Difference between revisions of "Dovecot"

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m (→‎Create SSL certs: Fixing style)
(→‎PAM Authentication: rm section, it should have always been and now is part of the package: https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/61852)
 
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[[Category:Mail Server]]
+
[[Category:Mail server]]
Dovecot is an IMAP and POP3 server.
+
[[ja:Dovecot]]
 +
{{Related articles start}}
 +
{{Related|Postfix}}
 +
{{Related|Courier MTA}}
 +
{{Related|OpenSMTPD}}
 +
{{Related|Fail2ban}}
 +
{{Related|SOGo}}
 +
{{Related|Virtual user mail system}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
  
The goal of this article is to setup dovecot, using PAM auth over SSL. It requires an SMTP server already working. You can follow the [[Sendmail]] guide to set up sendmail as your SMTP server.
+
[http://www.dovecot.org/ Dovecot] is an open source [[Wikipedia:IMAP|IMAP]] and [[Wikipedia:POP3|POP3]] server for Linux/UNIX-like systems, written primarily with security in mind. Dovecot primarily aims to be a lightweight, fast and easy to set up open source mailserver. For more detailed information, please see the official [http://wiki2.dovecot.org/ Dovecot Wiki].
 +
 
 +
This article describes how to set up Dovecot for personal or small office use.
  
 
==Installation==
 
==Installation==
[[pacman|Install]] the package {{Pkg|dovecot}} and {{Pkg|pam}} from the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]].
 
  
==Create SSL certs==
+
[[Install]] the {{Pkg|dovecot}} package.
 +
 
 +
==Configuration==
 +
 
 +
===Assumptions===
 +
 
 +
{{Style|Don't make arbitrary assumptions.}}
 +
 
 +
* Each mail account served by Dovecot, has a local user account defined on the server.
 +
* The server uses [[PAM]] to authenticate the user against the local user database (/etc/passwd).
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Transport_Layer_Security|TLS]] is used to encrypt the authentication password.
 +
* The common [[Wikipedia:Maildir|Maildir]] format is used to store the mail in the user's home directory.
 +
* A [[Wikipedia:Mail delivery agent|MDA]] has already been set up to deliver mail to the local users.
 +
 
 +
=== Create the TLS certificate ===
 +
 
 +
{{Warning|If you deploy [[Wikipedia:TLS|TLS]], be sure to follow [https://weakdh.org/sysadmin.html weakdh.org's guide] to prevent vulnerabilities. {{ic|ssl_min_protocol}} defaults to TLSv1. For more information see [[Server-side TLS]].}}
 +
 
 +
To obtain a certificate, see [[OpenSSL#Usage]].
 +
 
 +
Alternatively you can generate the certificate using a script that comes with the {{Pkg|dovecot}} package:
 +
 
 +
# Copy the example configuration: {{ic|# cp /usr/share/doc/dovecot/dovecot-openssl.cnf /etc/ssl/dovecot-openssl.cnf}}.
 +
# Edit {{ic|/etc/ssl/dovecot-openssl.cnf}} to configure the certificate.
 +
# Execute {{ic|# /usr/lib/dovecot/mkcert.sh}} to generate the certificate.
 +
 
 +
The certificate/key pair is created as {{ic|/etc/ssl/certs/dovecot.pem}} and {{ic|/etc/ssl/private/dovecot.pem}}.
 +
 
 +
Run {{ic|cp /etc/ssl/certs/dovecot.pem /etc/ca-certificates/trust-source/anchors/dovecot.crt}} and then {{ic|# trust extract-compat}} whenever you have
 +
changed your certificate.
  
The {{Pkg|dovecot}} package contains a script to create your SSL certificate and key.  Before you run this script, create your settings file.
+
===Dovecot configuration===
  
 +
* Copy the {{ic|dovecot.conf}} and {{ic|conf.d/*}} configuration files from {{ic|/usr/share/doc/dovecot/example-config}} to {{ic|/etc/dovecot}}:
 
{{bc|
 
{{bc|
# cp /etc/ssl/dovecot-openssl.cnf{.sample,}
+
# cp /usr/share/doc/dovecot/example-config/dovecot.conf /etc/dovecot
 +
# cp -r /usr/share/doc/dovecot/example-config/conf.d /etc/dovecot
 
}}
 
}}
Edit your {{ic|/etc/ssl/dovecot-openssl.cnf}} according to your needs.
 
  
Then execute the script.
+
The default configuration is ok for most systems, but make sure to read through the configuration files to see what options are available. See the [http://wiki2.dovecot.org/QuickConfiguration quick configuration guide] and [http://wiki2.dovecot.org/#Dovecot_configuration dovecot configuration] for more instructions.
 +
 
 +
By default dovecot will try to detect what mail storage system is in use on the system. To use the Maildir format edit {{ic|/etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf}} to set {{ic|1=mail_location = maildir:~/Maildir}}.
 +
 
 +
===Generate DH parameters===
 +
 
 +
To generate a new DH parameters file (this will take very long):
 +
 
 +
# openssl dhparam -out /etc/dovecot/dh.pem 4096
 +
 
 +
then add the file to {{ic|/etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf}}
  
{{bc|
+
ssl_dh = </etc/dovecot/dh.pem
# /usr/lib/dovecot/mkcert.sh
 
}}
 
  
The cert/key pair is created under {{ic|/etc/ssl/certs}} and {{ic|/etc/ssl/private}}.
+
===PAM Authentication with LDAP===
  
==Configuration==
+
* If you are using an [[OpenLDAP]] server for authentication instead, be sure to be able to login with your LDAP users first, as described in [[LDAP authentication]].
* Create the {{ic|/etc/pam.d/dovecot}} file, and put the following:
+
You can then write the following in {{ic|/etc/pam.d/dovecot}} remembering that the entries order is very important:
{{bc|
+
{{hc|/etc/pam.d/dovecot|2=
auth    required        pam_unix.so nullok
+
auth    sufficient      pam_ldap.so
account required        pam_unix.so  
+
auth    required        pam_unix.so     nullok
 +
account sufficient      pam_ldap.so
 +
account required        pam_unix.so
 +
session required        pam_mkhomedir.so skel=/etc/skel umask=0022
 +
session sufficient      pam_ldap.so
 
}}
 
}}
* Check the correct path where you mail is stored. Normally is {{ic|/var/spool/mail}}.
+
In this way both LDAP and system users have their mailbox.  
* Edit the {{ic|/etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf}}. Be sure you set the path of {{ic|ssl_cert}}, {{ic|ssl_key}} and {{ic|mail_location}} correctly:
 
{{hc|/etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf|<nowiki>
 
listen = *
 
disable_plaintext_auth=yes
 
ssl = yes
 
ssl_cert = </etc/ssl/certs/server.crt
 
ssl_key = </etc/ssl/private/server.key
 
  
mail_access_groups=mail
+
* Edit {{ic|/etc/dovecot/conf.d/auth-system.conf}} by changing the {{ic|passdb}} directive, like this:
mail_location = mbox:~/mail:INBOX=/var/spool/mail/%u
+
<pre>
 
passdb {
 
passdb {
 
   driver = pam
 
   driver = pam
 +
  args = session=yes dovecot
 +
}
 +
</pre>
 +
By using the {{ic|pam_mkhomedir.so}} module and by adding the {{ic|session}} part in the {{ic|passdb}} directive, if an LDAP user logs in for the first time the corresponding home directory will be automatically created.
 +
 +
===Sieve===
 +
[[wikipedia:Sieve (mail filtering language)|Sieve]] is a programming language that can be used to create filters for email on mail server.
 +
{{Note| You must be using Dovecot as a local delivery agent (through LMTP or LDA) for plugins like Sieve to work. If you are following the [[Virtual user mail system]] guide, this is most likely not the case and you will need to modify your Postfix configuration. A guide can be found in the [https://wiki2.dovecot.org/HowTo/PostfixDovecotLMTP Dovecot Wiki].}}
 +
 +
====Sieve Interpreter Plugin====
 +
This facilitates the actual Sieve filtering upon delivery.
 +
 +
* Install {{Pkg|pigeonhole}}.
 +
* Depending on your usage, add {{ic|sieve}} to {{ic|mail_plugins}} in
 +
** {{ic|<nowiki>/etc/dovecot/conf.d/15-lda.conf</nowiki>}}{{bc|<nowiki>
 +
protocol lda {
 +
  mail_plugins = $mail_plugins sieve
 
}
 
}
protocols = imap pop3
+
</nowiki>}}
service auth {
+
** and/or {{ic|/etc/dovecot/conf.d/20-lmtp.conf}}{{bc|<nowiki>
   user = root
+
protocol lmtp {
 +
   mail_plugins = $mail_plugins sieve
 
}
 
}
service imap-login {
+
</nowiki>}}
   chroot = login
+
{{Note| Nowadays it is recommended to use LMTP instead of LDA. Nevertheless the Dovecot LDA can still be used for small mailservers. More information can be found in the [http://wiki2.dovecot.org/LMTP Dovecot Wiki].}}
  user = dovecot
+
 
 +
* Optionally, add configuration in {{ic|plugin}} section. See [http://wiki2.dovecot.org/Pigeonhole/Sieve/Configuration Sieve Interpreter Documentation] for configuration options and default values.<br> Example: run {{ic|cp /usr/share/doc/dovecot/example-config/conf.d/90-sieve.conf /etc/dovecot/conf.d/90-sieve.conf}} and verify in {{ic|/etc/dovecot/conf.d/90-sieve.conf}}: {{bc|<nowiki>
 +
plugin {
 +
   sieve = file:~/sieve;active=~/.dovecot.sieve
 
}
 
}
service pop3-login {
+
</nowiki>}}
   chroot = login
+
{{Note| Configuration files in {{ic|/etc/dovecot/conf.d/}} will not be read without a line in {{ic|/etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf}} like {{ic|!include /etc/dovecot/conf.d/*.conf}}. If you are following the [[Virtual user mail system]] guide, you may need to add this line.}}
   user = dovecot
+
 
 +
======Example: SpamAssassin - move spam to "Junk" folder======
 +
* Add spamtest configuration
 +
{{hc|/etc/dovecot/conf.d/90-sieve.conf|<nowiki>
 +
plugin {
 +
   sieve_extensions = +spamtest +spamtestplus
 +
 
 +
   sieve_spamtest_status_type = score
 +
  sieve_spamtest_status_header = \
 +
    X-Spam_score: (-?[[:digit:]]+\.[[:digit:]]).*
 +
  sieve_spamtest_max_value = 5.0
 +
 
 +
  sieve_before = /var/lib/dovecot/sieve/global_sieves/move_to_spam_folder.sieve
 
}
 
}
userdb {
+
</nowiki>}} '''Note:''' This tests for "X-Spam_score" (which is the spam header format in default Exim configuration). Your header might look different, ie "X-Spam-Score".
   driver = passwd
+
* Create sieve script: {{ic|mkdir -p /var/lib/dovecot/sieve/global_sieves}}
 +
{{hc|/var/lib/dovecot/sieve/global_sieves/move_to_spam_folder.sieve|<nowiki>
 +
require "spamtestplus";
 +
require "fileinto";
 +
require "relational";
 +
require "comparator-i;ascii-numeric";
 +
 
 +
if spamtest :value "ge" :comparator "i;ascii-numeric" "5" {
 +
   fileinto "Junk";
 
}
 
}
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
* Change permissions for the {{ic|mail_location}} directory:
 
{{bc|chmod 0600 /var/spool/mail/*}}
 
  
==Start the server==
+
* To compile sieve, execute in shell {{bc|<nowiki>
Start, and optionally, enable for autostart on boot, the {{ic|dovecot.service}} daemon.  
+
sievec /var/lib/dovecot/sieve/global_sieves
 +
</nowiki>}} and make sure the {{ic|move_to_spam_folder.sieve}} and the resulting {{ic|move_to_spam_folder.svbin}} files are world readable.
 +
 
 +
====ManageSieve Server====
 +
This implements the ManageSieve protocol through which users can remotely manage Sieve scripts on the server.
 +
 
 +
* Follow the steps in '''Sieve Interpreter Plugin''' above.
 +
* Add {{ic|sieve}} to {{ic|protocols}} in {{ic|dovecot.conf}} {{bc|<nowiki>
 +
protocols = imap pop3 sieve
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
* Add minimal {{ic|/etc/dovecot/conf.d/20-managesieve.conf}} {{bc|<nowiki>
 +
service managesieve-login {
 +
}
 +
 
 +
service managesieve {
 +
}
 +
 
 +
protocol sieve {
 +
}
 +
</nowiki>}}
 +
* Restart {{ic|dovecot}}. The managesieve daemon will listen on port 4190 by default.
 +
 
 +
==Starting the server==
 +
 
 +
Use the standard [[systemd]] syntax to control the {{ic|dovecot.service}} [[daemon]].
 +
 
 +
== Tricks ==
 +
 
 +
Generate hashes with non-default hash functions.
 +
 
 +
doveadm pw -s SHA512-CRYPT -p "superpassword"
 +
 
 +
Remember to make sure that the column in the database is large enough(you might not get a warning..)
 +
 
 +
Remember to set the password scheme in your dovecot-sql.conf file
  
Read [[Daemon]] for more information.
+
default_pass_scheme = SHA512-CRYPT

Latest revision as of 17:00, 26 February 2019

Dovecot is an open source IMAP and POP3 server for Linux/UNIX-like systems, written primarily with security in mind. Dovecot primarily aims to be a lightweight, fast and easy to set up open source mailserver. For more detailed information, please see the official Dovecot Wiki.

This article describes how to set up Dovecot for personal or small office use.

Installation

Install the dovecot package.

Configuration

Assumptions

Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements. See Help:Style for reference.Tango-edit-clear.png

Reason: Don't make arbitrary assumptions. (Discuss in Talk:Dovecot#)
  • Each mail account served by Dovecot, has a local user account defined on the server.
  • The server uses PAM to authenticate the user against the local user database (/etc/passwd).
  • TLS is used to encrypt the authentication password.
  • The common Maildir format is used to store the mail in the user's home directory.
  • A MDA has already been set up to deliver mail to the local users.

Create the TLS certificate

Warning: If you deploy TLS, be sure to follow weakdh.org's guide to prevent vulnerabilities. ssl_min_protocol defaults to TLSv1. For more information see Server-side TLS.

To obtain a certificate, see OpenSSL#Usage.

Alternatively you can generate the certificate using a script that comes with the dovecot package:

  1. Copy the example configuration: # cp /usr/share/doc/dovecot/dovecot-openssl.cnf /etc/ssl/dovecot-openssl.cnf.
  2. Edit /etc/ssl/dovecot-openssl.cnf to configure the certificate.
  3. Execute # /usr/lib/dovecot/mkcert.sh to generate the certificate.

The certificate/key pair is created as /etc/ssl/certs/dovecot.pem and /etc/ssl/private/dovecot.pem.

Run cp /etc/ssl/certs/dovecot.pem /etc/ca-certificates/trust-source/anchors/dovecot.crt and then # trust extract-compat whenever you have changed your certificate.

Dovecot configuration

  • Copy the dovecot.conf and conf.d/* configuration files from /usr/share/doc/dovecot/example-config to /etc/dovecot:
# cp /usr/share/doc/dovecot/example-config/dovecot.conf /etc/dovecot
# cp -r /usr/share/doc/dovecot/example-config/conf.d /etc/dovecot

The default configuration is ok for most systems, but make sure to read through the configuration files to see what options are available. See the quick configuration guide and dovecot configuration for more instructions.

By default dovecot will try to detect what mail storage system is in use on the system. To use the Maildir format edit /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf to set mail_location = maildir:~/Maildir.

Generate DH parameters

To generate a new DH parameters file (this will take very long):

# openssl dhparam -out /etc/dovecot/dh.pem 4096

then add the file to /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-ssl.conf

ssl_dh = </etc/dovecot/dh.pem

PAM Authentication with LDAP

  • If you are using an OpenLDAP server for authentication instead, be sure to be able to login with your LDAP users first, as described in LDAP authentication.

You can then write the following in /etc/pam.d/dovecot remembering that the entries order is very important:

/etc/pam.d/dovecot
auth    sufficient      pam_ldap.so
auth    required        pam_unix.so     nullok
account sufficient      pam_ldap.so
account required        pam_unix.so
session required        pam_mkhomedir.so skel=/etc/skel umask=0022
session sufficient      pam_ldap.so

In this way both LDAP and system users have their mailbox.

  • Edit /etc/dovecot/conf.d/auth-system.conf by changing the passdb directive, like this:
passdb {
  driver = pam
  args = session=yes dovecot
}

By using the pam_mkhomedir.so module and by adding the session part in the passdb directive, if an LDAP user logs in for the first time the corresponding home directory will be automatically created.

Sieve

Sieve is a programming language that can be used to create filters for email on mail server.

Note: You must be using Dovecot as a local delivery agent (through LMTP or LDA) for plugins like Sieve to work. If you are following the Virtual user mail system guide, this is most likely not the case and you will need to modify your Postfix configuration. A guide can be found in the Dovecot Wiki.

Sieve Interpreter Plugin

This facilitates the actual Sieve filtering upon delivery.

  • Install pigeonhole.
  • Depending on your usage, add sieve to mail_plugins in
    • /etc/dovecot/conf.d/15-lda.conf
      protocol lda {
        mail_plugins = $mail_plugins sieve
      }
      
    • and/or /etc/dovecot/conf.d/20-lmtp.conf
      protocol lmtp {
        mail_plugins = $mail_plugins sieve
      }
      
Note: Nowadays it is recommended to use LMTP instead of LDA. Nevertheless the Dovecot LDA can still be used for small mailservers. More information can be found in the Dovecot Wiki.
  • Optionally, add configuration in plugin section. See Sieve Interpreter Documentation for configuration options and default values.
    Example: run cp /usr/share/doc/dovecot/example-config/conf.d/90-sieve.conf /etc/dovecot/conf.d/90-sieve.conf and verify in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/90-sieve.conf:
    plugin {
      sieve = file:~/sieve;active=~/.dovecot.sieve 
    }
    
Note: Configuration files in /etc/dovecot/conf.d/ will not be read without a line in /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf like !include /etc/dovecot/conf.d/*.conf. If you are following the Virtual user mail system guide, you may need to add this line.
Example: SpamAssassin - move spam to "Junk" folder
  • Add spamtest configuration
/etc/dovecot/conf.d/90-sieve.conf
plugin {
  sieve_extensions = +spamtest +spamtestplus

  sieve_spamtest_status_type = score
  sieve_spamtest_status_header = \ 
    X-Spam_score: (-?[[:digit:]]+\.[[:digit:]]).* 
  sieve_spamtest_max_value = 5.0 

  sieve_before = /var/lib/dovecot/sieve/global_sieves/move_to_spam_folder.sieve
}

Note: This tests for "X-Spam_score" (which is the spam header format in default Exim configuration). Your header might look different, ie "X-Spam-Score".

  • Create sieve script: mkdir -p /var/lib/dovecot/sieve/global_sieves
/var/lib/dovecot/sieve/global_sieves/move_to_spam_folder.sieve
require "spamtestplus";
require "fileinto";
require "relational";
require "comparator-i;ascii-numeric";

if spamtest :value "ge" :comparator "i;ascii-numeric" "5" {
  fileinto "Junk";
}
  • To compile sieve, execute in shell
    sievec /var/lib/dovecot/sieve/global_sieves
    
    and make sure the move_to_spam_folder.sieve and the resulting move_to_spam_folder.svbin files are world readable.

ManageSieve Server

This implements the ManageSieve protocol through which users can remotely manage Sieve scripts on the server.

  • Follow the steps in Sieve Interpreter Plugin above.
  • Add sieve to protocols in dovecot.conf
    protocols = imap pop3 sieve
    
  • Add minimal /etc/dovecot/conf.d/20-managesieve.conf
    service managesieve-login {
    }
    
    service managesieve {
    }
    
    protocol sieve {
    }
    
  • Restart dovecot. The managesieve daemon will listen on port 4190 by default.

Starting the server

Use the standard systemd syntax to control the dovecot.service daemon.

Tricks

Generate hashes with non-default hash functions.

doveadm pw -s SHA512-CRYPT -p "superpassword"

Remember to make sure that the column in the database is large enough(you might not get a warning..)

Remember to set the password scheme in your dovecot-sql.conf file

default_pass_scheme = SHA512-CRYPT