Difference between revisions of "Dynamic DNS"

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(Undo revision 539635 by ZombB (talk) sorry, freeDNS was allready mentioned above)
(ddclient: don't compare services, only describe configuration, afraid-dyndns-uv is abandoned)
 
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[[Category:Domain Name System]]
 
[[Category:Domain Name System]]
 
[[ja:ダイナミック DNS]]
 
[[ja:ダイナミック DNS]]
'''Dynamic DNS''' or '''DDNS''' is a method of updating, in real time, a [[DNS]] to point to a changing IP address on the Internet. This is used to provide a persistent domain name for a resource lacking a static IP. To use DDNS, you need to both sign up with a DDNS provider and set up an automatic update tool that will notify the provider when your IP address changes.
+
According to [[Wikipedia:Dynamic DNS|Wikipedia]]:
  
== Update tools ==
+
:'''Dynamic DNS''' ('''DDNS''' or '''DynDNS''') is a method of automatically updating a [[Wikipedia:name server|name server]] in the [[Wikipedia:Domain Name System|Domain Name System]] (DNS), often in real time, with the active DDNS configuration of its configured hostnames, addresses or other information.
  
=== Router ===
+
:The term is used to describe two different concepts. The first is "dynamic DNS updating" which refers to systems that are used to update traditional DNS records without manual editing. These mechanisms are explained in [[RFC:2136|RFC 2136]], and use the [[Wikipedia:TSIG|TSIG]] mechanism to provide security. The second kind of dynamic DNS permits lightweight and immediate updates often using an update client, which do not use the RFC2136 standard for updating DNS records. These clients provide a persistent addressing method for devices that change their location, configuration or [[Wikipedia:IP address|IP address]] frequently.
 +
 
 +
For RFC2136 there is {{man|1|nsupdate}} from {{Pkg|bind-tools}}. For dynamic DNS services there are several packages available, see [[#Update clients]].
 +
 
 +
== Router ==
  
 
If the device needing DDNS sits behind a router, you should first check if the router itself can update any DDNS services. Although the selection of services may be limited, there are several advantages to using the router: it will probably be easier to set up, will require little to no maintenance, and will have no downtime (if the router is down you won't have Internet anyway).
 
If the device needing DDNS sits behind a router, you should first check if the router itself can update any DDNS services. Although the selection of services may be limited, there are several advantages to using the router: it will probably be easier to set up, will require little to no maintenance, and will have no downtime (if the router is down you won't have Internet anyway).
 +
 +
== Update clients ==
 +
 +
Note that some dynamic DNS providers do not require a dedicated client and can be updated with {{Pkg|curl}}.
 +
 +
=== Multi-service clients ===
 +
 +
* {{App|ddclient|Update dynamic DNS entries for accounts on many dynamic DNS services.|https://github.com/ddclient/ddclient|{{Pkg|ddclient}}}}
 +
* {{App|inadyn-fork|Dynamic DNS client with SSL/TLS support.|http://troglobit.com/inadyn.html|{{AUR|inadyn-fork}}, {{AUR|inadyn-fork-git}}}}
 +
* {{App|inadyn-mt|A simple dynamic DNS client based on inadyn.|http://inadyn-mt.sourceforge.net/|{{AUR|inadyn-mt}}}}
 +
* {{App|ndyndns|Supports DynDNS and Namecheap.|https://github.com/niklata/ndyndns|{{AUR|ndyndns}}}}
 +
 +
=== Single-service clients ===
 +
 +
* {{App|duckdns|Update your DuckDNS.org entries from your computer with systemd.|https://www.duckdns.org/|{{AUR|duckdns}}}}
 +
* {{App|noip|Dynamic DNS Client Updater for no-ip.com services.|3=http://www.no-ip.com/downloads.php?page=linux|4={{AUR|noip}}}}
 +
* {{App|petrified|Bash client to update dynamic DNS at freedns.afraid.org.|https://gitlab.com/troyengel/petrified|{{AUR|petrified}}}}
  
 
=== ddclient ===
 
=== ddclient ===
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|+ ddclient compatible services
 
|+ ddclient compatible services
 
! Service
 
! Service
! Cost
 
! Available Records
 
! Hostname Limit
 
 
! Config Notes
 
! Config Notes
! Alternative tools
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [http://now-dns.com/ Now-DNS]
 
! [http://now-dns.com/ Now-DNS]
| Free || A, AAAA || unlimited || [https://now-dns.com/client/ddclient.conf example] ||
+
| [https://now-dns.com/client/ddclient.conf example]
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [http://www.changeip.com/ ChangeIP]
 
! [http://www.changeip.com/ ChangeIP]
| Free or paid || A, AAAA, CNAME, MX, codomains || 7 free || [https://sourceforge.net/p/ddclient/wiki/protocols/#changeip example] ||
+
| [https://sourceforge.net/p/ddclient/wiki/protocols/#changeip example]
|-
 
! [http://www.dnsdynamic.org/ DNSdynamic]
 
| Free || || || [https://www.dnsdynamic.org/api.php example] ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [https://www.duckdns.org/ Duck DNS]
 
! [https://www.duckdns.org/ Duck DNS]
| Free || || || [https://sourceforge.net/p/ddclient/wiki/protocols/#duckdns example] || {{aur|duckdns}}
+
| [https://sourceforge.net/p/ddclient/wiki/protocols/#duckdns example]
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [http://freedns.afraid.org/ FreeDNS]
 
! [http://freedns.afraid.org/ FreeDNS]
| Free or paid || CNAME, A, AAAA, MX, NS, TXT, LOC, RP, HINFO, SRV || 5 free || [http://freedns.afraid.org/scripts/freedns.clients.php example] || {{aur|afraid-dyndns-uv}}, {{aur|petrified}}
+
| [http://freedns.afraid.org/scripts/freedns.clients.php example]
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [http://www.noip.com/ No-IP]
 
! [http://www.noip.com/ No-IP]
| Free or paid || || 3 free, 25+ paid || Use protocol {{ic|noip}}, server {{ic|dynupdate.no-ip.com}} || {{aur|noip}}
+
| Use protocol {{ic|noip}}, server {{ic|dynupdate.no-ip.com}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [https://www.nsupdate.info/ nsupdate.info]
 
! [https://www.nsupdate.info/ nsupdate.info]
| Free and open source || A, AAAA || || Use protocol {{ic|dyndns2}} || {{aur|inadyn-fork}}
+
| Use protocol {{ic|dyndns2}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [https://dyn.com/dns/ Dyn DNS]
 
! [https://dyn.com/dns/ Dyn DNS]
| Free or paid || A, CNAME, MX ||  || [https://sourceforge.net/p/ddclient/wiki/protocols/#dyndns2 example] || {{aur|ndyndns}}
+
| [https://sourceforge.net/p/ddclient/wiki/protocols/#dyndns2 example]
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [https://www.namecheap.com/ Namecheap]
 
! [https://www.namecheap.com/ Namecheap]
| Paid || A, CNAME || || [https://sourceforge.net/p/ddclient/wiki/protocols/#namecheap example] || {{aur|ndyndns}}
+
| [https://sourceforge.net/p/ddclient/wiki/protocols/#namecheap example]
|-
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
! [https://www.dynu.com/ Dynu]
 
! [https://www.dynu.com/ Dynu]
| Free or paid || || 4 free, 500 paid || [https://www.dynu.com/DynamicDNS/IPUpdateClient/DDClient example] ||
+
| [https://www.dynu.com/DynamicDNS/IPUpdateClient/DDClient example]
|-
 
 
|}
 
|}
 
{{Note| Free users of no-ip are required to manually confirm their domain(s) every 30 days. Domain confirmation is not required for Enhanced users though. More info at [http://www.noip.com/support/knowledgebase/why-is-my-hostname-pending-deletion/ Why is My Hostname Pending Deletion?]}}  
 
{{Note| Free users of no-ip are required to manually confirm their domain(s) every 30 days. Domain confirmation is not required for Enhanced users though. More info at [http://www.noip.com/support/knowledgebase/why-is-my-hostname-pending-deletion/ Why is My Hostname Pending Deletion?]}}  
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Additional configuration for {{ic|network-online.target}} may be necessary, see [https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/NetworkTarget#cutthecraphowdoimakenetwork.targetworkforme].
 
Additional configuration for {{ic|network-online.target}} may be necessary, see [https://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/NetworkTarget#cutthecraphowdoimakenetwork.targetworkforme].
 
=== Other tools ===
 
 
Other DDNS updaters that work with several providers are {{AUR|inadyn-mt}} ([http://sourceforge.net/projects/inadyn-mt supported providers]) and {{AUR|ndyndns}} (supports DynDNS and Namecheap).
 
  
 
== Other providers ==
 
== Other providers ==
  
The following DDNS providers are not compatible with [[#ddclient|ddclient]] so updating your IP with them may require a special tool or some custom scripting. Remember that if the service allows you to update your IP using the command line, you can automate the process using tools such as [[cron]] or [[systemd/Timers]].
+
Other DDNS providers are not compatible with [[#ddclient|ddclient]] so updating your IP with them may require a special tool or some custom scripting. Remember that if the service allows you to update your IP using the command line, you can automate the process using tools such as [[cron]] or [[systemd/Timers]].
 
 
=== duiadns ===
 
[https://www.duiadns.net Duiadns.org] is a free service.
 
 
 
=== FreeDns.io ===
 
 
 
[https://freedns.io FreeDns.io] provides free A and AAAA DNS records and CNAME, TXT and MX records with a premium membership. You can update your IP using their HTTP API (with a 60 requests-per-hour limit). They provide [https://github.com/nkovacne/freedns-samples several example scripts].
 
 
 
===  Now-DNS ===
 
[https://now-dns.com Now-DNS.com] is a free service which is easy and uncomplicated to set up.
 
 
 
=== System-NS ===
 
 
 
[http://system-ns.com/ System-NS] is a free service which can be updated via the command line. See [https://system-ns.com/services/dynamic the official documentation].
 
 
 
===  Loopia.se ===
 
 
 
If you use loopia.se as name server, you can query updates of DNS records via ''curl'' as described in the [https://support.loopia.se/wiki/curl/ official documentation].
 
 
 
If you use 2FA for login, or by some other reason would rather use the LoopiaAPI via a python script to change the DNS dynamically, you should follow the instructions [https://support.loopia.se/wiki/uppdatera-dynamisk-ip-adress-med-loopiaapi/ on this page]. The python file is well written and easy to understand, and basically all you need to do is to generate an API key on your login at Loopia kundzon first.
 

Latest revision as of 05:11, 9 October 2018

According to Wikipedia:

Dynamic DNS (DDNS or DynDNS) is a method of automatically updating a name server in the Domain Name System (DNS), often in real time, with the active DDNS configuration of its configured hostnames, addresses or other information.
The term is used to describe two different concepts. The first is "dynamic DNS updating" which refers to systems that are used to update traditional DNS records without manual editing. These mechanisms are explained in RFC 2136, and use the TSIG mechanism to provide security. The second kind of dynamic DNS permits lightweight and immediate updates often using an update client, which do not use the RFC2136 standard for updating DNS records. These clients provide a persistent addressing method for devices that change their location, configuration or IP address frequently.

For RFC2136 there is nsupdate(1) from bind-tools. For dynamic DNS services there are several packages available, see #Update clients.

Router

If the device needing DDNS sits behind a router, you should first check if the router itself can update any DDNS services. Although the selection of services may be limited, there are several advantages to using the router: it will probably be easier to set up, will require little to no maintenance, and will have no downtime (if the router is down you won't have Internet anyway).

Update clients

Note that some dynamic DNS providers do not require a dedicated client and can be updated with curl.

Multi-service clients

  • ddclient — Update dynamic DNS entries for accounts on many dynamic DNS services.
https://github.com/ddclient/ddclient || ddclient
  • inadyn-fork — Dynamic DNS client with SSL/TLS support.
http://troglobit.com/inadyn.html || inadyn-forkAUR, inadyn-fork-gitAUR
  • inadyn-mt — A simple dynamic DNS client based on inadyn.
http://inadyn-mt.sourceforge.net/ || inadyn-mtAUR
  • ndyndns — Supports DynDNS and Namecheap.
https://github.com/niklata/ndyndns || ndyndnsAUR

Single-service clients

  • duckdns — Update your DuckDNS.org entries from your computer with systemd.
https://www.duckdns.org/ || duckdnsAUR
  • noip — Dynamic DNS Client Updater for no-ip.com services.
http://www.no-ip.com/downloads.php?page=linux || noipAUR
  • petrified — Bash client to update dynamic DNS at freedns.afraid.org.
https://gitlab.com/troyengel/petrified || petrifiedAUR

ddclient

ddclient is compatible with many DDNS services and is the recommended tool for updating DDNS if your router is not an option. It includes systemd support.

After installing, edit the default config /etc/ddclient/ddclient.conf to set up your DDNS provider (it includes many examples). Then enable and start ddclient.service.

Some of the compatible services are listed below, but you can also check the examples and protocols for more.

ddclient compatible services
Service Config Notes
Now-DNS example
ChangeIP example
Duck DNS example
FreeDNS example
No-IP Use protocol noip, server dynupdate.no-ip.com
nsupdate.info Use protocol dyndns2
Dyn DNS example
Namecheap example
Dynu example
Note: Free users of no-ip are required to manually confirm their domain(s) every 30 days. Domain confirmation is not required for Enhanced users though. More info at Why is My Hostname Pending Deletion?

Use an external website to determine IP address

If ddclient is unable to detect your IP address, you can configure ddclient to fetch your IP from an external webpage such as whatismyip.org. Add somewhere in the config file:

/etc/ddclient/ddclient.conf
# use whatismyip.org to determine IP address
use=web
web=whatismyip.org

Starting ddclient after networking is up

If you find that ddclient is unable to update your IP properly, it may be that the ddclient process is starting before networking is up. To fix it, you can edit the unit file to depend on network-online.target:

# systemctl edit ddclient.service
[Unit]
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

Additional configuration for network-online.target may be necessary, see [1].

Other providers

Other DDNS providers are not compatible with ddclient so updating your IP with them may require a special tool or some custom scripting. Remember that if the service allows you to update your IP using the command line, you can automate the process using tools such as cron or systemd/Timers.