Back to Dm-crypt.
Securing the unencrypted boot partition
/boot partition and the Master Boot Record are the two areas of the disk that are not encrypted, even in an encrypted root configuration. They can not be encrypted because the boot loader and BIOS (respectively) are not able to unlock a dm-crypt container in order to continue the boot process. This section describes steps that can be taken to make the boot process more secure.
Note that securing the
/boot partition and MBR can mitigate numerous attacks that occurr during the boot process, but systems configured this way may still be vulnerable to BIOS/UEFI/firmware tampering, hardware keyloggers, cold boot attacks, and many other threats that are beyond the scope of this article.
Booting from a removable device
Using a separate device to boot a system is a fairly straightforward procedure, and offers a significant security improvement against some kinds of attacks. Two vulnerable parts of a system employing an encrypted root filesystem are
- the Master Boot Record, and
These must be stored unencrypted in order for the system to boot. In order to protect these from tampering, it is advisable to store them on a removable medium, such as a USB drive, and boot from that drive instead of the hard disk. As long as you keep the drive with you at all times, you can be certain that those components have not been tampered with, making authentication far more secure when unlocking your system.
It is assumed that you already have your system configured with a dedicated partition mounted at
/boot. If you do not, please follow the steps in Dm-crypt/Encrypting_an_entire_system#Configuring_the_boot_loader_3, substituting your hard disk for a removable drive.
Prepare the removable drive (
# gdisk /dev/sdx #format if necessary. Alternatively, cgdisk, fdisk, cfdisk, gparted... # mkfs.ext2 /dev/sdx1 # mount /dev/sdx1 /mnt
Copy your existing
/boot contents to the new one.
# cp -R -i -d /boot/* /mnt
Mount the new partition. Don't forget to update your fstab file accordingly.
# umount /boot # umount /mnt # mount /dev/sdx1 /boot # genfstab -p -U / > /etc/fstab
grub-mkconfig should detect the new partition UUID automatically, but custom menu entries may need to be updated manually.
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg # grub-install /dev/sdx #install to the removable device, not the hard disk.
Reboot and test the new configuration. Remember to set your device boot order accordingly in your BIOS or UEFI. If the system fails to boot, you should still be able to boot from the hard drive in order to correct the problem.
Referring to an article from the ct-magazine (Issue 3/12, page 146, 01.16.2012 http://www.heise.de/ct/inhalt/2012/03/6/) the following script checks files under
/boot for changes of SHA-1 hash, inode and occupied blocks on the hard drive. It also checks the MBR. The script cannot prevent certain type of attacks, but a lot are made harder. No configuration of the script itself is stored in unencrypted
/boot. With a locked/powered-off crypted system this makes it infeasible for an attacker to recognize that an automatic checksum comparison of the partition is done upon boot.
The script with installation instructions is available here: ftp://ftp.heise.de/pub/ct/listings/1203-146.zip (Author: Juergen Schmidt, ju at heisec.de; License: GPLv2). There is also an AUR package: AUR and a slightly updated AUR package AUR which includes systemd support.
- For classical sysvinit: add
/usr/local/bin/chkboot.sh &to your
- For systemd: add a service file and enable the service: systemd. The service file might look like:
[Unit] Description=Check that boot is what we want Requires=basic.target After=basic.target [Service] Type=oneshot ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/chkboot.sh [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
There is a small caveat for systemd: At the time of writing the original
chkboot.sh script provided contains an empty space at the beginning of
#!/bin/bash which has to be removed for the service to start successfully.
/usr/local/bin/chkboot_user.sh need to be excuted after login, add it to the autostart (e.g. under KDE -> System Settings -> Startup and Shutdown -> Autostart; Gnome3: gnome-session-properties).
With Arch Linux changes to
/boot are pretty frequent, for example by new kernels rolling-in. Therefore it may be helpful to use the scripts with every full system update. One way to do so:
#!/bin/bash # # Note: Insert your <user> and execute it with sudo for pacman & chkboot to work automagically # echo "Pacman update  Quickcheck before updating" & sudo -u <user> /usr/local/bin/chkboot_user.sh # insert your logged on <user> /usr/local/bin/chkboot.sh sync # sync disks with any results sudo -u <user> /usr/local/bin/chkboot_user.sh # insert your logged on <user> echo "Pacman update  Syncing repos for pacman" pacman -Syu /usr/local/bin/chkboot.sh sync sudo -u <user> /usr/local/bin/chkboot_user.sh # insert your logged on <user> echo "Pacman update  All done, let's roll on ..."
Alternatively to above scripts, a hash check can be set up with AIDE which can be customized via a very flexible configuration file.
While one of these methods should serve the purpose for most users, they do not address all security problems associated with the unencrypted
/boot. One approach which endeavours to provide a fully authenticated boot chain was published with POTTS as an academic thesis to implement the STARK authentication framework.
The POTTS proof-of-concept uses Arch Linux as a base distribution and implements a system boot chain with
- POTTS - a bootmenu for a one-time authentication message prompt
- TrustedGrub - a grub-legacy implementation which authenticates the kernel and initramfs against TPM chip registers
- TRESOR - a kernel patch which implements AES but keeps the master-key not in RAM but in CPU registers during runtime.
As part of the thesis installation instructions based on Arch Linux (iso 2013-01) have been published. If you want to try it, be aware these tools are not in standard repositories and the solution will be time consuming to maintain.
Using GPG or OpenSSL Encrypted Keyfiles
The following forum posts give instructions to use two factor authentication, gpg or openssl encrypted keyfiles, instead of a plaintext keyfile described earlier in this wiki article System Encryption using LUKS with GPG encrypted keys:
- GnuPG: Post regarding GPG encrypted keys This post has the generic instructions.
- OpenSSL: Post regarding OpenSSL encrypted keys This post only has the
- OpenSSL: Post regarding OpenSSL salted bf-cbc encrypted keys This post has the
bfkfinitcpio hooks, install, and encrypted keyfile generator scripts.
- You can follow the above instructions with only two primary partitions one boot partition
(required because of LVM), and one primary LVM partition. Within the LVM partition you can have
as many partitions as you need, but most importantly it should contain at least root, swap, and
home logical volume partitions. This has the added benefit of having only one keyfile for all
your partitions, and having the ability to hibernate your computer (suspend to disk) where the
swap partition is encrypted. If you decide to do so your hooks in
should look like
HOOKS=" ... usb usbinput (etwo or ssldec) encrypt(if using openssl) lvm2 resume ... "
and you should add
"resume=/dev/mapper/<VolumeGroupName>-<LVNameOfSwap>" to your kernel parameters.
- If you need to temporarily store the unecrypted keyfile somewhere, do not store them on an unencrypted disk. Even better make sure to store them to RAM such as
- If you want to use a GPG encrypted keyfile, you need to use a statically compiled GnuPG version 1.4 or you could edit the hooks and use this AUR package gnupg1
- It is possible that an update to OpenSSL could break the custom
ssldecmentioned in the second forum post.
Remote unlocking of the root (or other) partition
If you want to be able to reboot a fully LUKS-encrypted system remotely, or start it with a Wake-on-LAN service, you will need a way to enter a passphrase for the root partition/volume at startup. This can be achieved by running the
net hook along with an SSH server in initrd. Install the AUR package from the AUR and follow the post-installation instructions. Replace the
encrypt hook with
dropbear encryptssh in
/etc/mkinitcpio.conf. Put the
net hook early in the HOOKS array if your DHCP server takes a long time to lease IP addresses.
If you would simply like a nice solution to mount other encrypted partitions (such as
/home)remotely, you may want to look at this forum thread.
Discard/TRIM support for solid state disks (SSD)
Solid state disk users should be aware that by default, Linux's full-disk encryption mechanisms will not forward TRIM commands from the filesystem to the underlying disk. The device-mapper maintainers have made it clear that TRIM support will never be enabled by default on dm-crypt devices because of the potential security implications.
Most users will still want to use TRIM on their encrypted SSDs. Minimal data leakage in the form of freed block information, perhaps sufficient to determine the filesystem in use, may occur on devices with TRIM enabled. An illustration and discussion of the issues arising from activating TRIM is available in the blog of a
As a semi-tangential caveat, it is worth noting that because TRIM provides information to the disk firmware about which blocks contain data, encryption schemes that rely on plausible deniability, like TrueCrypt's hidden volumes, should never be used on a device that utilizes TRIM. This is probably also valid for TC containers within a LUKS encrypted device that uses TRIM.
TrueCrypt's developers also recommend against using any TC volume on a device that performs wear-leveling techniques to extend the life of the disk; most flash devices, including SSDs and USB flash drives, use mandatory wear-leveling at the firmware level. LUKS devices are probably not vulnerable to problems with wear-leveling if the entire device is blanked before the LUKS partition is initialized. See here and here for more information.
:allow-discards to the
cryptdevice option. The TRIM option may look like this:
For the main
cryptdevice configuration options before the
:allow-discards please refer to the sections following. Besides the kernel option, it is also required to mount the filesystem (e.g.
/dev/mapper/root in this example) with the
discard option in
/etc/fstab. For details, please refer to the SSD page. For LUKS devices unlocked manually on the console or via
allow-discards may be used.
Modifying the encrypt hook for a non-root partition
Maybe you have a requirement for using the
encrypt hook on a non-root partition. Arch does not support this out of the box, however, you can easily change the cryptdev and cryptname values in
/lib/initcpio/hooks/encrypt (the first one to your
/dev/sd* partition, the second to the name you want to attribute). That should be enough.
The big advantage is you can have everything automated, while setting up
/etc/crypttab with an external key file (i.e. the keyfile is not on any internal hard drive partition) can be a pain - you need to make sure the USB/FireWire/... device gets mounted before the encrypted partition, which means you have to change the order of
/etc/fstab (at least).
Of course, if the
/etc/crypttab, only one partition is supported, but with some further hacking one should be able to have multiple partitions unlocked.
If you want to do this on a software RAID partition, there is one more thing you need to do. Just setting the
/dev/mdX device in
/lib/initcpio/hooks/encrypt is not enough; the
encrypt hook will fail to find the key for some reason, and not prompt for a passphrase either. It looks like the RAID devices are not brought up until after the
encrypt hook is run. You can solve this by putting the RAID array in
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux md=1,/dev/hda5,/dev/hdb5
If you set up your root partition as a RAID, you will notice the similarities with that setup ;-). GRUB can handle multiple array definitions just fine:
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-linux root=/dev/md0 ro md=0,/dev/sda1,/dev/sdb1 md=1,/dev/sda5,/dev/sdb5,/dev/sdc5