Difference between revisions of "Emacs (简体中文)"

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[[Category:Text editors]]
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[[Category:Text editors (简体中文)]]
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[[en:Emacs]]
 
[[sr:Emacs]]
 
[[sr:Emacs]]
[[zh-CN:Emacs]]
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{{TranslationStatus (简体中文)|Emacs|2012-10-17|229169}}
{{TranslationStatus (简体中文)|Emacs|2012-10-17|23776}}
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{{Translateme (简体中文)}}
 
{{Translateme (简体中文)}}
 
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[[Wikipedia:Emacs|Emacs]]是一个可拓展,可自定制,自带文档的实时显示编辑器。Emacs的核心构建在[[Wikipedia:Emacs Lisp|Emacs Lisp]]解释器之上,其中Emacs Lisp是大部分Emacs的内建函数和拓展模块的实现语言。尽管Emacs在命令行界面下(CLI)工作良好,但还是将GTK作为GNU Emacs22的默认X工具包。在文本编辑能力上,Emacs常常拿来和[[vim]]比较。
+
[[Wikipedia:Emacs|Emacs]]是一个扩展方便,定制能力强,文档丰富的动态交互编辑器。Emacs的核心构建在[[Wikipedia:Emacs Lisp|Emacs Lisp]]解释器之上,其中Emacs Lisp是大部分Emacs的内建函数和拓展模块的实现语言。Emacs可以在命令行界面下(CLI)工作良好,在图形界面系统下,使用GTK作为默认的图形界面构建工具。在文本编辑能力上,Emacs常常拿来和[[vim]]比较。
 +
 
 +
{{Note|入门建议直接使用starterkit扩展。本文档实际帮助不大}}
  
 
== 安装 ==
 
== 安装 ==
Emacs comes in several variants (sometimes referred to as ''emacsen''). The most common of these is [http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/ GNU Emacs].
+
Emacs有众多变体发行版本(有时候称作''emacsen''). 最常见的莫过于 [http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/ GNU Emacs],在[[Official Repositories]]可以找到
  
[[pacman|Install]] {{Pkg|emacs}}, available in the [[Official Repositories]].
+
$ pacman -S emacs
  
Another common variant is {{Pkg|xemacs}}.
+
另外一个常见的变体就是{{Pkg|xemacs}}.
  
 
== 快速入门 ==
 
== 快速入门 ==
Although Emacs is complex, it will not take long to begin to understand the benefits which the level of customization and extensibility bring. Furthermore, the comprehensive variety of extensions already available allows  it to be transformed into a powerful environment for almost any form of text-editing.
+
一般印象是Emacs十分复杂,学习曲线陡峭,但很多资深学习者并不这样认为,反而认为其非常易懂和可定制。因为其源码和配置文件语义化程度较高。简单了解下自定义和高扩展带来的好处花不了多少时间。何况还有很多成熟的功能拓展模块,很方便添加,可以让Emacs为任何文本编辑的需求配置强大的环境。
  
Emacs has an excellent built-in tutorial which can be accessed by clicking the first link on the splash screen; by selecting ''Help->Emacs Tutorial'' from the menu or by pressing 'F1' followed by 't'. This page is designed to be an additional resource for getting started with Emacs.
+
Emacs自带一个入门教程,你可以点击欢迎界面上的第一个链接来打开它; 或者从菜单栏中选择''Help->Emacs Tutorial'',或者按'F1'键然后按't'. 我们设计这篇文章来为你在Emacs入门学习中提供额外的资源。
  
Emacs also includes a set of reference cards, useful for beginners and experts alike, see {{ic|/usr/share/emacs/<version>/etc/refcards/}} (substitute <version> for your version of emacs).
+
Emacs也包括一系列引用链接,既有适合初学者的内容,也有骨灰级玩家所喜爱的.参见{{ic|/usr/share/emacs/<version>/etc/refcards/}} (<version>换成你的emacs版本).
  
 
===运行Emacs===
 
===运行Emacs===
====常见方式====
+
====图形界面下打开方式====
To start Emacs run:
+
图形界面下可以直接点击图标打开。
 +
 
 +
====虚拟终端下的常见方式====
 +
打开Emacs:
  
 
  $ emacs
 
  $ emacs
  
or, to use it from the console:
+
不打开图形界面,直接在终端中运行:
  
 
  $ emacs -nw
 
  $ emacs -nw
  
A file name can also be provided to open that file immediately:
+
也可以马上打开一篇文章:
  
 
  $ emacs filename.txt
 
  $ emacs filename.txt
 +
 +
=====无色运行=====
 +
默认的emacs会带有颜色主题,如果不需要,可以关闭之:
 +
 +
$ emacs -nw --color=no
 +
  
 
====作为守护进程====
 
====作为守护进程====
Emacs can take some time to start since it has to load the .emacs file each time. Since version 23, Emacs is capable to run as a daemon to which users can connect. To run Emacs as a daemon:
+
Emacs由于每次启动都需要加载大量自定义的配置文件,所以打开时候会有点慢。从Emacs23开始, Emacs可以以守护进程的形式运行,这样每个用户都可以链接到Emacs。以守护进程运行Emacs:
  
 
  $ emacs --daemon
 
  $ emacs --daemon
  
You are likely to start the daemon at startup time and to connect a window to the daemon. Besides, it is possible to connect ''both'' graphical and console clients to the daemon at the same time and make the GUI to start quickly.
+
你可能在启动时打开一个守护进程,然后再将守护进程链接到窗口。另外,也可以将图形和终端客户端同时链接到守护进程上,这样启动图形界面速度就很快了。
  
If you want to connect to the daemon simply use the folowing command (note that it will start a graphical client if called in a graphical environment or a console client if called in a console like a tty):
+
如果你仅仅想链接到守护进程,用下面的命令(注意,在桌面环境下这个命令会打开一个图形客户端,而在像tty这种命令行下,它会打开一个命令行版的emacs):
  
 
  $ emacsclient
 
  $ emacsclient
  
If you still want a console client no matter you are in a graphical environment then use:
+
如果你想在桌面环境下打开一个命令行版的emacs,使用下面的命令:
  
 
  $ emacsclient -t
 
  $ emacsclient -t
  
Furthermore, you can add the {{ic|-a ""}} parameter.
+
另外,你可以在后面加上 {{ic|-a ""}} 参数.
Now, the first time you call the command, it will start emacs as a daemon, so that it remains running in background to improve startup time for future calls (and to remember buffers as well).
+
现在,你第一次使用这个命令时,它会把emacs作为守护进程来启动,它会留在后台以加快以后的启动速度(也会记住缓冲区).
 +
 
 +
更聪明点,你可以在.bashrc中加上下面的别名:
  
In the end, you could use the following alias:
+
$ alias e0='emacs --daemon'  #启动守护进程
 +
$ alias e1='emacsclient -t -a ""'  #在终端中开启emacs
 +
$ alias e2='emacsclient -c -a ""'  #启动emacs图形界面
  
$ alias emacs='emacsclient -t -a ""'
 
  
With xfce, if you want to tell it to use emacsclient -c instead of emacs %f when opening a new file, you can change your /usr/share/applications/emacs.desktop and change the line
+
在[[xfce]]桌面环境中,如果你想使用 emacsclient -c 来代替 emacs %f 打开一个新文件, 你可以修改你的 /usr/share/applications/emacs.desktop 文件,把下面这一行
  
 
  $ Exec=emacs %f
 
  $ Exec=emacs %f
  
To
+
修改为
  
 
  $ Exec=emacsclient -c
 
  $ Exec=emacsclient -c
  
This way, a client will be called each time you open up a file and so be very fast!
+
使用这种方法,每次你打开一个文件时就只会启动客户端,因此速度非常快!
  
 
===基本术语和约定===
 
===基本术语和约定===
Emacs uses some terminology and conventions which may seem unusual at first and will be introduced where appropriate.  However, there is some terminology which should be introduced before-hand, as it is fundamental to working with Emacs.
+
Emacs使用一些刚开始看起来很奇怪的术语和约定,我们会在合适的时候介绍。但是,对于部分术语,我们必须要在前面介绍,因为它们对于使用Emacs来说是非常基础的。
  
The one piece of terminology which must be introduced early is the concept of ''buffers''.  A buffer is a representation of data within Emacs.  For example, when a file is opened in Emacs, that file is read from disk and its contents stored in a buffer, which allows it to be edited and saved back to disk later.  Buffers are not limited to text, and can also contain images and widgets.  Work is in progress to allow buffers to even display applications!  Another way to think of it: data available on disk is referred to as a 'file', whereas data available in Emacs is referred to as a 'buffer'.
+
第一个要介绍的术语是''缓冲区''的概念。一个缓冲区就是Emacs中的数据的一种表示方式,比如,当使用Emacs打开一个文件时,这个文件从磁盘中被读出来,它的内容被存储在了缓冲区里面,它的内容可以在这个缓冲区里面被编辑并且可以重新写进磁盘中。缓冲区中的内容不仅仅可以是文本,也可以是图片和widget。现在,让缓冲区可以显示应用程序的工作正在进行!换个角度思考,在磁盘中数据是以文件形式保存的,而在Emacs中,数据是以缓冲区的形式存在的。
  
The convention for key sequences in Emacs may be unfamiliar.  Namely:
+
在Emacs中,对于按键组合的约定你可能很陌生。比如:
  
'''C-x''' refers to Control-x
+
'''C-x''' 代表 Control-x
  
'''M-x''' refers to Meta-x
+
'''M-x''' 代表 Meta-x
  
{{Note|'Meta' corresponds to the Alt key in most cases.  Alternatively, the Esc key can be used.}}
+
{{Note|'Meta'一般代表Alt键,也可以用Esc键替代。}}
  
For example, to exit Emacs use the following key sequence: '''C-x C-c'''.  This can be read as "Hold Control and press 'x'.  Release.  Hold Control and press 'c'."  Although Emacs provides a menu bar, it is recommended practise to focus on learning the key sequences.  This guide will refer to keybindings with the convention used in Emacs from now on.
+
举个例子,退出Emacs使用下面的按键组合'''C-x C-c'''。这个可以读做,"按住Ctrol键再按'x',释放,再按住Control键再按'c'。虽然Emacs提供了一个菜单栏,但是强烈建议学习使用按键组合。这个指南将参考Emacs的按键绑定的约定。
  
 
===移动===
 
===移动===
Cursor movement is very similar to other graphical editors.  The mouse and arrow keys can be used to change the position of the cursor (referred to as ''point'' in Emacs).  The standard movement commands performed by the arrow keys also have more accessible bindings in Emacs.  To move forward one character, use '''C-f''' and to move one character backward, '''C-b'''. '''C-n''' and '''C-p''' can be used to move to the next and previous lines, respectively.  Again, it is generally recommended to use these key-sequences in preference to the mouse and/or arrow keys.
+
光标移动和其它图形编辑器非常类似,鼠标和方向键可以用来改变光标(在Emacs中称为'''')的位置。在Emacs中,方向键代表的标准移动命令也有其它辅助的绑定。向前(forward)移动一个字符,使用 '''C-f''',向后(back)移动一个字符,使用'''C-b''' '''C-n''' '''C-p''' 分别用于移动到下(next)一行和移动到上(previous)一行。再声明一下,强烈推荐使用组合键而不是使用方向键和鼠标。
  
As might be expected, Emacs provides more advanced movement commands, including moving by word and sentence.  '''M-f''' moves forward one word and '''M-b''' will move point one word backward.  Similarly, '''M-e''' moves point one sentence forward and '''M-a''' one sentence backward.
+
可以想像,Emacs提供了更多的光标高级移动命令,包括移动一个单词和一个句子。 '''M-f''' 表示光标向前移动一个单词, '''M-b''' 表示向后移动一个单词。类似地,'''M-e''' 把光标移动到一个句子的末尾(end), '''M-a''' 移动到句子的开头。
  
Until now, all of the movement commands introduced have been relative to point.  '''M-<''' can be used to move point to the beginning of the buffer, with its counterpart, '''M->''', moving to the end of the buffer.  To move point to a specific line number, use '''M-g g'''.  '''M-g g''' will prompt for the desired line number.  Also, to move to the start or end of the current line, use '''C-a''' or '''C-e''', respectively.
+
直到现在,所有的移动命令都是和光标有关的。'''M-<''' 表示把光标移动到缓冲区的开头,和它相反的是 '''M->''', 把光标移动到缓冲区的末尾。要把光标移动到某一特定行,使用'''M-g g'''.  '''M-g g''' 会提示输入行号。同样,要移动到一行的开头或者结尾,分别使用'''C-a''' '''C-e'''
  
{{Note|Keybindings for these commands, or indeed any command, may differ ''slightly'' depending on which modes are currently active.  However, it is unusual for the replacement command not to provide equivalent functionality.  See [[Emacs#Modes|Modes]] for more information.}}
+
{{Note|这些命令(实际上是全部命令)的绑定,在不同的模式(mode)中,''稍微''会有不同。然而,覆盖的命令提供不同的功能这种情况很少见。更多信息请看[[Emacs#Modes|Modes]]}}
  
 
===文件和缓冲区===
 
===文件和缓冲区===
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===获得帮助===
 
===获得帮助===
Emacs is self-documenting by design.  As such, a great deal of information is available to determine the name of a specific command or its keybinding, for example.  The following is a listing of some of the most helpful of these:
+
Emacs在设计的时候就自文档化了。比如,要查看一个命令的名字或者它的键的绑定,Emacs提供了很多帮助信息。下面是列出来的最有用的一些帮助命令:
  
  '''C-h t'''        Start the Emacs tutorial
+
  '''C-h t'''        启动Emacs官方教程
 
   
 
   
  '''C-h b'''        List all active keybindings
+
  '''C-h b'''        列出来所有的有效键绑定
 
   
 
   
  '''C-h k'''        Find which command a key is bound to
+
  '''C-h k'''        查找一个键被绑定在了哪个命令上
 
   
 
   
  '''C-h w'''        Find which key(s) a command is bound to
+
  '''C-h w'''        查找一个命令被绑定在了哪些键上
 
   
 
   
  '''C-h a'''        Find a command matching a description
+
  '''C-h a'''        查找一个匹配一段描述的命令
 
   
 
   
  '''C-h m'''        Display information regarding the currently active modes
+
  '''C-h m'''        显示当前激活的所有模式的信息
 
   
 
   
  '''C-h f'''        Describe the given function
+
  '''C-h f'''        显示给定函数的描述信息
  
 
===模式===
 
===模式===
Line 355: Line 369:
 
You can also use the [http://tromey.com/elpa/ Emacs Lisp Package Archive (ELPA)] to automatically install packages.  See the website for instructions.  ELPA is included with Emacs 24 (the newest version of Emacs); it is an accepted part of the Emacs ecosystem.
 
You can also use the [http://tromey.com/elpa/ Emacs Lisp Package Archive (ELPA)] to automatically install packages.  See the website for instructions.  ELPA is included with Emacs 24 (the newest version of Emacs); it is an accepted part of the Emacs ecosystem.
  
== 问题的解决方法 ==
+
== 疑难杂症 ==
  
 
===彩色输出的问题===
 
===彩色输出的问题===
Line 367: Line 381:
  
 
=== X 窗口下的字符显示问题 ===
 
=== X 窗口下的字符显示问题 ===
If when you start emacs in X windows all the characters in the main window are white boxes with black borders (the ones you see if you try to view characters for which you do not have the correct font installed), you need to install {{pkg|xorg-fonts-75dpi}} and/or {{pkg|xorg-fonts-100dpi}} and restart X windows.
+
当你使用X窗口启动emacs时,如果发现主窗口中的所有字符都是黑框白块(就像你没有安装正确的字体看到的字符一样),那么你需要安装 {{pkg|xorg-fonts-75dpi}} 或者 {{pkg|xorg-fonts-100dpi}} 并且重启X窗口。
  
 
=== 启动速度慢 ===
 
=== 启动速度慢 ===

Revision as of 14:52, 13 January 2013

翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 Emacs翻译,最后翻译时间:2012-10-17,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png本页面需要更新翻译,内容可能已经与英文脱节。要贡献翻译,请访问简体中文翻译组Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

附注: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications.

Template:Article summary start Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary end

Emacs是一个扩展方便,定制能力强,文档丰富的动态交互编辑器。Emacs的核心构建在Emacs Lisp解释器之上,其中Emacs Lisp是大部分Emacs的内建函数和拓展模块的实现语言。Emacs可以在命令行界面下(CLI)工作良好,在图形界面系统下,使用GTK作为默认的图形界面构建工具。在文本编辑能力上,Emacs常常拿来和vim比较。

Note: 入门建议直接使用starterkit扩展。本文档实际帮助不大

安装

Emacs有众多变体发行版本(有时候称作emacsen). 最常见的莫过于 GNU Emacs,在Official Repositories可以找到

$ pacman -S emacs

另外一个常见的变体就是xemacs.

快速入门

一般印象是Emacs十分复杂,学习曲线陡峭,但很多资深学习者并不这样认为,反而认为其非常易懂和可定制。因为其源码和配置文件语义化程度较高。简单了解下自定义和高扩展带来的好处花不了多少时间。何况还有很多成熟的功能拓展模块,很方便添加,可以让Emacs为任何文本编辑的需求配置强大的环境。

Emacs自带一个入门教程,你可以点击欢迎界面上的第一个链接来打开它; 或者从菜单栏中选择Help->Emacs Tutorial,或者按'F1'键然后按't'. 我们设计这篇文章来为你在Emacs入门学习中提供额外的资源。

Emacs也包括一系列引用链接,既有适合初学者的内容,也有骨灰级玩家所喜爱的.参见/usr/share/emacs/<version>/etc/refcards/ (将<version>换成你的emacs版本).

运行Emacs

图形界面下打开方式

图形界面下可以直接点击图标打开。

虚拟终端下的常见方式

打开Emacs:

$ emacs

不打开图形界面,直接在终端中运行:

$ emacs -nw

也可以马上打开一篇文章:

$ emacs filename.txt
无色运行

默认的emacs会带有颜色主题,如果不需要,可以关闭之:

$ emacs -nw --color=no


作为守护进程

Emacs由于每次启动都需要加载大量自定义的配置文件,所以打开时候会有点慢。从Emacs23开始, Emacs可以以守护进程的形式运行,这样每个用户都可以链接到Emacs。以守护进程运行Emacs:

$ emacs --daemon

你可能在启动时打开一个守护进程,然后再将守护进程链接到窗口。另外,也可以将图形和终端客户端同时链接到守护进程上,这样启动图形界面速度就很快了。

如果你仅仅想链接到守护进程,用下面的命令(注意,在桌面环境下这个命令会打开一个图形客户端,而在像tty这种命令行下,它会打开一个命令行版的emacs):

$ emacsclient

如果你想在桌面环境下打开一个命令行版的emacs,使用下面的命令:

$ emacsclient -t

另外,你可以在后面加上 -a "" 参数. 现在,你第一次使用这个命令时,它会把emacs作为守护进程来启动,它会留在后台以加快以后的启动速度(也会记住缓冲区).

更聪明点,你可以在.bashrc中加上下面的别名:

$ alias e0='emacs --daemon'  #启动守护进程
$ alias e1='emacsclient -t -a ""'  #在终端中开启emacs
$ alias e2='emacsclient -c -a ""'  #启动emacs图形界面


xfce桌面环境中,如果你想使用 emacsclient -c 来代替 emacs %f 打开一个新文件, 你可以修改你的 /usr/share/applications/emacs.desktop 文件,把下面这一行

$ Exec=emacs %f

修改为

$ Exec=emacsclient -c

使用这种方法,每次你打开一个文件时就只会启动客户端,因此速度非常快!

基本术语和约定

Emacs使用一些刚开始看起来很奇怪的术语和约定,我们会在合适的时候介绍。但是,对于部分术语,我们必须要在前面介绍,因为它们对于使用Emacs来说是非常基础的。

第一个要介绍的术语是缓冲区的概念。一个缓冲区就是Emacs中的数据的一种表示方式,比如,当使用Emacs打开一个文件时,这个文件从磁盘中被读出来,它的内容被存储在了缓冲区里面,它的内容可以在这个缓冲区里面被编辑并且可以重新写进磁盘中。缓冲区中的内容不仅仅可以是文本,也可以是图片和widget。现在,让缓冲区可以显示应用程序的工作正在进行!换个角度思考,在磁盘中数据是以文件形式保存的,而在Emacs中,数据是以缓冲区的形式存在的。

在Emacs中,对于按键组合的约定你可能很陌生。比如:

C-x 代表 Control-x

M-x 代表 Meta-x

Note: 'Meta'一般代表Alt键,也可以用Esc键替代。

举个例子,退出Emacs使用下面的按键组合C-x C-c。这个可以读做,"按住Ctrol键再按'x',释放,再按住Control键再按'c'。虽然Emacs提供了一个菜单栏,但是强烈建议学习使用按键组合。这个指南将参考Emacs的按键绑定的约定。

移动

光标移动和其它图形编辑器非常类似,鼠标和方向键可以用来改变光标(在Emacs中称为)的位置。在Emacs中,方向键代表的标准移动命令也有其它辅助的绑定。向前(forward)移动一个字符,使用 C-f,向后(back)移动一个字符,使用C-bC-nC-p 分别用于移动到下(next)一行和移动到上(previous)一行。再声明一下,强烈推荐使用组合键而不是使用方向键和鼠标。

可以想像,Emacs提供了更多的光标高级移动命令,包括移动一个单词和一个句子。 M-f 表示光标向前移动一个单词, M-b 表示向后移动一个单词。类似地,M-e 把光标移动到一个句子的末尾(end), M-a 移动到句子的开头。

直到现在,所有的移动命令都是和光标有关的。M-< 表示把光标移动到缓冲区的开头,和它相反的是 M->, 把光标移动到缓冲区的末尾。要把光标移动到某一特定行,使用M-g g. M-g g 会提示输入行号。同样,要移动到一行的开头或者结尾,分别使用C-aC-e

Note: 这些命令(实际上是全部命令)的绑定,在不同的模式(mode)中,稍微会有不同。然而,覆盖的命令提供不同的功能这种情况很少见。更多信息请看Modes

文件和缓冲区

Emacs provides a series of commands to act upon files, the most common of which will be detailed here. C-x C-f is used to open a file (this command is called 'find-file' in Emacs). Should the file specified not exist, Emacs will open an empty buffer. Saving a buffer will create the file with the buffer's contents. C-x C-s can be used to save a buffer. To save a buffer with a different filename, use C-x C-w (this is a mnemonic for the command 'write-file'), which will prompt for the new filename before writing it to disk. It is also possible to ensure all buffers are saved with C-x s, which, should a buffer be modified since its last save, a prompt will be displayed asking which action to take.

Note: C-x C-f does not read the file from disk again if a buffer corresponding to the file is still opened. To re-read the file from disk, kill the buffer (C-x k) prior to C-x C-f or use M-x revert-buffer.

Many interactive commands such as "find-file" or "write-file" prompt for input in the bottom-most line of the Emacs window. This line is referred to as the minibuffer. The minibuffer supports many basic editing commands as well as tab-completion similar to that which is available in many *nix shells. <TAB> can be pressed twice in succession to display a list of completions, and if desired, the mouse can be also be used to select a completion from that list. Completion in the minibuffer is available for many forms of input including commands and filenames.

The minibuffer also provides a history feature. The previous items entered for a command can be recalled using the Up Arrow or C-p.

To exit the minibuffer at any time, press C-g.

After opening several files, a way to switch between them is needed. Opening a file corresponding to a buffer already available in Emacs, will cause Emacs to switch to that buffer. But this is not the most effective way. Emacs provides C-x b, which prompts for the new buffer to be displayed (tab-completion is available here). By entering the name of a buffer which does not exist, a new buffer with that name will be created.

Note: To switch to the previous buffer use C-x b <RET>, as the previous buffer is the default.

A list of all open buffers can be displayed using C-x C-b. Should a buffer no longer be required, it can be removed with C-x k.

编辑

Many editing commands exist within Emacs. Perhaps the most important command which has not yet been introduced is 'undo', which can be performed via C-_ or C-/. Movement commands generally also have a corresponding delete command. For example, M-<backspace> can be used to delete a word backwards, and M-d to delete a word forwards. To delete to the end of the line, or the end of the sentence, use C-k or M-k, respectively.

It is a rule-of-thumb that no line be allowed to exceed 80 characters. This aids readability, especially in cases where the line wraps at the edge of a window. Automatically inserting (or removing) line separator(s) is known as filling in Emacs. A paragraph can be filled using M-q.

Characters and words can be transposed using C-t and M-t, respectively. For example: Hello World!World! Hello

The case of words is also readily adjustable. M-l downcases a word from point (HELLOhello); M-u upcases a word from point (helloHELLO) and M-c capitalizes the first character of a word from point while downcasing the remainder (hElLoHello).

移除,召回和区域

A region is a section of text between two positions. One of those positions is referred to as mark, and the other is point. C-<SPC> is used to set the position of mark, after which point can be moved to create a region. Within GNU Emacs 23.1 onwards, this region is visible by default. There are a number of commands which act upon regions, among the most commonly used are killing commands.

In Emacs, cut and paste are referred to as kill and yank, respectively. Many commands which delete more than one character (including many of those in the above section, such as C-k and M-d) actually cut the text and append it to what is known as the kill-ring. The kill-ring is simply a list of killed text. The kill-ring stores up to the last 60 kills by default. Successive kills are concatenated and stored at the head of the list.

C-w and M-w can be used to kill and copy a region, respectively.

To insert killed text into a buffer (known as 'yanking'), use C-y. C-y can be used multiple times in succession to yank text repeatedly. As mentioned, previous kills are stored in a list, however C-y only retrieves the first of them. The earlier kills can be accessed via M-y. This will remove the text inserted by 'yank' initially, replacing it with the text killed earlier. M-y must be used immediately following C-y and can be used in many times succession to cycle through the kill-ring.

查找和替换

Searching for a string is common practise in text-editing. This can be performed using C-s (to search forward) or C-r (to search backward). These commands prompt for the string for which to search. Searching is performed incrementally, and so it will match the next (or previous) occurrence as you type. To move to the next or previous match, press C-s or C-r again, respectively. Once a match has been found, <RET> can be used to end the search. Alternatively, should you wish to return to the location you initiated the search, use C-g.

Once a search is completed (i.e., was not aborted with C-g or similar), the string which was searched for will be the default for any following search. To make use of this, press C-s C-s or C-r C-r to search forward or backward again, respectively.

Regular Expression searches behave identically to the searching described above except for the command to initiate the search. Use C-M-s or C-M-r to initiate a regexp search forward or backward, respectively. Once a Regular Expression search has commenced, C-s and C-r can be used to search forward or backward, just as with string searches.

In addition to searching, it is also possible to perform string and regular expression replacement (via M-% and C-M-%, respectively). Prompts are provided for both the initial and replacement text, and then another prompt for the action to perform on the highlighted match. Although many options are available (the full list is available by pressing ?), the most commonly used are y, to perform replacement, n, to skip this match, and ! to replace this, and all following matches.

缩进和前缀参数

Indentation is usually performed with either <TAB>, to indent a single line, or with C-M-\, to indent a region.

Exactly how text is indented usually depends on the major-mode which is active. Major-modes often define indentation styles specialising in indenting a certain type of text. (See Modes for more information.)

In some cases, a suitable major-mode may not exist for a file type, in which case, manual indentation may be necessary. Create a region (see Killing, yanking and regions) then perform indentation with C-u <n> C-x <TAB> (where '<n>' is the number of columns which the text within the region should be indented). For example:

Increase the region's indentation by four columns:

C-u 4 C-x <TAB>

Decrease the region's indentation by two columns.

C-u -2 C-x <TAB>
Note: The trick behind this is C-u, which corresponds to the 'universal-argument' command. Providing a 'universal-argument' is a way to provide more information to a command (this information is referred to as a 'prefix argument'). In this case, we provided the amount of indentation desired to the command invoked by C-x <TAB>. Without providing an argument, C-x <TAB> will only increase indentation by 1 column.

窗口和外框架

Emacs is designed for convenient editing of many files at a time. This is achieved by dividing the Emacs interface into three levels. Namely, buffers, which have already been introduced, as well as windows and frames.

A window is a viewport used for displaying a buffer. A window can display only one buffer at a time, however one buffer can be displayed in many windows. Beneath each window exists a mode-line, which displays information for that buffer.

A frame is an Emacs "window" (in standard terminology. i.e., 'window' in the sense of the modern desktop paradigm) which contains a title bar, menu bar and one or more 'windows' (in Emacs terminology. i.e., the above definition of 'window').

From now on the definition of these terms as they exist in Emacs will be used.

To split the window vertically or horizontally, use C-x 2 or C-x 3, respectively. This has the effect of creating another window in the current frame. To cycle between multiple windows, use C-x o.

The opposite of splitting a window, is deleting it. To delete the current window, use C-x 0 and C-x 1 to delete all windows except the current.

As with windows, it is also possible to create and delete frames. C-x 5 2 creates a frame. With C-x 5 0 to delete the current frame and C-x 5 1 to delete all except the current frame.

Note: These commands do not affect buffers. For example, deleting a window does not kill the buffer it displays.

获得帮助

Emacs在设计的时候就自文档化了。比如,要查看一个命令的名字或者它的键的绑定,Emacs提供了很多帮助信息。下面是列出来的最有用的一些帮助命令:

C-h t        启动Emacs官方教程

C-h b        列出来所有的有效键绑定

C-h k        查找一个键被绑定在了哪个命令上

C-h w        查找一个命令被绑定在了哪些键上

C-h a        查找一个匹配一段描述的命令

C-h m        显示当前激活的所有模式的信息

C-h f        显示给定函数的描述信息

模式

An Emacs mode is an extension written in Emacs Lisp that controls the behaviour of the buffer it is attached to. Usually it provides indentation, syntax highlighting and keybindings for editing that form of text. Sophisticated modes can turn Emacs into a full-fledged IDE (Integrated Development Environment). Emacs will generally use a file's extension to determine which mode should be loaded.

Useful modes for editing shell scripts are sh-mode, line-number-mode and column-number-mode. They can be used in parallel and are invoked by:

M-x sh-mode <RET>

M-x column-number-mode <RET>

line-number-mode is enabled by default, though, it can be toggled on/off by issuing the command again:

M-x line-number-mode <RET>

sh-mode is a major-mode. Major-modes adjust Emacs, and often also provide a specialised set of commands, for editing a particular type of text. Only one major-mode can be active in each buffer. In addition to syntax highlighting, and indentation support, sh-mode defines several commands to help write shell scripts. The following shows a few of those commands:

C-c (	 Insert a function definition

C-c C-f	 Insert a 'for' loop

C-c TAB	 Insert an 'if' statement

C-c C-w	 Insert a 'while' loop

C-c C-l	 Insert an indexed loop from 1 to n

'line-number-mode' and 'column-number-mode', are minor-modes. Minor-modes can be used to extend a major-mode and any number of minor-modes can be enabled at once.

提示和技巧

While the previous sections has given an overview of the basic editing commands available, it has not given an indication of the possibilities of Emacs. This section will cover some more advanced techniques and functionality.

TRAMP

TRAMP (Transparent Remote Access, Multiple Protocols) is an extension which, as its name suggests, provides transparent access to remote files across a number of protocols. When prompted for a filename, entering a specific form will invoke TRAMP. Some examples:

To prompt for the root password before opening /etc/hosts with root permissions:

C-x C-f /su::/etc/hosts

To connect to 'myhost' as 'myuser' via SSH and open the file ~/example.txt:

C-x C-f /ssh:myuser@myhost:~/example.txt

The path for TRAMP is typically of the form '/[protocol]:[[user@]host]:<file>'. TRAMP supports much more than the examples above might indicate. For more information refer to the TRAMP info manual, which is distributed with Emacs.

键盘宏和寄存器

This section will provide a practical demonstration of the use of a couple of more powerful editing features. Namely, keyboard macros and registers.

The aim will be to produce a listing of a series of characters and their corresponding position in this list. While it is possible to format each of them by hand, this would be slow and error-prone. Alternatively, some of Emacs' more powerful editing functionality could be leveraged. Before describing a solution, some details behind the techniques which will be used follow.

The first feature which will be introduced is registers. Registers are used to store and retrieve a variety of data types ranging from numbers to window configurations. Each register is given a name of a single character: this character is used to access the register.

The other which will be demonstrated is keyboard macros. A keyboard macro stores a sequence of commands so they can be easily repeated later. These changes will now be performed step-by-step.

Starting with a buffer containing our set of characters:

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

Prepare a register by invoking the `number-to-register' command (C-x r n) then storing the number '0' in register 'k':

C-x r n k

With point at the beginning of the buffer, start a keyboard macro (C-x () and begin to format the characters:

C-x ( C-f M-4 .

Insert (C-x r i) and increment (C-x r +) the register 'k'. The prefix argument (C-u) is used to leave point positioned after the inserted text:

C-u C-x r i k C-x r + k

Complete the formatting by inserting a newline. Emacs can then repeat that process, beginning from the point where we started defining the keyboard macro, for the rest of the characters. C-x e completes then invokes the keyboard macro. The prefix argument, M-0, causes the macro to repeat until it comes across an error. In this case it aborts once it reaches the end of the buffer.

<RET> M-0 C-x e

The result:

 A....0
 B....1
 C....2
 [...]
 x....49
 y....50
 z....51

正则表达式

From the Emacs Manual: "A regular expression, or regexp for short, is a pattern that denotes a (possibly infinite) set of strings." This section will not go into any detail regarding regular expressions themselves (as there is simply too much to cover). It will however provide a quick demonstration of their power. See Regular Expressions section in the Emacs Manual for further reading.

Given the same scenario presented above: A list of characters which are to be formatted to represent their respective position in the list. (see Keyboard macros and registers). Again, starting with a buffer containing.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

At the beginning of the buffer, use C-M-% (if the key-sequence is difficult to perform, it may be more comfortable to use M-x query-replace-regexp). At the prompt:

\(.\)

which simply matches one character. Then, when prompted for the replacement:

\1....\#^J
Note: '^J' represents where a newline should be placed, it should not be entered into the prompt. The newline must instead be inserted literally using C-q C-j.

The replacement expression reads: "Insert the matched text between the first set of parentheses (in this case, a single character), followed by 4 periods then insert an automatically incremented number followed by a newline.

Finally, press ! to apply this across the entire buffer. All of the formatting that was performed in the previous section was performed with a single regexp replacement.

定制

Emacs can configured by editing '~/.emacs' or using M-x customize. This section will focus on editing ~/.emacs by hand, and provide some example customizations to demonstrate commonly-configured aspects of Emacs. The customize command provides a simple interface to make adjustments, though it may become restricting as you grow more familiar with Emacs.

All of the examples here can be performed while Emacs is running. To evaluate the expression within Emacs, use:

C-M-x with point anywhere within the expression.

or

C-x C-e with point following the last ')'

For some users, typing 'yes' and 'no' in prompts can quickly become tiring. To instead use the 'y' and 'n' keys at these prompts:

(defalias 'yes-or-no-p 'y-or-n-p)

To stop the cursor blinking, use:

(blink-cursor-mode -1)

Similarly, to enable column-number-mode, as discussed in the previous section:

(column-number-mode 1)

The similarities between the previous two commands are not a coincidence: blink-cursor-mode and column-number-mode are both minor-modes. As a rule, minor-modes can be enabled given positive argument or disabled with a negative argument. Should the argument be omitted, the minor-mode will be toggled on/off.

Here are some more examples of minor-modes. The following will disable the scroll bars, menu-bar and tool-bar, respectively.

(scroll-bar-mode -1)
(menu-bar-mode -1)
(tool-bar-mode -1)

The variable, 'auto-mode-alist', can be modified to change the major-mode used by default for certain file names. The following example will make the default major-mode for '.tut' and '.req' files 'text-mode'.

(setq auto-mode-alist
  (append
    '(("\\.tut$" . text-mode)
      ("\\.req$" . text-mode))
    auto-mode-alist))

Settings can also be applied on a per-mode basis. A common method for this is to add a function to a hook. For example, to force indentation to use spaces instead of tabs, but only in text-mode:

(add-hook 'text-mode-hook (lambda () (setq indent-tabs-mode nil)))

Similarly, to only use spaces for indentation everywhere:

(setq-default indent-tabs-mode nil)

Keybindings can be adjusted in two ways. The first of which is 'define-key'. 'define-key' creates a keybinding for a command but only in one mode. The example below will make F8 delete any whitespace from the end of each line of a 'text-mode' buffer:

(define-key text-mode-map (kbd "<f8>") 'delete-trailing-whitespace)

The other method is 'global-set-key'. This is used to bind a key to a command everywhere. To bind 'query-replace-regexp' (C-M-%) to '<f7>'.

(global-set-key (kbd "<f7>") 'query-replace-regexp)

Binding a command to an alternate key does not replace any existing bindings. Which is to say, 'query-replace-regexp' would be bound to both F7 and C-M-% after the above example.

Almost anything within Emacs can be configured. Browsing through the Emacs Wiki should give a solid place to start.

拓展模块

While Emacs includes hundreds of modes, libraries and other extensions, there are many more available to further Emacs' capabilities. The majority of these come with instructions detailing any changes needed to be made to ~/.emacs. These instructions are generally found in the comment block at the beginning of an elisp source file, or in a README (or similar) should the extension consist of multiple source files.

A number of popular extensions are available as packages in the 'community' repository, and more still are available via the AUR. The name of such packages have a 'emacs-' prefix (for example, emacs-lua-mode). In many cases, the changes which need to be made to ~/.emacs are shown during the installation of the package.

Should instructions describing how to activate a specific extension not be available in the aforementioned location(s), check for a corresponding page in the Emacs Wiki, which will almost certainly provide an example configuration. The Emacs Wiki is also an excellent resource for discovering even more extensions.

You can also use the Emacs Lisp Package Archive (ELPA) to automatically install packages. See the website for instructions. ELPA is included with Emacs 24 (the newest version of Emacs); it is an accepted part of the Emacs ecosystem.

疑难杂症

彩色输出的问题

By default, the Emacs shell will show raw escape sequences used to print colors. In other words, it will display strange symbols in place of the desired colored output.

Including the following into ~/.emacs amends the problem:

(add-hook 'shell-mode-hook 'ansi-color-for-comint-mode-on)

菜单显示为空

A bug exists in GNU Emacs 23.1 (using the GTK toolkit) which may cause some menus to appear empty. This appears to be fixed in Emacs' CVS trunk. The corresponding Debian bug report contains a workaround.

X 窗口下的字符显示问题

当你使用X窗口启动emacs时,如果发现主窗口中的所有字符都是黑框白块(就像你没有安装正确的字体看到的字符一样),那么你需要安装 xorg-fonts-75dpi 或者 xorg-fonts-100dpi 并且重启X窗口。

启动速度慢

Slow startup times are often caused by one of two things.

To determine which it might be, run Emacs with:

$ emacs -q

If Emacs still starts slowly, refer to Incorrect network configuration. If not, it is almost certainly a problem in your .emacs.

错误的网络配置

Mistakes, particularly in /etc/hosts, will often result in a 5+ second delay when starting Emacs. Refer to 'set the hostname' in the network configuration guide for information.

初始化文件加载慢

A simple way to search for the cause is to comment-out (i.e., prefix lines with ';') suspect sections of your ~/.emacs (or ~/.emacs.d/init.el) then start Emacs again to see if there's any change. Keep in mind use of "require" and "load" can slow the startup down, especially when used with larger extensions. They should, as a rule, only be used when their target is either: needed once Emacs starts or provides little more than "autoloads" for an extension. Otherwise, use the 'autoload function directly. For example, instead of:

(require 'anything)

you might use:

(autoload 'anything "anything" "Select anything" t)

不能打开文件: ...

The most common cause of this error is the 'load-path' variable not including the path to the directory within which the extension is located. To solve this, add the appropriate path to the list to be searched prior to attempting to load the extension:

 (add-to-list 'load-path "/path/to/directory/")

When attempting to use packages for extensions and Emacs has been configured with a prefix other than '/usr', the load-path will need to be updated. Place the following in ~/.emacs prior to the instructions provided by the package:

 (add-to-list 'load-path "/usr/share/emacs/site-lisp")

If compiling Emacs by hand, keep in mind that the default prefix is '/usr/local'.

替代方案

There are numerous implementations of Emacs. GNU/Emacs is probably the most popular.
Lighter Emacs compatibile alternatives can be found in Arch repositories or in AUR.

mg

mg (originally called MicroGnuEmacs) is lightweight implementation of Emacs written in C.

It's possible to install mg right away from community

# pacman -S mg

or download source from official page.

zile

According to the offical web page "GNU Zile is a lightweight Emacs clone. Zile is short for Zile Is Lossy Emacs. Zile has been written to be as similar as possible to Emacs; every Emacs user should feel at home.".

zile can be found in extra

# pacman -S zile

the latest taballs can be found in official GNU mirrors.

uemacs

uemacs is "Micro-emacs version customized by Linus Torvalds". It can be found in AUR as uemacs.

资源