Difference between revisions of "DeveloperWiki:Building in a Clean Chroot"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Setting Up A Chroot: Huge help:style improvements.)
Line 45: Line 45:
 
The devtools package provides tools for creating and building within clean chroots. Install it if not done already:
 
The devtools package provides tools for creating and building within clean chroots. Install it if not done already:
  
  pacman -S devtools
+
  $ pacman -S devtools
  
 
To make a clean chroot, create a directory in which the chroot will reside.  For example, {{ic|$HOME/chroot}}.
 
To make a clean chroot, create a directory in which the chroot will reside.  For example, {{ic|$HOME/chroot}}.
 +
 +
$ mkdir ~/chroot
 +
 +
Define the {{ic|CHROOT}} variable:
 +
 +
$ CHROOT=$HOME/chroot
  
 
Now create the chroot:
 
Now create the chroot:
  
  CHROOT=$HOME/chroot
+
  # mkarchroot $CHROOT/root base-devel
mkdir $CHROOT
+
 
sudo mkarchroot $CHROOT/root base-devel
+
{{Note|One can also define the {{ic|CHROOT}} variable in {{ic|$HOME/.bashrc}} using the export command if the location is to be repeatedly used. }}
  
{{Note|One can also define the CHROOT variable in $HOME/.bashrc using the export command if the location is to be repeatedly used. }}
+
Edit {{ic|~/.makepkg.conf}} to set the packager name and any makeflags.  Also adjust the [[Pacman#Repositories|mirrorlist]] in {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} and enable the [[Testing#.5Btesting.5D|[testing]]] repository in {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.conf}}, if desired.
  
Edit {{ic|~/.makepkg.conf}} to set the packager name and any makeflags.  Also adjust the mirror list in {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} and enable '''[testing]''' in {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.conf}} if desired.
+
=== Custom pacman.conf ===
  
Alternatively, provide a custom{{ic|pacman.conf}} and {{ic|makepkg.conf}} with the following:
+
Alternatively, provide a custom {{ic|pacman.conf}} and {{ic|makepkg.conf}} with the following:
 
   
 
   
  sudo mkarchroot -C <pacman.conf> -M <makepkg.conf> $CHROOT/root base-devel
+
  # mkarchroot -C <pacman.conf> -M <makepkg.conf> $CHROOT/root base-devel
  
It is recommended however users do not use custom {{ic|pacman.conf}} and {{ic|makepkg.conf}} during the initial creation of clean chroot to ensure no user-specific adjustments are made. ''Use with caution.''
+
{{Warning|
 +
Using a custom {{ic|pacman.conf}} or {{ic|makepkg.conf}} during the initial creation of clean chroot can result in unintended custom adjustments to the chroot environment. ''Use with caution.''}}
  
 
== Building in the Chroot ==
 
== Building in the Chroot ==

Revision as of 05:25, 22 June 2013


Introduction

This article is part of the DeveloperWiki.

Why

Building in a clean chroot prevents missing dependencies in packages, whether due to unwanted linking or packages missing in the depends array in the PKGBUILD. It also allows users to build a package for the stable repositories (core, extra, community) while having packages from [testing] installed.

Convenience Way

To quickly build a package in a chroot without any further tinkering, one can use the helper scripts from the devtools package.

These helper scripts should be called in the same directory where the PKGBUILD is, just like with makepkg. For instance, extra-i686-build automatically sets up chroot in /var/lib/archbuild, updates it, and builds a package for the extra repository. For multilib builds there is just multilib-build without an architecture.

Tip: Consult the table below for information on which script to use when building for a specific repository and architecture.
Note: [core] is omitted because those packages are required to go through [testing] first before landing in [core].
Target repository Architecture Build script to use
extra / community i686 extra-i686-build
extra / community x86_64 extra-x86_64-build
testing / community-testing i686 testing-i686-build
testing / community-testing x86_64 testing-x86_64-build
staging / community-staging i686 staging-i686-build
staging / community-staging x86_64 staging-x86_64-build
multilib x86_64 multilib-build
multilib-testing x86_64 multilib-testing-build
multilib-staging x86_64 multilib-staging-build

Classic Way

Setting Up A Chroot

The devtools package provides tools for creating and building within clean chroots. Install it if not done already:

$ pacman -S devtools

To make a clean chroot, create a directory in which the chroot will reside. For example, $HOME/chroot.

$ mkdir ~/chroot

Define the CHROOT variable:

$ CHROOT=$HOME/chroot

Now create the chroot:

# mkarchroot $CHROOT/root base-devel
Note: One can also define the CHROOT variable in $HOME/.bashrc using the export command if the location is to be repeatedly used.

Edit ~/.makepkg.conf to set the packager name and any makeflags. Also adjust the mirrorlist in $CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist and enable the [testing] repository in $CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.conf, if desired.

Custom pacman.conf

Alternatively, provide a custom pacman.conf and makepkg.conf with the following:

# mkarchroot -C <pacman.conf> -M <makepkg.conf> $CHROOT/root base-devel
Warning: Using a custom pacman.conf or makepkg.conf during the initial creation of clean chroot can result in unintended custom adjustments to the chroot environment. Use with caution.

Building in the Chroot

Firstly, make sure the chroot is up to date with:

sudo arch-nspawn $CHROOT/root pacman -Syu

Then, to build a package in the chroot, run the following from the dir containing the PKGBUILD:

sudo makechrootpkg -c -r $CHROOT

Passing the -c flag to makechrootpkg ensures that the working chroot (named $CHROOT/$USERNAME) is cleaned before building starts.

Manual package installation

Packages can be installed manually to the working chroot by using:

sudo makechrootpkg -r $CHROOT -I package-1.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz

If done from a directory that contains a PKGBUILD, the package will then be built. Avoid being in such a directory if you want to just install the package.

Installation after building

Tell makechrootpkg to simply install a package to the rw layer of the chroot after building by passing the -i arg. Unrecognized args get passed to makepkg, so this calls `makepkg` with the -i arg.

sudo makechrootpkg -r $CHROOT -- -i

Handling Major Rebuilds

The cleanest way to handle a major rebuild is to use the [staging] repositories. Build the first package against [extra] and push it to [staging]. Then rebuild all following packages against [staging] and push them there.

If you can't use [staging], you can build against custom packages using a command like this:

sudo extra-x86_64-build -- -I ~/packages/foobar/foobar-2-1-any.pkg.tar.xz

You can specify more than one package to be installed using multiple -I arguments.

A simpler, but dirtier way to handle a major rebuild is to install all built packages in the chroot, never cleaning it. Build the first package using:

sudo extra-x86_64-build

And build all following packages using:

sudo makechrootpkg -n -r /var/lib/archbuild/extra-x86_64

Running namcap (the -n argument) implies installing the package in the chroot. *-build also does this by default.