Difference between revisions of "Domain name resolution"

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(Systemd-resolved: there's no point in showing the content of /run/systemd/resolve/stub-resolv.conf here)
(Resolvers: link to systemd issue about "strict" mode)
 
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[[Category:Network configuration]]
 
[[Category:Network configuration]]
 
[[de:Resolv.conf]]
 
[[de:Resolv.conf]]
[[es:Resolv.conf]]
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[[es:Domain name resolution]]
 
[[fr:Resolv.conf]]
 
[[fr:Resolv.conf]]
 
[[it:Resolv.conf]]
 
[[it:Resolv.conf]]
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== Name Service Switch ==
 
== Name Service Switch ==
:''"NSS" redirects here. For Mozilla cryptographic libraries, see [[Network Security Services]].''
 
  
The [[Wikipedia:Name Service Switch|Name Service Switch]] (NSS) facility is part of the GNU C Library ({{Pkg|glibc}}) and backs the {{man|3|getaddrinfo}} API, used to resolve domain names. NSS allows system databases to be provided by separate services, whose search order can be configured by the administrator in {{man|5|nsswitch.conf}}. The database responsible for domain name resolution is the {{ic|hosts}} database, for which glibc offers the following services:
+
The [[Wikipedia:Name Service Switch|Name Service Switch]] (NSS) facility is part of the GNU C Library ({{Pkg|glibc}}) and backs the {{man|3|getaddrinfo}} API, used to resolve domain names. NSS allows system databases to be provided by separate services, whose search order can be configured by the administrator in {{man|5|nsswitch.conf}}. The database responsible for domain name resolution is the ''hosts'' database, for which glibc offers the following services:
  
* {{ic|file}}: reads the {{ic|/etc/hosts}} file, see {{man|5|hosts}}
+
* ''file'': reads the {{ic|/etc/hosts}} file, see {{man|5|hosts}}
* {{ic|dns}}: the [[#Glibc resolver|glibc resolver]] which reads {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}, see {{man|5|resolv.conf}}
+
* ''dns'': the [[#Glibc resolver|glibc resolver]] which reads {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}, see {{man|5|resolv.conf}}
  
 
[[Systemd]] provides three NSS services for hostname resolution:
 
[[Systemd]] provides three NSS services for hostname resolution:
  
* {{man|8|nss-resolve}} - a caching DNS stub resolver, described in [[#Systemd-resolved]]
+
* {{man|8|nss-resolve}} - a caching DNS stub resolver, described in [[systemd-resolved]]
 
* {{man|8|nss-myhostname}} - provides hostname resolution without having to edit {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, described in [[Network configuration#Local hostname resolution]]
 
* {{man|8|nss-myhostname}} - provides hostname resolution without having to edit {{ic|/etc/hosts}}, described in [[Network configuration#Local hostname resolution]]
 
* {{man|8|nss-mymachines}} - provides hostname resolution for the names of local {{man|8|systemd-machined}} containers  
 
* {{man|8|nss-mymachines}} - provides hostname resolution for the names of local {{man|8|systemd-machined}} containers  
  
=== Check if you can resolve domain names ===
+
=== Resolve a domain name using NSS ===
  
NSS databases can be queried with {{man|1|getent}}. You can resolve a domain name through NSS using:
+
NSS databases can be queried with {{man|1|getent}}. A domain name can be resolved through NSS using:
  
 
  $ getent hosts ''domain_name''
 
  $ getent hosts ''domain_name''
  
{{Note|While most programs resolve domain names using NSS, some may read {{ic|resolv.conf}} and/or {{ic|/etc/hosts}} directly. See [[Network configuration#Local hostname resolution]].}}
+
{{Note|While most programs resolve domain names using NSS, some may read {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} and/or {{ic|/etc/hosts}} directly. See [[Network configuration#Local hostname resolution]].}}
  
 
== Glibc resolver ==
 
== Glibc resolver ==
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{{man|5|resolv.conf}} lists nameservers together with some configuration options.
 
{{man|5|resolv.conf}} lists nameservers together with some configuration options.
Nameservers listed first are tried first, up to three nameservers may be listed. Lines starting with a number sign are ignored.
+
Nameservers listed first are tried first, up to three nameservers may be listed. Lines starting with a number sign ({{ic|#}}) are ignored.
  
{{Note|The glibc resolver does not cache queries. See [[#Performance]] for more information.}}
+
{{Note|The glibc resolver does not cache queries. To improve query lookup time you can set up a caching resolver. See [[#Resolvers]] for more information.}}
  
=== Overwriting of resolv.conf ===
+
=== Overwriting of /etc/resolv.conf ===
  
[[Network manager]]s tend to overwrite {{ic|resolv.conf}}, for specifics see the corresponding section:
+
[[Network manager]]s tend to overwrite {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}, for specifics see the corresponding section:
  
 
* [[dhcpcd#resolv.conf]]
 
* [[dhcpcd#resolv.conf]]
Line 54: Line 53:
 
* [[NetworkManager#resolv.conf]]
 
* [[NetworkManager#resolv.conf]]
  
To prevent programs from overwriting {{ic|resolv.conf}} you can also write-protect it by setting the immutable [[file attribute]].
+
To prevent programs from overwriting {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} you can also write-protect it by setting the immutable [[file attribute]]:
  
{{Tip|If you want multiple processes to write to {{ic|resolv.conf}}, you can use [[openresolv]].}}
+
# chattr +i /etc/resolv.conf
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|If you want multiple processes to write to {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}, you can use [[resolvconf]].}}
  
 
=== Limit lookup time ===
 
=== Limit lookup time ===
Line 66: Line 67:
 
=== Hostname lookup delayed with IPv6 ===
 
=== Hostname lookup delayed with IPv6 ===
  
If you experience a 5 second delay when resolving hostnames it might be due to a DNS-server/Firewall misbehaving and only giving one reply to a parallel A and AAAA request ([http://udrepper.livejournal.com/20948.html source]).
+
If you experience a 5 second delay when resolving hostnames it might be due to a DNS-server/Firewall misbehaving and only giving one reply to a parallel A and AAAA request.[https://udrepper.livejournal.com/20948.html] You can fix that by setting the following option in {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}:
You can fix that by setting the following option in {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}:
 
  
 
  options single-request
 
  options single-request
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=== Local domain names ===
 
=== Local domain names ===
  
If you want to be able to use the hostname of local machine names without the fully qualified domain names, then add a line to {{ic|resolv.conf}} with the local domain such as:
+
If you want to be able to use the hostname of local machine names without the fully qualified domain names, then add a line to {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} with the local domain such as:
  
 
  domain example.com
 
  domain example.com
Line 79: Line 79:
 
That way you can refer to local hosts such as {{ic|mainmachine1.example.com}} as simply {{ic|mainmachine1}} when using the ''ssh'' command, but the ''drill'' command still requires the fully qualified domain names in order to perform lookups.
 
That way you can refer to local hosts such as {{ic|mainmachine1.example.com}} as simply {{ic|mainmachine1}} when using the ''ssh'' command, but the ''drill'' command still requires the fully qualified domain names in order to perform lookups.
  
== Systemd-resolved ==
+
== Resolvers ==
 
 
{{man|8|systemd-resolved}} is a [[systemd]] service that provides network name resolution to local applications via a [[D-Bus]] interface, the {{ic|resolve}} NSS service ({{man|8|nss-resolve}}), and a local DNS stub listener on {{ic|127.0.0.53}}.
 
 
 
''systemd-resolved'' has four different modes for handling the [[#Glibc resolver|glibc resolver]]'s ''resolv.conf'' (described in {{man|8|systemd-resolved|/ETC/RESOLV.CONF}}). We will focus here on the two most relevant modes.
 
 
 
# The mode in which ''systemd-resolved'' is a client of the {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}}. This mode preserves {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} and is '''compatible''' with the procedures described in this page.
 
# The ''systemd-resolved'''s '''recommended''' mode of operation: the DNS stub file {{ic|/run/systemd/resolve/stub-resolv.conf}} contains both the local stub {{ic|127.0.0.53}} as the only DNS servers and a list of search domains.
 
 
 
The service users are advised to redirect the {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} file to the local stub DNS resolver file {{ic|/run/systemd/resolve/stub-resolv.conf}} managed by ''systemd-resolved''. This propagates the systemd managed configuration to all the clients. This can be done by deleting or renaming the existing {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} and replacing it by a symbolic link to the systemd stub:
 
 
 
# ln -sf /run/systemd/resolve/stub-resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf
 
  
In this mode, the DNS servers are provided in the {{man|5|resolved.conf}} file:
+
{{Expansion|Fill in the unknowns. Mention {{Pkg|dingo}}, maybe below table because it only works with one provider and therefore doesn't really fit into the table.}}
  
{{hc|/etc/systemd/resolved.conf.d/dns_servers.conf|2=
+
The Glibc resolver provides only the most basic necessities, it does not cache queries nor provides any security features. If you require more functionality, use another resolver.
[Resolve]
 
'''DNS=91.239.100.100 89.233.43.71'''
 
}}
 
 
 
In order to check the DNS actually used by ''systemd-resolved'', the command to use is:
 
 
 
$ resolvectl status
 
  
 
{{Tip|
 
{{Tip|
* To understand the context around the DNS choices and switches, one can turn on detailed debug information for ''systemd-resolved'' as described in [[Systemd#Diagnosing a service]].
+
* The ''drill'' or ''dig'' [[#Lookup utilities|lookup utilities]] report the query time.
* The mode of operation of ''systemd-resolved'' is detected automatically, depending on whether {{ic|/etc/resolv.conf}} is a symlink to the local stub DNS resolver file or contains server names.
+
* A router usually sets its own caching resolver as the network's DNS server thus providing DNS cache for the whole network.
 +
* If it takes too long to switch to the next DNS server you can try [[#Limit lookup time|decreasing the timeout]].
 
}}
 
}}
  
== Performance ==
+
In the table below, the columns have the following meaning:
  
The [[#Glibc resolver]] does not cache queries. If you want local caching use [[#Systemd-resolved]] or set up a local caching [[DNS server]] and use {{ic|127.0.0.1}}.
+
* ''Cache'': [[Wikipedia:Name server#Caching name server|caches]] the DNS queries to improve lookup times of subsequent identical requests.
 +
* ''Recursor'': can [[Wikipedia:Name server#Recursive query|recursively query]] the domain name starting from the [[Wikipedia:DNS root zone|DNS root zone]].
 +
* ''resolvconf compatibility'': can acquire name servers and search domains, to use for forwarding requests, from software that sets them using [[resolvconf]].
 +
* ''Validates DNSSEC'': [[Wikipedia:Domain Name System Security Extensions#The lookup procedure|validates]] DNS query responses using [[DNSSEC]].
 +
* ''DNS over TLS'': supports forwarding using the [[Wikipedia:DNS over TLS|DNS over TLS]] protocol.
 +
* ''DNS over HTTPS'': supports forwarding using the [[Wikipedia:DNS over HTTPS|DNS over HTTPS]] protocol.
  
{{Tip|The ''drill'' or ''dig'' [[#Lookup utilities]] report the query time.}}
+
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center"
 +
! Resolver !! Cache !! Recursor !! ''resolvconf'' compatibility !!  Validates DNSSEC !! DNS over TLS !! DNS over HTTPS
 +
|-
 +
! [[#Glibc resolver|glibc]]
 +
| {{No}} || {{No}} || {{G|[[openresolv]]}} || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{No}}
 +
|-
 +
! [[BIND]]
 +
| {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{G|[[openresolv]] subscriber}} || {{Yes}} || ? || ?
 +
|-
 +
! [[dnscrypt-proxy]]<sup>1</sup>
 +
| {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{Yes}}
 +
|-
 +
! [[dnsmasq]]
 +
| {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{G|[[openresolv]] subscriber}} || {{Yes}} || {{No|http://lists.thekelleys.org.uk/pipermail/dnsmasq-discuss/2018q2/012131.html}} || {{No}}
 +
|-
 +
! [[Knot Resolver]]
 +
| {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{No|https://gitlab.labs.nic.cz/knot/knot-resolver/issues/243}}
 +
|-
 +
! [[pdnsd]]
 +
| {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{G|[[openresolv]] subscriber}} || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{No}}
 +
|-
 +
! {{Pkg|powerdns-recursor}}
 +
| {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{No|https://roy.marples.name/projects/openresolv/config#pdns_recursor}} || {{Yes}} || ? || ?
 +
|-
 +
! [[Rescached]]
 +
| {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{G|[[openresolv]] subscriber}}<sup>2</sup> || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{Y|Limited}}<sup>3</sup>
 +
|-
 +
! [[Stubby]]
 +
| {{No}} || {{No}} || {{No}} || {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{No}}
 +
|-
 +
!style="white-space: nowrap;"| [[systemd-resolved]]
 +
| {{Yes}} || {{No}} || {{G|[[systemd-resolvconf]]}} || {{Yes}} || {{Y|Insecure}}<sup>4</sup> || {{No|https://github.com/systemd/systemd/issues/8639}}
 +
|-
 +
! [[Unbound]]
 +
| {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{G|[[openresolv]] subscriber}} || {{Yes}} || {{Yes}} || {{No|1=https://nlnetlabs.nl/bugs-script/show_bug.cgi?id=1200}}
 +
|}
  
Internet service providers usually provide working DNS servers. A router may also add an extra DNS server in case it has its own cache server. Switching between DNS servers is transparent for Windows users, because if a DNS server is slow or does not work it will immediately switch to a better one. However, Linux usually takes longer to timeout, which could cause delays.
+
# Implements a [[Wikipedia:DNSCrypt|DNSCrypt]] protocol client.
 +
# Can use the subscribers of dnsmasq, pdns and unbound.[https://github.com/shuLhan/rescached-go#integration-with-openresolv]
 +
# Only forwards using DNS over HTTPS when Rescached itself is queried using DNS over HTTPS.[https://github.com/shuLhan/rescached-go#integration-with-dns-over-https]
 +
# From {{man|5|resolved.conf}}: ''Note as the resolver is not capable of authenticating the server, it is vulnerable for "man-in-the-middle" attacks.''[https://github.com/systemd/systemd/issues/9397] Also, the only supported mode is "opportunistic", which ''makes DNS-over-TLS vulnerable to "downgrade" attacks''.[https://github.com/systemd/systemd/issues/10755]
  
 
== Privacy ==
 
== Privacy ==
 +
 +
DNS is not encrypted, so you may want to use a [[#Resolvers|resolver]] that supports an encrypted protocol, like [[Wikipedia:DNS over TLS|DNS over TLS]], [[Wikipedia:DNS over HTTPS|DNS over HTTPS]] or [[Wikipedia:DNSCrypt|DNSCrypt]].
  
 
Most DNS servers keep a log of IP addresses and sites visited on a more or less temporary basis. The data collected can be used to perform various statistical studies. Personally-identifying information have value and can also be rented or sold to third parties. [[Alternative DNS services]] provides a list of popular services, check their privacy policy for information about how user data is handled.
 
Most DNS servers keep a log of IP addresses and sites visited on a more or less temporary basis. The data collected can be used to perform various statistical studies. Personally-identifying information have value and can also be rented or sold to third parties. [[Alternative DNS services]] provides a list of popular services, check their privacy policy for information about how user data is handled.

Latest revision as of 13:49, 17 November 2018

In general, a domain name represents an IP address and is associated to it in the Domain Name System (DNS). This article explains how to configure domain name resolution and resolve domain names.

Name Service Switch

The Name Service Switch (NSS) facility is part of the GNU C Library (glibc) and backs the getaddrinfo(3) API, used to resolve domain names. NSS allows system databases to be provided by separate services, whose search order can be configured by the administrator in nsswitch.conf(5). The database responsible for domain name resolution is the hosts database, for which glibc offers the following services:

Systemd provides three NSS services for hostname resolution:

Resolve a domain name using NSS

NSS databases can be queried with getent(1). A domain name can be resolved through NSS using:

$ getent hosts domain_name
Note: While most programs resolve domain names using NSS, some may read /etc/resolv.conf and/or /etc/hosts directly. See Network configuration#Local hostname resolution.

Glibc resolver

The glibc resolver reads /etc/resolv.conf for every resolution to determine the nameservers and options to use.

resolv.conf(5) lists nameservers together with some configuration options. Nameservers listed first are tried first, up to three nameservers may be listed. Lines starting with a number sign (#) are ignored.

Note: The glibc resolver does not cache queries. To improve query lookup time you can set up a caching resolver. See #Resolvers for more information.

Overwriting of /etc/resolv.conf

Network managers tend to overwrite /etc/resolv.conf, for specifics see the corresponding section:

To prevent programs from overwriting /etc/resolv.conf you can also write-protect it by setting the immutable file attribute:

# chattr +i /etc/resolv.conf
Tip: If you want multiple processes to write to /etc/resolv.conf, you can use resolvconf.

Limit lookup time

If you are confronted with a very long hostname lookup (may it be in pacman or while browsing), it often helps to define a small timeout after which an alternative nameserver is used. To do so, put the following in /etc/resolv.conf.

options timeout:1

Hostname lookup delayed with IPv6

If you experience a 5 second delay when resolving hostnames it might be due to a DNS-server/Firewall misbehaving and only giving one reply to a parallel A and AAAA request.[1] You can fix that by setting the following option in /etc/resolv.conf:

options single-request

Local domain names

If you want to be able to use the hostname of local machine names without the fully qualified domain names, then add a line to /etc/resolv.conf with the local domain such as:

domain example.com

That way you can refer to local hosts such as mainmachine1.example.com as simply mainmachine1 when using the ssh command, but the drill command still requires the fully qualified domain names in order to perform lookups.

Resolvers

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Fill in the unknowns. Mention dingo, maybe below table because it only works with one provider and therefore doesn't really fit into the table. (Discuss in Talk:Domain name resolution#)

The Glibc resolver provides only the most basic necessities, it does not cache queries nor provides any security features. If you require more functionality, use another resolver.

Tip:
  • The drill or dig lookup utilities report the query time.
  • A router usually sets its own caching resolver as the network's DNS server thus providing DNS cache for the whole network.
  • If it takes too long to switch to the next DNS server you can try decreasing the timeout.

In the table below, the columns have the following meaning:

  • Cache: caches the DNS queries to improve lookup times of subsequent identical requests.
  • Recursor: can recursively query the domain name starting from the DNS root zone.
  • resolvconf compatibility: can acquire name servers and search domains, to use for forwarding requests, from software that sets them using resolvconf.
  • Validates DNSSEC: validates DNS query responses using DNSSEC.
  • DNS over TLS: supports forwarding using the DNS over TLS protocol.
  • DNS over HTTPS: supports forwarding using the DNS over HTTPS protocol.
Resolver Cache Recursor resolvconf compatibility Validates DNSSEC DNS over TLS DNS over HTTPS
glibc No No openresolv No No No
BIND Yes Yes openresolv subscriber Yes ? ?
dnscrypt-proxy1 Yes No No No No Yes
dnsmasq Yes No openresolv subscriber Yes No No
Knot Resolver Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
pdnsd Yes Yes openresolv subscriber No No No
powerdns-recursor Yes Yes No Yes ? ?
Rescached Yes No openresolv subscriber2 No No Limited3
Stubby No No No Yes Yes No
systemd-resolved Yes No systemd-resolvconf Yes Insecure4 No
Unbound Yes Yes openresolv subscriber Yes Yes No
  1. Implements a DNSCrypt protocol client.
  2. Can use the subscribers of dnsmasq, pdns and unbound.[2]
  3. Only forwards using DNS over HTTPS when Rescached itself is queried using DNS over HTTPS.[3]
  4. From resolved.conf(5): Note as the resolver is not capable of authenticating the server, it is vulnerable for "man-in-the-middle" attacks.[4] Also, the only supported mode is "opportunistic", which makes DNS-over-TLS vulnerable to "downgrade" attacks.[5]

Privacy

DNS is not encrypted, so you may want to use a resolver that supports an encrypted protocol, like DNS over TLS, DNS over HTTPS or DNSCrypt.

Most DNS servers keep a log of IP addresses and sites visited on a more or less temporary basis. The data collected can be used to perform various statistical studies. Personally-identifying information have value and can also be rented or sold to third parties. Alternative DNS services provides a list of popular services, check their privacy policy for information about how user data is handled.

Lookup utilities

To query specific DNS servers and DNS/DNSSEC records you can use dedicated DNS lookup utilities. These tools implement DNS themselves and do not use NSS.

  • ldns provides drill(1), which is a tool designed to retrieve information out of the DNS.

For example, to query a specific nameserver with drill for the TXT records of a domain:

$ drill @nameserver TXT domain

If you do not specify a DNS server drill uses the nameservers defined in /etc/resolv.conf.

See also