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{{DISPLAYTITLE:dwm}}
 
[[Category:Dynamic WMs]]
 
[[Category:Dynamic WMs]]
 
[[de:Dwm]]
 
[[de:Dwm]]
 
[[es:Dwm]]
 
[[es:Dwm]]
 
[[fr:DWM]]
 
[[fr:DWM]]
 +
[[ja:Dwm]]
 
[[ru:Dwm]]
 
[[ru:Dwm]]
[[zh-CN:Dwm]]
+
[[zh-hans:Dwm]]
{{Article summary start|Summary}}
+
{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary text|Information on installing and configuring dwm}}
+
{{Related|dmenu}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
+
{{Related|wmii}}
{{Article summary wiki|dmenu}}
+
{{Related articles end}}
{{Article summary wiki|dunst}}
+
[https://dwm.suckless.org/ dwm] is a dynamic window manager for [[Xorg]]. It manages windows in tiled, stacked, and full-screen layouts, as well as many others with the help of [[#Patches|optional patches]]. Layouts can be applied dynamically, optimizing the environment for the application in use and the task being performed. dwm is extremely lightweight and fast, written in C and with a stated design goal of remaining under 2000 source lines of code. It provides [[multihead]] support for [[xrandr]] and Xinerama.
{{Article summary wiki|wmii}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
{{DISPLAYTITLE:dwm}}
 
[http://dwm.suckless.org/ dwm] is a dynamic window manager for [[X]]. It manages windows in tiled, stacked, and full-screen layouts, as well as many others with the help of [[#Extended usage|optional patches]]. Layouts can be applied dynamically, optimizing the environment for the application in use and the task performed. dwm is extremely lightweight and fast, written in C and with a stated design goal of remaining under 2000 source lines of code. It provides multi-head support for [[xrandr]] and Xinerama.
 
 
 
==Installing==
 
===Method 1: makepkg + ABS (recommended)===
 
These instructions will install dwm using [[makepkg]] along with the Arch Build System, or [[ABS]] for short. This will allow reconfiguring dwm at a later time without complications.
 
 
 
Basic programming tools present in {{Pkg|base-devel}} are needed in order to compile dwm and build a package for it, and the {{Pkg|abs}} package is also a requisite for fetching the necessary build scripts. Installing [[dmenu]], a fast and lightweight dynamic menu for X is a good idea.
 
# pacman -S base-devel abs dmenu
 
  
Once the required packages are installed, use ABS to update and then copy the dwm build scripts from the ABS tree to a temporary directory. For example:
+
== Installation ==
# abs community/dwm
 
$ cp -r /var/abs/community/dwm ~/dwm
 
  
Use {{Ic|cd}} to switch to the directory containing the build scripts (the example above used {{ic|~/dwm}}). Then run:
+
Download the {{AUR|dwm}} or {{AUR|dwm-git}} (for the development version) package, and make any required configuration changes before building. See [[#Configuration]] for more information.
$ makepkg -i
 
  
This will compile dwm, build an Arch Linux package containing the resulting files, and install the package file all in one step. If problems are encountered, review the output for specific information.
+
== Starting dwm ==
  
{{Tip|If this directory ({{ic|~/dwm}}) is saved, it can subsequently be used for making changes to the default configuration.}}
+
Select ''Dwm'' from the menu in a [[display manager]] of choice.
  
===Method 2: official repos (easier, but not configurable)===
+
Alternatively, to start dwm with [[startx]] append the following to {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}:  
If only interested in installing dwm for a test drive, simply install the binary package from the repositories instead. You will probably also want to consider installing [[dmenu]], a fast and lightweight dynamic menu for X:
 
# pacman -S dwm dmenu
 
{{note|By omitting compiling dwm from source a great deal of customizability is lost, since dwm's entire configuration is performed by editing its source code. Taking this in mind, the rest of the article assumes that dwm has been compiled from source as explained in the entirety of this section.}}
 
 
 
==Starting dwm==
 
To start dwm with {{Ic|startx}} or the [[SLIM]] login manager, simply append the following to {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}:  
 
 
  exec dwm
 
  exec dwm
  
For [[GDM]], add it to {{ic|~/.Xclients}} instead, and select "Run XClient Script" from the Sessions menu.
+
== Configuration ==
 
 
===Starting a customized dwm from a display manager===
 
 
 
The default /usr/share/xsessions/dwm.desktop does not allow for a customized start like can be done in .xinitrc.
 
A solution to this problem is to make a start script, for example /usr/bin/dwm-personalized and make an alternative xsession .desktop file (/usr/share/xsessions/dwm-personalized.desktop).
 
 
 
Example of /usr/share/xsessions/dwm-personalized
 
<pre>[Desktop Entry]
 
Encoding=UTF-8
 
Name=Dwm-personalized
 
Comment=Dynamic window manager
 
Exec=dwm-personalized
 
Icon=dwm
 
Type=XSession
 
</pre>
 
 
 
Example of /usr/bin/dwm-personalized
 
 
 
<pre>#!/bin/zsh
 
  
#Set swedish keyboard map
+
=== Customization ===
setxkbmap se
 
  
#Set chrome as default browser
+
dwm is configured at compile-time by editing some of its source files, namely {{ic|config.h}}. For detailed information on these settings see the included, well commented {{ic|config.def.h}} as well as the [https://dwm.suckless.org/customisation/ customisation section] on the dwm website.
if [ -n "$DISPLAY" ]; then
 
    BROWSER=google-chrome
 
fi
 
  
#Set status bar & start DWM
+
=== Patches ===
conky | while read -r; do xsetroot -name "$REPLY"; done &
 
exec dwm
 
</pre>
 
  
==Basic usage==
+
The official website has a number of [http://dwm.suckless.org/patches/ patches] that can add extra functionality to dwm. These patches primarily make changes to the {{ic|dwm.c}} file but also make changes to the {{ic|config.h}} file where appropriate. For information on applying patches, see [[Patching in ABS]].
===Using dmenu===
 
Dmenu is a useful addon to dwm. Rather than a standard list-style menu, it acts as a sort of autocomplete to typing in the names of binaries. It is more advanced than many program launchers and integrates well within dwm.
 
  
To start it, press {{Keypress|Mod1}} + {{Keypress|P}} ({{Keypress|Mod1}} should be the {{Keypress|Alt}} key by default). This can, of course, be changed if you so desire. Then, simply type in the first few characters of the binary you wish to run until you see it along the top bar. Then, simply use your left and right arrow keys to navigate to it and press enter.
+
=== Status bar ===
  
For more information, see [[dmenu]].
+
See the [https://dwm.suckless.org/dwmstatus/ dwmstatus] section on the dwm website. Also see the [[#Statusbar configuration]] section.
  
===Controlling windows===
+
=== Use pacman ===
====Moving a window to another tag====
 
Moving a window from one tag to another is very simple. To do so, simply bring the window into focus by hovering over it with your cursor, then press {{Keypress|Shift}} + {{Keypress|Mod1}} + {{Keypress|x}}, where 'x' is the number of the tag to which you want to move the window. [Mod1] is, by default, the {{Keypress|Alt}} key.
 
====Closing a window====
 
To cleanly close a window using dwm, simply press {{Keypress|Shift}} + {{Keypress|Mod1}} + {{Keypress|C}}.
 
  
====Window layouts====
+
You should [[create a package]] using a [[PKGBUILD]] so that [[pacman]] is aware of the package.
By default, dwm will operate in tiled mode. This can be observed by new windows on the same tag growing smaller and smaller as new windows are opened. The windows will, together, take up the entire screen (except for the menu bar) at all times. There are, however, two other modes: floating and monocle. Floating mode should be familiar to users of non-tiling window managers; it allows users to rearrange windows as they please. Monocle mode will keep a single window visible at all times.
 
  
To switch to floating mode, simply press {{Keypress|Mod1}} + {{Keypress|F}}. {{Keypress|Mod1}} is, by default, the {{Keypress|Alt}} key. To check if you are in floating mode, you should see something like this next to the numbered tags in the top right corner of the screen: ><>.
+
=== Applying changes ===
  
To switch to monocole mode, press {{Keypress|Mod1}} + {{Keypress|M}}. To check if you are in monocle mode, you can see an M in square brackets (if no windows are open on that tag) or a number in square brackets (which corresponds with the number of windows open on that tag). Thus, a tag with no windows open would display this: [M], and a tag with 'n' windows open would display this: [n].
+
After making any desired changes and installing the updated package, restart dwm in order to apply the changes.
  
To return to tiled mode, press {{Keypress|Mod1}} + {{Keypress|T}}. You will see a symbol which looks like this: []= .
+
== Basic usage ==
  
===Exiting dwm===
+
Consult the [https://dwm.suckless.org/tutorial dwm tutorial] for information on basic dwm usage. Additionally see {{man|1|dwm}}{{Dead link|2017|11|25}}.
To cleanly exit dwm, press {{Keypress|Shift}} + {{Keypress|Mod1}} + {{Keypress|Q}}.
 
  
Source: [http://dwm.suckless.org/tutorial dwm tutorial].
+
== Tips and tricks ==
  
==Configuring==
+
=== st keybindings conflict ===
dwm, as mentioned before, is exclusively configured at compile-time via some of its source files, namely {{ic|config.h}} and {{ic|config.mk}}. While the initial configuration provides a good set of defaults, it is reasonable to expect eventual customization.
 
  
===Method 1: ABS rebuild (recommended)===
+
The default terminal for ''dwm'' is [[st]]. Be default, ''st'' uses {{ic|Mod1+Ctrl+C}} for copy, but ''dwm'' uses this same key combination to kill a program. You should change this shortcut in either ''dwm'' or ''st'' such that ''st'' is not killed when attempting to copy text.
Modifying dwm is quite simple using this route.
 
  
====Customizing config.h====
+
=== Statusbar configuration ===
Browse to the dwm source code directory saved during the [[#Installing|installation process]]; {{ic|~/dwm}} in the example. The {{ic|config.h}} found within this directory is where the general dwm preferences are stored. Most settings within the file should be self-explanatory. For detailed information on these settings, see the [http://dwm.suckless.org/ dwm website].
 
  
{{note|Be sure to make a backup copy of config.h before modifying it, just in case something goes wrong.}}
+
{{Note|The following requires the {{Pkg|xorg-xsetroot}} package to be installed.}}
  
Once changes have been made, pipe the new md5sums into the [[PKGBUILD]]:
+
Dwm reads the name of the root window and redirects it to the statusbar. The root window is the window within which all other windows are drawn and arranged by the window manager. Like any other window, the root window has a title/name, but it is usually undefined because the root window always runs in the background.  
$ makepkg -g >> PKGBUILD
 
This will eliminate a checksum mismatch between the official config.h and the new revised copy.
 
  
Now, compile and reinstall:
+
The information that you want dwm to show in the statusbar should be defined with {{ic|xsetroot -name ""}} command in {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} or {{ic|~/.xprofile}} (if you are using a [[display manager]]). For example:  
$ makepkg -efi
+
{{bc|xsetroot -name "Thanks for all the fish!"}}
  
Assuming the configuration changes were valid, this command will compile dwm, build and reinstall the resulting package. If problems were encountered, review the output for specific information.
+
Dynamically updated information should be put in a loop which is forked to background - see the example below:
 
+
{{bc|
Finally, restart dwm in order to apply the changes.
+
# Statusbar loop
 
 
====Notes====
 
From now on, instead of updating the md5sums for every {{ic|config.h}} revision, which are known to become frequent, one may erase the md5sums array and build dwm with the {{Ic|--skipinteg}} option:
 
$ makepkg -efi --skipinteg
 
 
 
And after adding a few lines to dwm's start-up script, it is possible to [[#Restart dwm without logging out or closing programs|restart dwm without logging out or closing programs]].
 
 
 
{{Tip|To recompile easily, make an alias by putting ({{ic|alias redwm<nowiki>=</nowiki>'cd ~/dwm; makepkg -g >> PKGBUILD; makepkg -efi --noconfirm; killall dwm'}}) in your .bashrc.}}
 
 
 
===Method 2: Git (advanced)===
 
dwm is maintained upstream within a [http://git-scm.com git] version control system at [http://git.suckless.org/dwm suckless.org]. Those already familiar with git may find it more convenient to maintain configurations and patches within this system. Learning how to do local branching and merging will make maintaining, applying and removing patches easy.
 
 
 
Before building dwm from the git sources, be sure to alter config.mk accordingly, because failure to do so may result in X crashes. Here are the values that need changing:
 
 
 
Modify {{Ic|PREFIX}}:
 
PREFIX = /usr
 
The X11 include folder:
 
X11INC = /usr/include/X11
 
And the the X11 lib directory:
 
X11LIB = /usr/lib/X11
 
 
 
==Statusbar configuration==
 
dwm uses the root window's name to display information in its statusbar, which can be changed with {{Ic|xsetroot -name}}.
 
 
 
===Basic statusbar===
 
This example prints the date in [[wikipedia:ISO_8601|ISO 8601]] format. Add it to files {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} or {{ic|~/.Xclients}} or see this page's discussion for more details about the GDM-3 case :
 
<pre>
 
 
while true; do
 
while true; do
 
   xsetroot -name "$( date +"%F %R" )"
 
   xsetroot -name "$( date +"%F %R" )"
 
   sleep 1m    # Update time every minute
 
   sleep 1m    # Update time every minute
 
done &
 
done &
exec dwm
 
</pre>
 
  
Here is an example intended for laptops that depends on the {{Pkg|acpi}} package for showing battery information:
+
# Autostart section
<pre>
+
pcmanfm &  
while true ; do
 
    xsetroot -name "$(acpi -b | awk 'sub(/,/,"") {print $3, $4}')"
 
    sleep 1m
 
done &
 
exec dwm
 
</pre>
 
 
 
The script displays the amount of battery remaining besides its charging status by using the awk command to trim away the unneeded text from acpi, and tr to remove the commas.
 
 
 
An alternative to the above is to selectively show the battery status depending on the current charging state:
 
<pre>
 
while true; do
 
batt=$(LC_ALL=C acpi -b)
 
 
 
case $batt in
 
*Discharging*)
 
batt="${batt#* * * }"
 
batt="${batt%%, *} "
 
;;
 
*)
 
batt=""
 
;;
 
esac
 
 
 
xsetroot -name "$batt$(date +%R)"
 
 
 
sleep 60
 
done &
 
  
 
exec dwm
 
exec dwm
</pre>
+
}}
 +
In this case the date is shown in [[wikipedia:ISO_8601|ISO 8601]] format and [[PCManFM]] is launched at startup.
  
Finally, make sure there is only one instance of dwm in {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} or {{ic|~/.Xclients}}, so combining everything together should resemble this:
+
{{note|It is not recommended to set the update interval equal to zero or remove the "sleep" line entirely since this will cause CPU usage to rise substantially (you can assess the effect with ''top'' and [[powertop]]).}}
~/.setbg
 
autocutsel &
 
termirssi &
 
urxvt &
 
 
while true; do
 
    xsetroot -name "$(date +"%F %R")"
 
    sleep 1m    # Update time every minute
 
done &
 
'''exec dwm'''
 
  
Here is another example that displays also the alsa volume and the battery state. The latter only when the system is off-line.
+
More examples of statusbars are included [https://dwm.suckless.org/dwmstatus/ on the suckless wiki].
  
#set statusbar
+
==== Conky statusbar ====
while true
 
do
 
    if acpi -a | grep off-line > /dev/null; then
 
        xsetroot -name "Bat. $(awk 'sub(/,/,"") {print $3, $4}' <(acpi -b)) \
 
        | Vol. $(awk '/dB/ { gsub(/[\[\]]/,""); print $5}' <(amixer get Master)) \
 
        | $(date +"%a, %b %d %R")"
 
    else
 
        xsetroot -name "Vol. $(awk '/dB/ { gsub(/[\[\]]/,""); print $5}' <(amixer get Master)) \
 
        | $(date +"%a, %b %d %R")"
 
    fi
 
    sleep 1s 
 
done &
 
  
===Conky statusbar===
 
 
[[Conky]] can be printed to the statusbar with {{Ic|xsetroot -name}}:
 
[[Conky]] can be printed to the statusbar with {{Ic|xsetroot -name}}:
  conky | while read -r; do xsetroot -name "$REPLY"; done &
+
  (conky | while read LINE; do xsetroot -name "$LINE"; done) &
 
  exec dwm
 
  exec dwm
  
To do this, conky needs to be told to output text to the console only. The following is a sample conkyrc for a dual core CPU, displaying several stats:
+
To do this, conky needs to be told to output text to the console only. The following is a sample conkyrc for a dual core CPU, displaying several usage statistics:
<pre>
+
{{bc|
out_to_console yes
+
<nowiki>conky.config = {
out_to_x no
+
out_to_console = true,
background no
+
out_to_x = false,
update_interval 2
+
background = false,
total_run_times 0
+
update_interval = 2,
use_spacer none
+
total_run_times = 0,
 
+
use_spacer = 'none',
TEXT
+
};
 +
conky.text = [[
 
$mpd_smart :: ${cpu cpu1}% / ${cpu cpu2}%  ${loadavg 1} ${loadavg 2 3} :: ${acpitemp}c :: $memperc% ($mem) :: ${downspeed eth0}K/s ${upspeed eth0}K/s :: ${time %a %b %d %I:%M%P}
 
$mpd_smart :: ${cpu cpu1}% / ${cpu cpu2}%  ${loadavg 1} ${loadavg 2 3} :: ${acpitemp}c :: $memperc% ($mem) :: ${downspeed eth0}K/s ${upspeed eth0}K/s :: ${time %a %b %d %I:%M%P}
</pre>
+
]];</nowiki>
 
+
}}
==Extended usage==
 
 
 
===Patches & additional tiling modes===
 
The official website has a number of [http://dwm.suckless.org/patches/ patches] that can add extra functionality to dwm. Users can easily customize dwm by applying the modifications they like. The [http://dwm.suckless.org/patches/bottom_stack Bottom Stack] patch provides an additional tiling mode that splits the screen horizontally, as opposed to the default vertically oriented tiling mode. Similarly, bstack horizontal splits the tiles horizontally.
 
 
 
The [http://dwm.suckless.org/patches/gapless_grid gaplessgrid patch] allows windows to be tiled like a grid.
 
 
 
====Enable one layout per tag====
 
The default behaviour of dwm is to apply the currently selected layout for all tags.To have different layouts for different tags use the [http://dwm.suckless.org/patches/pertag pertag] patch.
 
 
 
===Fixing gaps around terminal windows===
 
If there are empty gaps of desktop space outside terminal windows, it is likely due to the terminal's font size. Either adjust the size until finding the ideal scale that closes the gap, or toggle {{Ic|resizehints}} to ''False'' in {{ic|config.h}}:
 
static Bool resizehints = False; /* True means respect size hints in tiled resizals */
 
  
This will cause dwm to ignore resize requests from all client windows, not just terminals. The downside to this workaround is that some terminals may suffer redraw anomalies, such as ghost lines and premature line wraps, among others.
+
For icons and color options, see [[dzen]].
  
===Space around font in dwm's bar===
+
=== Restart dwm without logging out or closing programs ===
By default, dwm's bar adds 2px around the size of the font. To change it, modify the following line in {{ic|dwm.c}}:
 
<pre>bh = dc.h = dc.font.height + 2;</pre>
 
  
===Restart dwm without logging out or closing programs===
+
For restarting dwm without logging out or closing applications, change or add a startup script so that it loads dwm in a ''while'' loop, see below:
For restarting dwm without logging out or closing applications, change or add a startup script so that it loads dwm in a ''while'' loop, like this:
+
{{bc|
<pre>
 
 
while true; do
 
while true; do
 
     # Log stderror to a file  
 
     # Log stderror to a file  
Line 268: Line 117:
 
     #dwm >/dev/null 2>&1
 
     #dwm >/dev/null 2>&1
 
done
 
done
</pre>
+
}}
  
 
dwm can now be restarted without destroying other X windows by pressing the usual Mod-Shift-Q combination.
 
dwm can now be restarted without destroying other X windows by pressing the usual Mod-Shift-Q combination.
  
It is a good idea to place the above startup script into a separate file, {{ic|~/bin/startdwm}} for instance, and execute it through {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}. From this point on, when desiring to actually end the X session simply execute {{Ic|killall startdwm}}, or bind it to a convenient key.
+
It is a good idea to place the above startup script into a separate file, {{ic|~/bin/startdwm}} for instance, and execute it through {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}. From this point on, when you wish to end the X session, simply execute {{Ic|killall xinit}}, or bind it to a convenient key. Alternatively, you could setup your dwm session script so that it relaunches dwm only if the binary changes.  This could be useful in the case where you change a setting or update the dwm code base.
  
===Make the right Alt key work as if it were Mod4 (Windows Key)===
+
{{bc|1=
When using Mod4 (aka Super/Windows Key) as the {{Ic|MODKEY}}, it may be equally convenient to have the right Alt key (Alt_R) act as Mod4. This will allow performing otherwise awkward keystrokes one-handed, such as zooming with Alt_R+Enter.
+
# relaunch DWM if the binary changes, otherwise bail
 +
csum=$(sha1sum $(which dwm))
 +
new_csum=""
 +
while true
 +
do
 +
    if [ "$csum" != "$new_csum" ]
 +
    then
 +
        csum=$new_csum
 +
        dwm
 +
    else
 +
        exit 0
 +
    fi
 +
    new_csum=$(sha1sum $(which dwm))
 +
    sleep 0.5
 +
done
 +
}}
  
First, find out which keycode is assigned to Alt_R:
+
=== Make the right Alt key work as if it were Mod4 (Windows Key) ===
 +
 
 +
When using Mod4 (the Super/Windows Key) as the {{Ic|MODKEY}}, it may be equally convenient to have the right Alt key ({{ic|Alt_R}}) act as {{ic|Mod4}}. This will allow you to perform otherwise awkward keystrokes one-handed, such as zooming with {{ic|Alt_R}}+{{ic|Enter}}.
 +
 
 +
First, find out which keycode is assigned to {{ic|Alt_R}}:
 
  xmodmap -pke | grep Alt_R
 
  xmodmap -pke | grep Alt_R
  
Line 284: Line 152:
 
  xmodmap -e "remove mod1 = Super_L"  # make sure X keeps it out of the mod1 group
 
  xmodmap -e "remove mod1 = Super_L"  # make sure X keeps it out of the mod1 group
  
Now, any functions that are triggered by a Super_L (Windows) key press will also be triggered by an Alt_R key press.
+
After doing so, any functions that are triggered by the {{ic|Super_L}} key press will also be triggered by an {{ic|Alt_R}} key press.
===Disable focus follows mouse behaviour===
 
To disable focus follows mouse behaviour  comment out the following line in definiton of struct handler in dwm.c
 
<pre>[EnterNotify] = enternotify, </pre>
 
Note that this change can cause some difficulties. After it the first click on inactive window will only bring the focus on it. To interact with window contents (buttons, fields etc) you need to click again. Also if you have several monitors you can notice that keyboard focus doesn't switch to another monitor activated by clicking.
 
  
===Adding custom keybinds/shortcuts===
+
{{note|There is a {{ic|#define}} option in [[#Customization|config.h]] which also allows you to switch the modkey}}
Two entries are needed in {{ic|config.h}} to create custom keybinds.  One under the "/* commands /*" section, and another under the "static Key keys[] = {" section.
 
  
static const char *<keybindname>[]  = { "<command>", "<flags>", "<arguments>", NULL };
+
=== Space around font in dwm's bar ===
  
<keybindname> can be anything... <command> <-flags> and <arguments> can be anything but they have to be individually enclosed in "",
+
By default, dwm's bar adds 2px around the size of the font. To change this, modify the following line in {{ic|dwm.c}}:
 +
{{bc|1=bh = dc.h = dc.font.height + 2;}}
  
{ MODKEY,            XK_<key>,      spawn,          {.v = <keybindname> } },
+
=== Disable focus follows mouse behaviour ===
  
...would bind Mod+<key> to the command defined previously.
+
To disable focus follows mouse behaviour  comment out the following line in definiton of struct handler in {{ic|dwm.c}}
 +
{{bc|1=[EnterNotify] = enternotify, }}
 +
Note that this change can cause some difficulties; the first click on an inactive window will only bring the focus to it. To interact with window contents (buttons, fields etc) you need to click again. Also, if you have several monitors, you may notice that the keyboard focus does not switch to another monitor activated by clicking.
  
{ MODKEY|ShiftMask,  XK_<key>,      spawn,          {.v = <keybindname> } },
+
=== Make some windows start floating ===
  
...would bind Mod+Shift+<key>  Use ControlMask for Ctrl key.
+
For some windows, such as preferences dialogs, it does not make sense for these windows to be tiled - they should be free-floating instead. For example, to make Firefox's preferences dialog float, add the following to your rules array in {{ic|config.h}}:
 +
  { "Firefox",    NULL,      "Firefox Preferences",        1 << 8,        True,    -1 },
  
Single keys such as Fn or multimedia keys have to be bound with the hex codes obtainable from the program "xev"
+
== Troubleshooting ==
  
{ 0,                0xff00,    spawn,      {.v = <keybindname> } },
+
=== Fixing misbehaving Java applications ===
  
...would bind foo key 0xff00 to <keybindname>
+
See [[Java#Non-reparenting window managers]]{{Broken section link}} for a solution.
  
* [[Extra_Keyboard_Keys#Step_1:_Check_for_keycodes|How to check for keycodes]]
+
=== Fixing the extra topbar that does not disappear when changing resolution/monitors ===
  
===Fixing misbehaving Java applications===
+
{{Note|this patch is intended for dwm-6.0 which is currently in the [[official repositories]]. The development version of dwm has already implemented this.}}
  
As of JRE 6u20, Java applications misbehave in dwm because it is not a known window manager to Java. This causes menus to close when the mouse is released, and other little issues. First, install wmname from the [community] repository:
+
When resizing or connecting/disconnecting different monitors there may be a remnant of the topbar stuck on the screen which cannot be removed. To fix this bug, rebuild dwm with [http://ix.io/fea this patch].
# pacman -S wmname
 
  
Now all you have to do is use wmname to set a WM name that Java recognizes:
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=== Fixing gaps around terminal windows ===
{{Note|This may cause some programs to behave oddly when tiled (specifically Chromium).}}
 
$ wmname LG3D
 
  
 +
If there are empty gaps of desktop space outside terminal windows, it is likely due to the terminal's font size. Either adjust the size until finding the ideal scale that closes the gap, or toggle {{Ic|resizehints}} to ''0'' in {{ic|config.h}}.
  
This is not permanent, so you may want to add this command to your .xinitrc.
+
This will cause dwm to ignore resize requests from all client windows, not just terminals. The downside to this workaround is that some terminals may suffer redraw anomalies, such as ghost lines and premature line wraps, among others.
  
It is also possible to change enable {{ic|1=export _JAVA_AWT_WM_NONREPARENTING=1}} in {{ic|/etc/profile.d/jre.sh}}
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== See also ==
  
==See also==
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* [https://dwm.suckless.org/ dwm's official website]
* [http://dwm.suckless.org/ dwm's official website]
 
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQ5s6T25jCc Introduction to dwm video]
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQ5s6T25jCc Introduction to dwm video]
 
* [[dmenu]] - Simple application launcher from the developers of dwm
 
* [[dmenu]] - Simple application launcher from the developers of dwm
Line 335: Line 199:
 
* Check out the forums' [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=57768/ wallpaper thread] for a selection of dwm wallpapers
 
* Check out the forums' [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=57768/ wallpaper thread] for a selection of dwm wallpapers
 
*[https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=74599 Show off your dwm configuration forum thread]
 
*[https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=74599 Show off your dwm configuration forum thread]
* [http://0x80.org/blog/?p=72 Moved to dwm]
 
* [http://wongdev.com/blog/2013/01/24/dwm-tags-are-not-workspaces/ dwm: Tags are not workspaces]
 

Latest revision as of 22:52, 13 December 2017

dwm is a dynamic window manager for Xorg. It manages windows in tiled, stacked, and full-screen layouts, as well as many others with the help of optional patches. Layouts can be applied dynamically, optimizing the environment for the application in use and the task being performed. dwm is extremely lightweight and fast, written in C and with a stated design goal of remaining under 2000 source lines of code. It provides multihead support for xrandr and Xinerama.

Installation

Download the dwmAUR or dwm-gitAUR (for the development version) package, and make any required configuration changes before building. See #Configuration for more information.

Starting dwm

Select Dwm from the menu in a display manager of choice.

Alternatively, to start dwm with startx append the following to ~/.xinitrc:

exec dwm

Configuration

Customization

dwm is configured at compile-time by editing some of its source files, namely config.h. For detailed information on these settings see the included, well commented config.def.h as well as the customisation section on the dwm website.

Patches

The official website has a number of patches that can add extra functionality to dwm. These patches primarily make changes to the dwm.c file but also make changes to the config.h file where appropriate. For information on applying patches, see Patching in ABS.

Status bar

See the dwmstatus section on the dwm website. Also see the #Statusbar configuration section.

Use pacman

You should create a package using a PKGBUILD so that pacman is aware of the package.

Applying changes

After making any desired changes and installing the updated package, restart dwm in order to apply the changes.

Basic usage

Consult the dwm tutorial for information on basic dwm usage. Additionally see dwm(1)[dead link 2017-11-25].

Tips and tricks

st keybindings conflict

The default terminal for dwm is st. Be default, st uses Mod1+Ctrl+C for copy, but dwm uses this same key combination to kill a program. You should change this shortcut in either dwm or st such that st is not killed when attempting to copy text.

Statusbar configuration

Note: The following requires the xorg-xsetroot package to be installed.

Dwm reads the name of the root window and redirects it to the statusbar. The root window is the window within which all other windows are drawn and arranged by the window manager. Like any other window, the root window has a title/name, but it is usually undefined because the root window always runs in the background.

The information that you want dwm to show in the statusbar should be defined with xsetroot -name "" command in ~/.xinitrc or ~/.xprofile (if you are using a display manager). For example:

xsetroot -name "Thanks for all the fish!"

Dynamically updated information should be put in a loop which is forked to background - see the example below:

# Statusbar loop
while true; do
   xsetroot -name "$( date +"%F %R" )"
   sleep 1m    # Update time every minute
done &

# Autostart section
pcmanfm & 

exec dwm

In this case the date is shown in ISO 8601 format and PCManFM is launched at startup.

Note: It is not recommended to set the update interval equal to zero or remove the "sleep" line entirely since this will cause CPU usage to rise substantially (you can assess the effect with top and powertop).

More examples of statusbars are included on the suckless wiki.

Conky statusbar

Conky can be printed to the statusbar with xsetroot -name:

(conky | while read LINE; do xsetroot -name "$LINE"; done) &
exec dwm

To do this, conky needs to be told to output text to the console only. The following is a sample conkyrc for a dual core CPU, displaying several usage statistics:

conky.config = {
out_to_console = true,
out_to_x = false,
background = false,
update_interval = 2,
total_run_times = 0,
use_spacer = 'none',
};
conky.text = [[
$mpd_smart :: ${cpu cpu1}% / ${cpu cpu2}%  ${loadavg 1} ${loadavg 2 3} :: ${acpitemp}c :: $memperc% ($mem) :: ${downspeed eth0}K/s ${upspeed eth0}K/s :: ${time %a %b %d %I:%M%P}
]];

For icons and color options, see dzen.

Restart dwm without logging out or closing programs

For restarting dwm without logging out or closing applications, change or add a startup script so that it loads dwm in a while loop, see below:

while true; do
    # Log stderror to a file 
    dwm 2> ~/.dwm.log
    # No error logging
    #dwm >/dev/null 2>&1
done

dwm can now be restarted without destroying other X windows by pressing the usual Mod-Shift-Q combination.

It is a good idea to place the above startup script into a separate file, ~/bin/startdwm for instance, and execute it through ~/.xinitrc. From this point on, when you wish to end the X session, simply execute killall xinit, or bind it to a convenient key. Alternatively, you could setup your dwm session script so that it relaunches dwm only if the binary changes. This could be useful in the case where you change a setting or update the dwm code base.

# relaunch DWM if the binary changes, otherwise bail
csum=$(sha1sum $(which dwm))
new_csum=""
while true
do
    if [ "$csum" != "$new_csum" ]
    then
        csum=$new_csum
        dwm
    else
        exit 0
    fi
    new_csum=$(sha1sum $(which dwm))
    sleep 0.5
done

Make the right Alt key work as if it were Mod4 (Windows Key)

When using Mod4 (the Super/Windows Key) as the MODKEY, it may be equally convenient to have the right Alt key (Alt_R) act as Mod4. This will allow you to perform otherwise awkward keystrokes one-handed, such as zooming with Alt_R+Enter.

First, find out which keycode is assigned to Alt_R:

xmodmap -pke | grep Alt_R

Then simply add the following to the startup script (e.g. ~/.xinitrc), changing the keycode 113 if necessary to the result gathered by the previous xmodmap command:

xmodmap -e "keycode 113 = Super_L"  # reassign Alt_R to Super_L
xmodmap -e "remove mod1 = Super_L"  # make sure X keeps it out of the mod1 group

After doing so, any functions that are triggered by the Super_L key press will also be triggered by an Alt_R key press.

Note: There is a #define option in config.h which also allows you to switch the modkey

Space around font in dwm's bar

By default, dwm's bar adds 2px around the size of the font. To change this, modify the following line in dwm.c:

bh = dc.h = dc.font.height + 2;

Disable focus follows mouse behaviour

To disable focus follows mouse behaviour comment out the following line in definiton of struct handler in dwm.c

[EnterNotify] = enternotify,

Note that this change can cause some difficulties; the first click on an inactive window will only bring the focus to it. To interact with window contents (buttons, fields etc) you need to click again. Also, if you have several monitors, you may notice that the keyboard focus does not switch to another monitor activated by clicking.

Make some windows start floating

For some windows, such as preferences dialogs, it does not make sense for these windows to be tiled - they should be free-floating instead. For example, to make Firefox's preferences dialog float, add the following to your rules array in config.h:

 { "Firefox",     NULL,       "Firefox Preferences",        1 << 8,         True,     -1 },

Troubleshooting

Fixing misbehaving Java applications

See Java#Non-reparenting window managers[broken link: invalid section] for a solution.

Fixing the extra topbar that does not disappear when changing resolution/monitors

Note: this patch is intended for dwm-6.0 which is currently in the official repositories. The development version of dwm has already implemented this.

When resizing or connecting/disconnecting different monitors there may be a remnant of the topbar stuck on the screen which cannot be removed. To fix this bug, rebuild dwm with this patch.

Fixing gaps around terminal windows

If there are empty gaps of desktop space outside terminal windows, it is likely due to the terminal's font size. Either adjust the size until finding the ideal scale that closes the gap, or toggle resizehints to 0 in config.h.

This will cause dwm to ignore resize requests from all client windows, not just terminals. The downside to this workaround is that some terminals may suffer redraw anomalies, such as ghost lines and premature line wraps, among others.

See also