Difference between revisions of "DeveloperWiki:Building in a Clean Chroot"

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= Convenience Way =
 
= Convenience Way =
To quickly build a package in a chroot without any further tinkering, one can use the helper scripts from the devtools package: '''$REPO-$ARCH-build'''
+
To quickly build a package in a chroot without any further tinkering, one can use the helper scripts from the devtools package.
  
These helper scripts should be called in the same directory where the PKGBUILD is, just like with makepkg. For instance, '''extra-i686-build''' automatically sets up chroot in /var/tmp/archbuild, updates it, and builds a package for the extra repository. For multilib builds there is just '''multilib-build''' without an architecture.
+
These helper scripts should be called in the same directory where the PKGBUILD is, just like with makepkg. For instance, {{ic|extra-i686-build}} automatically sets up chroot in {{ic|/var/lib/archbuild}}, updates it, and builds a package for the extra repository. For multilib builds there is just {{ic|multilib-build}} without an architecture.
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|Consult the table below for information on which script to use when building for a specific repository and architecture.}}
 +
 
 +
{{Note|[core] is omitted because those packages are required to go through [testing] first before landing in [core].}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Target repository || Architecture || Build script to use
 +
|-
 +
| extra / community || i686 || extra-i686-build
 +
|-
 +
| extra / community || x86_64 || extra-x86_64-build
 +
|-
 +
| testing / community-testing || i686 || testing-i686-build
 +
|-
 +
| testing / community-testing || x86_64 || testing-x86_64-build
 +
|-
 +
| staging / community-staging || i686 || staging-i686-build
 +
|-
 +
| staging / community-staging || x86_64 || staging-x86_64-build
 +
|-
 +
| multilib || x86_64 || multilib-build
 +
|-
 +
| multilib-testing || x86_64 || multilib-testing-build
 +
|-
 +
| multilib-staging || x86_64 || multilib-staging-build
 +
|}
  
 
= Classic Way =
 
= Classic Way =
 
== Setting Up A Chroot ==
 
== Setting Up A Chroot ==
  
The devtools package provides tools for creating and building within clean chroots. To make a clean chroot, create a directory in which the chroot will reside.  For example, {{ic|/tmp/WORK/chroot}}.
+
The devtools package provides tools for creating and building within clean chroots. Install it if not done already:
  
Now create the chroot:
+
$ pacman -S devtools
  
  CHROOT=$HOME/chroot
+
To make a clean chroot, create a directory in which the chroot will reside. For example, {{ic|$HOME/chroot}}.
mkdir $CHROOT
+
sudo mkarchroot $CHROOT/root base base-devel sudo
+
  
Edit {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/makepkg.conf}} to set the packager name and any makeflags. Also adjust the mirror list in {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} and enable '''[testing]''' {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.conf}} if desired.
+
  $ mkdir ~/chroot
  
Alternatively, provide a custom{{ic|pacman.conf}} and {{ic|makepkg.conf}} with the following:
+
Define the {{ic|CHROOT}} variable:
 +
 
 +
$ CHROOT=$HOME/chroot
 +
 
 +
Now create the chroot (the sub directory {{ic|root}} is required because the {{ic|$CHROOT}} directory will get other sub directories for clean working copies):
 +
 
 +
# mkarchroot $CHROOT/root base-devel
 +
 
 +
{{Note|One can also define the {{ic|CHROOT}} variable in {{ic|$HOME/.bashrc}} using the export command if the location is to be repeatedly used. }}
 +
 
 +
Edit {{ic|~/.makepkg.conf}} to set the packager name and any makeflags.  Also adjust the [[Pacman#Repositories|mirrorlist]] in {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist}} and enable the [[Testing#.5Btesting.5D|[testing]]] repository in {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.conf}}, if desired.
 +
 
 +
=== Custom pacman.conf ===
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, provide a custom {{ic|pacman.conf}} and {{ic|makepkg.conf}} with the following:
 
   
 
   
  sudo mkarchroot -C <pacman.conf> -M <makepkg.conf> $CHROOT/root base base-devel sudo
+
  # mkarchroot -C <pacman.conf> -M <makepkg.conf> $CHROOT/root base-devel
  
It is recommended however users do not use custom {{ic|pacman.conf}} and {{ic|makepkg.conf}} during the initial creation of clean chroot to ensure no user-specific adjustments are made. ''Use with caution.''
+
{{Warning|
 +
Using a custom {{ic|pacman.conf}} or {{ic|makepkg.conf}} during the initial creation of clean chroot can result in unintended custom adjustments to the chroot environment. ''Use with caution.''}}
  
 
== Building in the Chroot ==
 
== Building in the Chroot ==
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Firstly, make sure the chroot is up to date with:
 
Firstly, make sure the chroot is up to date with:
  
  sudo mkarchroot -u $CHROOT/root
+
  sudo arch-nspawn $CHROOT/root pacman -Syu
  
Then, to build a package in in the chroot, run the following from the dir containing the PKGBUILD:
+
Then, to build a package in the chroot, run the following from the dir containing the PKGBUILD:
  
 
  sudo makechrootpkg -c -r $CHROOT
 
  sudo makechrootpkg -c -r $CHROOT
  
A unionfs is used to maintain the clean chroot during building.  All installed dependencies or makedepends and other changes made during building are done in $CHROOT/rw.  Passing the -c flag to makechrootpkg ensures that this directory is cleaned before building starts.
+
Passing the -c flag to makechrootpkg ensures that the working chroot (named {{ic|$CHROOT/$USERNAME}}) is cleaned before building starts.
  
= Handling Major Rebuilds =
+
== Manual package installation ==
 +
Packages can be installed manually to the working chroot by using:
 +
sudo makechrootpkg -r $CHROOT -I package-1.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz
  
The cleanest way to handle a major rebuild is to create a new chroot and build the first package (typically the package for which the rebuild is meant). Then create a local repo inside the new chroot. To do this:
+
If done from a directory that contains a PKGBUILD, the package will then be built. Avoid being in such a directory if you want to just install the package.
  
sudo mkdir $CHROOT/root/repo
+
== Installation after building ==
  sudo chmod 777 <$CHROOT/root/repo
+
Tell makechrootpkg to simply install a package to the rw layer of the chroot after building by passing the -i arg. Unrecognized args get passed to makepkg, so this calls `makepkg` with the -i arg.
 +
  sudo makechrootpkg -r $CHROOT -- -i
  
The chmod statement allows for the coping of package files and for the creation of the local repo as your user rather than root.
+
= Handling Major Rebuilds =
  
cp <package> $CHROOT/root/repo
+
The cleanest way to handle a major rebuild is to use the [staging] repositories. Build the first package against [extra] and push it to [staging]. Then rebuild all following packages against [staging] and push them there.
cd $CHROOT/root/repo
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repo-add local.db.tar.gz <package>
+
  
Then add the local repo to {{ic|$CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.conf}}
+
If you can't use [staging], you can build against custom packages using a command like this:
  
  [local]
+
  sudo extra-x86_64-build -- -I ~/packages/foobar/foobar-2-1-any.pkg.tar.xz
Server = file:///repo
+
  
and update the repo:
+
You can specify more than one package to be installed using multiple -I arguments.
  
sudo mkarchroot -u $CHROOT/root
+
A simpler, but dirtier way to handle a major rebuild is to install all built packages in the chroot, never cleaning it. Build the first package using:
  
With every additional package rebuilt, copy the package to the local repo directory, it to the repo database and update the chroot.
+
sudo extra-x86_64-build
  
= Alternate Rebuild Handling =
+
And build all following packages using:
  
The above directions will work fine, but they can dirty the "pristine" chroot that makechrootpkg tries to keep in check (that is the point of using unionfs - dirtying a separate 'rw' directory).
+
sudo makechrootpkg -n -r /var/lib/archbuild/extra-x86_64
  
== Using a custom repo ==
+
Running namcap (the -n argument) implies installing the package in the chroot. *-build also does this by default.
Follow the steps above to setup a local repo inside the chroot.
+
 
+
Build packages using:
+
sudo makechrootpkg -r $CHROOT -u
+
The -u will update the chroot before building (-Syu) but updates will be installed to the rw layer, maintaining a clean chroot.
+
 
+
== Manual package installation ==
+
Packages can be installed manually to the rw layer of the chroot by using:
+
sudo makechrootpkg -r $CHROOT -I package-1.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.gz
+
 
+
== Installation after building ==
+
Tell makechrootpkg to simply install a package to the rw layer of the chroot after building by passing the -i arg. Unrecognized args get passed to makepkg, so this calls `makepkg` with the -i arg.
+
sudo makechrootpkg -r $CHROOT -- -i
+

Revision as of 21:23, 28 June 2013


Introduction

This article is part of the DeveloperWiki.

Why

Building in a clean chroot prevents missing dependencies in packages, whether due to unwanted linking or packages missing in the depends array in the PKGBUILD. It also allows users to build a package for the stable repositories (core, extra, community) while having packages from [testing] installed.

Convenience Way

To quickly build a package in a chroot without any further tinkering, one can use the helper scripts from the devtools package.

These helper scripts should be called in the same directory where the PKGBUILD is, just like with makepkg. For instance, extra-i686-build automatically sets up chroot in /var/lib/archbuild, updates it, and builds a package for the extra repository. For multilib builds there is just multilib-build without an architecture.

Tip: Consult the table below for information on which script to use when building for a specific repository and architecture.
Note: [core] is omitted because those packages are required to go through [testing] first before landing in [core].
Target repository Architecture Build script to use
extra / community i686 extra-i686-build
extra / community x86_64 extra-x86_64-build
testing / community-testing i686 testing-i686-build
testing / community-testing x86_64 testing-x86_64-build
staging / community-staging i686 staging-i686-build
staging / community-staging x86_64 staging-x86_64-build
multilib x86_64 multilib-build
multilib-testing x86_64 multilib-testing-build
multilib-staging x86_64 multilib-staging-build

Classic Way

Setting Up A Chroot

The devtools package provides tools for creating and building within clean chroots. Install it if not done already:

$ pacman -S devtools

To make a clean chroot, create a directory in which the chroot will reside. For example, $HOME/chroot.

$ mkdir ~/chroot

Define the CHROOT variable:

$ CHROOT=$HOME/chroot

Now create the chroot (the sub directory root is required because the $CHROOT directory will get other sub directories for clean working copies):

# mkarchroot $CHROOT/root base-devel
Note: One can also define the CHROOT variable in $HOME/.bashrc using the export command if the location is to be repeatedly used.

Edit ~/.makepkg.conf to set the packager name and any makeflags. Also adjust the mirrorlist in $CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist and enable the [testing] repository in $CHROOT/root/etc/pacman.conf, if desired.

Custom pacman.conf

Alternatively, provide a custom pacman.conf and makepkg.conf with the following:

# mkarchroot -C <pacman.conf> -M <makepkg.conf> $CHROOT/root base-devel
Warning: Using a custom pacman.conf or makepkg.conf during the initial creation of clean chroot can result in unintended custom adjustments to the chroot environment. Use with caution.

Building in the Chroot

Firstly, make sure the chroot is up to date with:

sudo arch-nspawn $CHROOT/root pacman -Syu

Then, to build a package in the chroot, run the following from the dir containing the PKGBUILD:

sudo makechrootpkg -c -r $CHROOT

Passing the -c flag to makechrootpkg ensures that the working chroot (named $CHROOT/$USERNAME) is cleaned before building starts.

Manual package installation

Packages can be installed manually to the working chroot by using:

sudo makechrootpkg -r $CHROOT -I package-1.0-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz

If done from a directory that contains a PKGBUILD, the package will then be built. Avoid being in such a directory if you want to just install the package.

Installation after building

Tell makechrootpkg to simply install a package to the rw layer of the chroot after building by passing the -i arg. Unrecognized args get passed to makepkg, so this calls `makepkg` with the -i arg.

sudo makechrootpkg -r $CHROOT -- -i

Handling Major Rebuilds

The cleanest way to handle a major rebuild is to use the [staging] repositories. Build the first package against [extra] and push it to [staging]. Then rebuild all following packages against [staging] and push them there.

If you can't use [staging], you can build against custom packages using a command like this:

sudo extra-x86_64-build -- -I ~/packages/foobar/foobar-2-1-any.pkg.tar.xz

You can specify more than one package to be installed using multiple -I arguments.

A simpler, but dirtier way to handle a major rebuild is to install all built packages in the chroot, never cleaning it. Build the first package using:

sudo extra-x86_64-build

And build all following packages using:

sudo makechrootpkg -n -r /var/lib/archbuild/extra-x86_64

Running namcap (the -n argument) implies installing the package in the chroot. *-build also does this by default.