/ Galculator]<br>{{Pkg|galculator-gtk2}} || [http://rox.sourceforge.net/desktop/Edit.html Edit]<br>{{AUR|rox-edit}} || [http://rox.sourceforge.net/desktop/picky.html Picky]<br>{{AUR?|picky}} || [http://rox.sourceforge.net/desktop/Software/Audio_Video/MusicBox.html MusicBox]<br>{{AUR?|musicbox}} || [[Midori]]<br>{{pkg|midori}} || [[LightDM]] GTK+ Greeter<br>{{pkg|lightdm-gtk2-greeter}}
 
|-
 
| [[Sugar]] || [[GTK+]] 2/3<br>{{pkg|gtk2}} {{pkg|gtk3}} || [[Wikipedia:Metacity|Metacity]]<br>{{pkg|metacity}} || Sugar<br>{{AUR|sugar}} || Terminal<br>{{AUR|sugar-activity-terminal}} || Sugar Journal<br>{{AUR|sugar}} || Calculate<br>{{AUR|sugar-activity-calculate}} || Write<br>{{AUR|sugar-activity-write}} || ImageViewer<br>{{AUR|sugar-activity-imageviewer}} || Jukebox<br>{{AUR|sugar-activity-jukebox}} || Browse<br>{{AUR|sugar-activity-browse}} || [[LightDM]] GTK+ Greeter<br>{{pkg|lightdm-gtk3-greeter}}
 
|-
 
| [[Trinity]] || [[Qt]] 3 || TWin || Kicker || Konsole || Konqueror || KCalc || Kwrite / Kate || Kuickshow || Kaffeine || Konqueror || TDM
 
|-
 
| [[Unity]] || [[GTK+]] 2/3<br>{{pkg|gtk2}} {{pkg|gtk3}} || [[Compiz]]<br>{{AUR|compiz-devel}}  || Unity<br>{{AUR|unity}} || [[Wikipedia:GNOME Terminal|GNOME&nbsp;Terminal]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-terminal}} || [[Nautilus]]<br>{{pkg|nautilus}} || [[Wikipedia:GCalctool|Calculator]]<br>{{pkg|gnome-calculator}} || [[gedit]]<br>{{pkg|gedit}} || [[Wikipedia:Eye of GNOME|Eye&nbsp;of&nbsp;GNOME]]<br>{{pkg|eog}} || [[Wikipedia:Totem (software)|Totem]]<br>{{pkg|totem}} || [[Firefox]]<br>{{pkg|firefox}}|| [[LightDM]] Unity Greeter<br>{{AUR|lightdm-unity-greeter}}
 
|-
 
| [[Xfce]] || [[GTK+]] 2<br>{{pkg|gtk2}} || [http://docs.xfce.org/xfce/xfwm4/start Xfwm4]<br>{{pkg|xfwm4}} || [http://docs.xfce.org/xfce/xfce4-panel/start Xfce Panel]<br>{{pkg|xfce4-panel}} || [http://www.xfce.org/projects/terminal Terminal]<br>{{pkg|xfce4-terminal}} || [[Thunar]]<br>{{pkg|thunar}} || [http://galculator.sourceforge.net/ Galculator]<br>{{Pkg|galculator-gtk2}} || Mousepad<br>{{pkg|mousepad}} || [http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/applications/ristretto Ristretto]<br>{{pkg|ristretto}} || [http://goodies.xfce.org/projects/applications/parole Parole]<br>{{pkg|parole}} || [[Midori]]<br>{{pkg|midori}} || [[LightDM]] GTK+ Greeter<br>{{pkg|lightdm-gtk2-greeter}}
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
==== Resource use ====
+
If the desktop environment has an article, see its ''Use a different window manager'' section, otherwise consult the official documentation.
 
 
In terms of system resources, GNOME and KDE are ''expensive'' desktop environments. Not only do complete installations consume more disk space than lightweight alternatives (Enlightenment, LXDE, Razor-qt and Xfce) but also more CPU and memory resources while in use. This is because GNOME and KDE are relatively ''full-featured'': they provide the most complete and well-integrated environments.
 
 
 
Enlightenment, LXDE, Razor-qt and Xfce, on the other hand, are ''lightweight'' desktop environments. They are designed to work well on older or lower-power hardware and generally consume fewer system resources while in use. This is achieved by cutting back on ''extra'' features (which some would term ''bloat'').
 
 
 
==== Environment familiarity ====
 
 
 
Many users describe KDE as more ''Windows-like'' and GNOME as more ''Mac-like''. This is a very subjective comparison, since either desktop environment can be customized to emulate the Windows or Mac operating systems. See [http://www.psychocats.net/ubuntucat/is-kde-more-windows-like-than-gnome/ Is KDE 'more Windows-like' than Gnome?] and [http://www.jeffwu.net/?p=71 KDE vs Gnome] for more information. ([http://linux.oneandoneis2.org/LNW.htm Linux is Not Windows] is also an excellent resource.)
 
 
 
== Custom environments ==
 
  
Desktop environments represent the simplest means of installing a ''complete'' graphical environment. However, users are free to build and customize their graphical environment in any number of ways should none of the popular desktop environments meet their requirements. Generally, building a custom environment involves selection of a suitable [[Window Manager|window manager]], a [[List of Applications#Taskbars / Panels / Docks|taskbar]] and a number of applications (a minimalist selection usually includes a [[List of Applications#Terminal emulators|terminal emulator]], [[List of Applications#File managers|file manager]], and [[List of Applications#Text editors|text editor]]).
+
* [[Budgie#Use a different window manager]]
 +
* [[Cinnamon#Use a different window manager]]
 +
* [[GNOME#Use a different window manager]]
 +
* [[KDE#Use a different window manager]]
 +
* [[LXDE#Use a different window manager]]
 +
* [[LXQt#Use a different window manager]]
 +
* [[MATE#Use a different window manager]]
 +
* [[Xfce#Use a different window manager]]

Latest revision as of 15:43, 15 June 2018

A desktop environment (DE) is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs, which share a common graphical user interface (GUI).

Overview

A desktop environment bundles together a variety of components to provide common graphical user interface elements such as icons, toolbars, wallpapers, and desktop widgets. Additionally, most desktop environments include a set of integrated applications and utilities. Most importantly, desktop environments provide their own window manager, which can however usually be replaced with another compatible one.

The user is free to configure their GUI environment in any number of ways. Desktop environments simply provide a complete and convenient means of accomplishing this task. Note that users are free to mix-and-match applications from multiple desktop environments. For example, a KDE user may install and run GNOME applications such as the Epiphany web browser, should he/she prefer it over KDE's Konqueror web browser. One drawback of this approach is that many applications provided by desktop environment projects rely heavily upon their DE's respective underlying libraries. As a result, installing applications from a range of desktop environments will require installation of a larger number of dependencies. Users seeking to conserve disk space often avoid such mixed environments, or chose alternatives which do depend on only few external libraries.

Furthermore, DE-provided applications tend to integrate better with their native environments. Superficially, mixing environments with different widget toolkits will result in visual discrepancies (that is, interfaces will use different icons and widget styles). In terms of usability, mixed environments may not behave similarly (e.g. single-clicking versus double-clicking icons; drag-and-drop functionality) potentially causing confusion or unexpected behavior.

Prior to installing a desktop environment, a functional X server installation is required. See Xorg for detailed information. Some desktop environments may also support Wayland as an alternative to X, but most of these are still experimental.

List of desktop environments

Officially supported

  • Budgie — Budgie is a desktop environment designed with the modern user in mind, it focuses on simplicity and elegance.
https://budgie-desktop.org/ || budgie-desktop
  • Cinnamon — Cinnamon strives to provide a traditional user experience. Cinnamon is a fork of GNOME 3.
http://cinnamon.linuxmint.com/ || cinnamon
  • Deepin — Deepin desktop interface and apps feature an intuitive and elegant design. Moving around, sharing and searching etc. has become simply a joyful experience.
https://www.deepin.org/ || deepin
  • Enlightenment — The Enlightenment desktop shell provides an efficient window manager based on the Enlightenment Foundation Libraries along with other essential desktop components like a file manager, desktop icons and widgets. It supports themes, while still being capable of performing on older hardware or embedded devices.
https://www.enlightenment.org/ || enlightenment
  • GNOME — The GNOME desktop environment is an attractive and intuitive desktop with both a modern (GNOME) and a classic (GNOME Classic) session.
https://www.gnome.org/gnome-3/ || gnome
  • GNOME Flashback — GNOME Flashback is a shell for GNOME 3 which was initially called GNOME fallback mode. The desktop layout and the underlying technology is similar to GNOME 2.
https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/GnomeFlashback || gnome-flashback
  • KDE Plasma — The KDE Plasma desktop environment is a familiar working environment. Plasma offers all the tools required for a modern desktop computing experience so you can be productive right from the start.
https://www.kde.org/plasma-desktop || plasma
  • LXDE — The Lightweight X11 Desktop Environment is a fast and energy-saving desktop environment. It comes with a modern interface, multi-language support, standard keyboard short cuts and additional features like tabbed file browsing. Fundamentally designed to be lightweight, LXDE strives to be less CPU and RAM intensive than other environments.
http://lxde.org/ || GTK+ 2: lxde, GTK+ 3: lxde-gtk3
  • LXQt — LXQt is the Qt port and the upcoming version of LXDE, the Lightweight Desktop Environment. It is the product of the merge between the LXDE-Qt and the Razor-qt projects: A lightweight, modular, blazing-fast and user-friendly desktop environment.
http://lxqt.org/ || lxqt
  • MATE — Mate provides an intuitive and attractive desktop to Linux users using traditional metaphors. MATE started as a fork of GNOME 2, but now uses GTK+ 3.
http://www.mate-desktop.org/ || mate
  • Sugar — The Sugar Learning Platform is a computer environment composed of Activities designed to help children from 5 to 12 years of age learn together through rich-media expression. Sugar is the core component of a worldwide effort to provide every child with the opportunity for a quality education — it is currently used by nearly one-million children worldwide speaking 25 languages in over 40 countries. Sugar provides the means to help people lead fulfilling lives through access to a quality education that is currently missed by so many.
https://sugarlabs.org/ || sugar + sugar-fructose
  • Xfce — Xfce embodies the traditional UNIX philosophy of modularity and re-usability. It consists of a number of components that provide the full functionality one can expect of a modern desktop environment, while remaining relatively light. They are packaged separately and you can pick among the available packages to create the optimal personal working environment.
http://www.xfce.org/ || xfce4

Unofficially supported

  • EDE — The "Equinox Desktop Environment" is a DE designed to be simple, extremely light-weight and fast.
http://equinox-project.org/ || edeAUR
  • Liri — Liri is a desktop environment with modern design and features. Liri is the merge between Hawaii, Papyros and the Liri Project. Highly experimental.
https://liri.io/ || liri-shell-gitAUR
  • Lumina — Lumina is a lightweight desktop environment written in Qt 5 for FreeBSD that uses Fluxbox for window management.
https://lumina-desktop.org/ || lumina-desktopAUR
  • Moksha — Fork of Enlightenment currently used as default desktop environment in Ubuntu-based Bodhi Linux.
http://www.bodhilinux.com/moksha-desktop/ || mokshaAUR
  • Pantheon — Pantheon is the default desktop environment originally created for the elementary OS distribution. It is written from scratch using Vala and the GTK3 toolkit. With regards to usability and appearance, the desktop has some similarities with GNOME Shell and macOS.
https://elementary.io/ || pantheon-session-gitAUR
  • theShell — theShell is a desktop environment that tries to be as transparent as possible. It uses Qt 5 as its widget toolkit and KWin as its window manager.
https://vicr123.github.io/theshell || theshellAUR
  • Trinity — The Trinity Desktop Environment (TDE) project is a computer desktop environment for Unix-like operating systems with a primary goal of retaining the overall KDE 3.5 computing style.
http://www.trinitydesktop.org/ || See Trinity

Custom environments

Desktop environments represent the simplest means of installing a complete graphical environment. However, users are free to build and customize their graphical environment in any number of ways if none of the popular desktop environments meet their requirements. Generally, building a custom environment involves selection of a suitable window manager, a taskbar and a number of applications (a minimalist selection usually includes a terminal emulator, file manager, and text editor).

Other components usually provided by desktop environments are:

Use a different window manager

If the desktop environment has an article, see its Use a different window manager section, otherwise consult the official documentation.