dm-crypt/Encrypting a non-root file system
The following are examples of encrypting a secondary, i.e. non-root, filesystem with dm-crypt.
Encrypting a secondary filesystem usually protects only sensitive data, while leaving the operating system and program files unencrypted. This is useful for encrypting an external medium, such as a USB drive, so that it can be moved to different computers securely. One might also choose to encrypt sets of data separately according to who has access to it.
Because dm-crypt is a block-level encryption layer, it only encrypts full devices, full partitions and loop devices. To encrypt individual files requires a filesystem-level encryption layer, such as eCryptfs or EncFS. See Disk encryption for general information about securing private data.
This example covers the encryption of the
/home partition, but it can be applied to any other comparable non-root partition containing user data.
First make sure the partition is empty (has no file system attached to it). Delete the partition and create an empty one if it has a file system. Then prepare the partition by securely erasing it, see Dm-crypt/Drive preparation#Secure erasure of the hard disk drive.
Then setup the LUKS header with:
# cryptsetup options luksFormat device
device with the previously created partition. See Dm-crypt/Device encryption#Encryption options for LUKS mode for details like the available
To gain access to the encrypted partition, unlock it with the device mapper, using:
# cryptsetup open device name
After unlocking the partition, it will be available at
/dev/mapper/name. Now create a file system of your choice with:
# mkfs.fstype /dev/mapper/name
Mount the file system to
/home, or if it should be accessible to only one user to
/home/username, see #Manual mounting and unmounting.
Manual mounting and unmounting
To mount the partition:
# cryptsetup --type luks open device name # mount -t fstype /dev/mapper/name /mnt/home
To unmount it:
# umount /mnt/home # cryptsetup close name
Automated unlocking and mounting
There are three different solutions for automating the process of unlocking the partition and mounting its filesystem.
At boot time
/etc/crypttab configuration file, unlocking happens at boot time by systemd's automatic parsing. This is the recommended solution if you want to use one common partition for all user's home partitions or automatically mount another encrypted block device.
See Dm-crypt/System configuration#crypttab for references and Dm-crypt/System configuration#Mounting at boot time for an example set up.
On user login
Using pam_exec it is possible to unlock (cryptsetup open) the partition on user login: this is the recommended solution if you want to have a single user's home directory on a partition. See dm-crypt/Mounting at login.
Unlocking on user login is also possible with pam_mount.
A loop device enables to map a blockdevice to a file with the standard util-linux tool
losetup. The file can then contain a filesystem, which can be used quite like any other filesystem. A lot of users know TrueCrypt as a tool to create encrypted containers. Just about the same functionality can be achieved with a loopback filesystem encrypted with LUKS and is shown in the following example.
First, start by creating an encrypted container, using an appropriate random number generator:
# dd if=/dev/urandom of=/bigsecret bs=1M count=10
This will create the file
bigsecret with a size of 10 megabytes.
Next create the device node
/dev/loop0, so that we can mount/use our container:
# losetup /dev/loop0 /bigsecret
From now on the procedure is the same as for #Partition, except for the fact that the container is already randomised and will not need another secure erasure.
Manual mounting and unmounting
To unmount the container:
# umount /mnt/secret # cryptsetup close secret # losetup -d /dev/loop0
To mount the container again:
# losetup /dev/loop0 /bigsecret # cryptsetup --type luks open /dev/loop0 secret # mount -t ext4 /dev/mapper/secret /mnt/secret