Difference between revisions of "Encrypted LVM"

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[[Category:Security]]
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#REDIRECT [[Dm-crypt/Encrypting an Entire System#LVM on LUKS]]
[[Category:File systems]]
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[[de:ArchLinux mit verschlüsseltem LVM und Systemd]]
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{{Poor writing|Contains colloquialism, should comply more with [[Help:Style]].}}
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{{Article summary start}}
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{{Article summary text|This tutorial will show you how to set up system encryption with LUKS for a LVM setup.}}
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{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Disk Encryption}}
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{{Article summary wiki|dm-crypt with LUKS}}
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{{Article summary wiki|LVM}}
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{{Article summary end}}
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This is a page about creating an LUKS+LVM install, and also to clear up a lot of the confusion based around old and out of date wiki articles.
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Keep in mind that this is DESTRUCTIVE and encrypting a drive will make any previous data unreadable!  The following must be done on a fresh drive, or one where you do not mind losing the data (because backups!).
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The following section will refer to your target hard drive as /dev/sd'''x'''.  Be sure to change "sdx" to a proper target like /dev/sda.  I will also assume this is a NEW Arch installation (complete with GPT and [[GRUB2]]). 
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I highly recommend reading through the [[LVM]] Wiki if you have not already, and perhaps even playing inside a Virtual Machine before you start playing with your real data.
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A DISCLAIMER:
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Please read through this whole document before you start running luksFormat, and have some SOLID backups -  no one but you is responsible for your disks!
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==Single-Disk==
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Encrypted LVM can be set up in 2 ways:  LVM on LUKS,  or LUKS on LVM.  In a single-disk system, either is acceptable.  However, IF YOU WISH to span your LVM across multiple drives in the future, you must use LUKS on LVM (explanation is below in the "Spanned" section). For each of the two config examples you should be able to modify it for your own partition layout. Note that LUKS has special options to extra secure temporary data partitions (e.g. /tmp, swap). If you want to do that, you find some info [[LUKS#Encrypting_the_Swap_partition|here]].
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In all cases, we must first clean the target drive and fill it with random data.  This is to make our new encrypted partition blend in with the 'noise', and make it impossible to tell where the random data ends and where the LUKS container begins.  The small [[frandom]] module is very quick at spitting out randomized data; much faster than /dev/urandom, which is helpful when we are dealing with 1TB+ size disks!  You can find in the [[AUR]].  We will also use {{pkg|dcfldd}}, a small program that works exactly like dd, but is more verbose. It is available in the [[Official Repositories]].
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You can also use /dev/urandom if you would rather not install frandom.
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# dcfldd if=/dev/frandom of=/dev/sdx
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Wait for this to finish -- it might take a while depending on how large your disk is.
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===LVM on LUKS===
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    _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
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    |Logical volume1 15GB  |Logical volume2 35GB      |Logical volume3 200GB              |
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    |/dev/MyStorage/rootvol|/dev/MyStorage/homevol    |/dev/MyStorage/mediavol            |
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    |_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ |_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ |_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ |
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    |                                                                                      |
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    |                                (LUKS Encrypted Disk  /dev/sdxx)                      |
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    |                                                                                      |
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    |--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------|
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In this first case a LUKS encrypted blob is created directly at the partition level, and then an LVM system is placed inside of the blob.  This config hides all information about the underlying partitions -- while the LUKS container is encrypted, the disk simply looks full of random data.  Only when the container is decrypted can you see that there is in fact an LVM system inside.  To set up this config:
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Start with partitioning your newly randomized drive:
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# gdisk /dev/sdx
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Make the following:
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*sdx1 - Size 2MB, Partition Type EF02  (This is so GRUB plays nice with GPT)
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*sdx2 - Size 200mb, Partition Type 8300 (This is your /boot partition)
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*sdx3 - Remaining space, Partition Type 8E00 (LVM)
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Create the LUKS encrypted container (sdx3.  We do not encrypt /boot or the BIOS partition)
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# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sdx3
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NOTE: cryptsetup has a TON of options (which you can find in its man page).  The defaults now are quite secure (aes-xts-plain64 with 256bit keysize results in a 128 bit AES encryption for the data), but you may change whatever settings you like here. A description of the options you find in the [[LUKS#Using_LUKS_to_Format_Partitions_with_a_Passphrase|LUKS]] page too. Enter your password twice.
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# cryptsetup open --type luks /dev/sdx3 lvm
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Now we open our container.  Your decrypted disk is now available at /dev/mapper/lvm
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From here, create your LVM system....
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# pvcreate /dev/mapper/lvm
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# vgcreate MyStorage /dev/mapper/lvm
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# lvcreate -L 15G MyStorage -n rootvol
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# lvcreate -L 35G MyStorage -n homevol
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# lvcreate -L 200G MyStorage -n mediavol
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# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/MyStorage-rootvol
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# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/MyStorage-homevvol
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# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/MyStorage-mediavol
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.....And then mount the proper folders to their locations. 
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IE:
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# mount /dev/MyStorage/rootvol /mnt
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# mkdir /mnt/home
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# mount /dev/MyStorage/homevol /mnt/home
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etc.
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====Setting up a bootloader====
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In most setups, a dedicated /boot partition is not necessary, but it is in a complex setup like this one, because GRUB needs to be able to read the kernel, [[initramfs]], it's own configuration files, etc. from the /boot directory. Since GRUB does not itself know how to unlock a LUKS partition (that's the kernel's job), /boot must not be encrypted, and therefore must be a separate disk partition.
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Create an ext2 filesystem on the partition you created for /boot earlier (/dev/sdx2 in the example above).
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# mkfs -t ext2 /dev/sdx2
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Mount this partition under the /boot partition of the installed system. If you skip this step (or if you mount /mnt after /mnt/boot), GRUB's installation scripts will be writing to the root partition's /boot directory, which will be encrypted and thus unreadable by GRUB at the next reboot. Note: you may wish to delete the /boot/* directory contents from /dev/sdx3 (root partition) to make it obvious that /boot is not mounted, in case you need to make changes in the future.
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# mount /dev/sdx2 /mnt/boot #if you are outside the chroot, OR
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# mount /dev/sdx2 /boot    #if you are inside the chroot
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Now continue through the Arch setup.  (Pacstrap, arch-chroot /mnt, and so on.  This HOWTO will assume you are also installing grub-bios to GPT as per the install guide.)
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NOTE: "genfstab -p /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab" will make the proper entry in fstab.  I leave the rest of this paragraph for informational purposes only! ''It is also advisable to add an entry to your '''/etc/fstab''' file so that /boot is mounted when the system starts. This way, if GRUB is updated via [[pacman]], it will write its configuration files to the correct partition. This example uses a device name, but a filesystem [[Persistent_block_device_naming|UUID]] is preferred. Add this line to fstab:
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# /dev/sdx2 /boot ext2 defaults 0 1''
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IT IS '''CRITICAL''', before exiting the install, that you modify GRUB2 and initcpio so that it will unlock your LUKS container on boot!
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Chroot, if you have not already.
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# arch-chroot /mnt
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Edit '''/etc/mkinitcpio.conf''', and change HOOKS=" " to include:
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# ....... keymap encrypt lvm2 filesystems..."
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Next, edit '''/etc/default/grub''' and change the following line to say:
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# GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="cryptdevice=/dev/sdx3:MyStorage"
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{{Note|1=If you are not using grub, you will need to have a "root=" parameter as well.  The reason grub2 does not require this is because the auto-generated grub.cfg is meant to handle specifying the root for you.}}
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Rebuild:
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# mkinitcpio -p linux
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# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
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# grub-install
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{{Note|1=You may receive warnings like "/run/lvm/lvmetad.socket: connect failed: No such file or directory" or "WARNING: failed to connect to lvmetad: No such file or directory. Falling back to internal scanning" when running these commands. This because /run is not available inside the chroot. These warnings will not prevent the system from booting (provided everything has been done correctly), so you may continue with the installation.}}
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Done!  Exit the chroot, unmount all your partitions and reboot.  After GRUB2 loads, you will be prompted to enter your volume password -- do so and Arch will continue to boot.
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===LUKS on LVM===
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    _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
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    |Encrypted Volume1    |Encrypted volume2        |Encrypted volume3 200GB            |
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    |/dev/MyStorage/rootvol|/dev/MyStorage/homevol    |/dev/MyStorage/mediavol            |
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    |_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ |_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ |_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ |
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This is the opposite of above:  your disk is partitioned openly, and each LVM section is visible.  However, the contents of the LVMs are safely encrypted until unlocked.  THIS IS THE REQUIRED CONFIGURATION IF YOU WISH TO ADD/SPAN MORE PHYSICAL DRIVES IN THE FUTURE.
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Start with partitioning your newly randomized drive:
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# gdisk /dev/sdx
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Make the following:
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*sdx1 - Size 2MB, Partition Type EF02  (This is so GRUB plays nice with GPT)
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*sdx2 - Size 200mb, Partition Type 8300 (This is your /boot partition)
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*sdx3 - Remaining space, Partition Type 8E00 (LVM)
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Create your LVM partition from sdx3:
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# pvcreate /dev/sdx3
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# vgcreate MyStorage /dev/sdx3
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# lvcreate -L 15G MyStorage -n rootvol
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# lvcreate -L 35G MyStorage -n homevol
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# lvcreate -L 200G MyStorage -n mediavol
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Now, encrypt each LVM partition seperately:
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# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/MyStorage/rootvol
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# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/MyStorage/homevol
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# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/MyStorage/mediavol
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Again -- as above, cryptsetup has many options, and you can use whichever cipher or keysize you like, or simply accept the defaults.
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Unlock each LUKS container:
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# cryptsetup open --type luks /dev/MyStorage/rootvol root
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# cryptsetup open --type luks /dev/MyStorage/homevol home
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# cryptsetup open --type luks /dev/MyStorage/mediavol media
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And format as ext4 for all partitions including boot:
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# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/root
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# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/home
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# mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/media
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# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdx2
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Now continue through the Arch setup.  (Pacstrap, arch-chroot /mnt, and so on.  This HOWTO will assume you are also installing grub-bios to GPT as per the install guide.)
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Be precise with the following edits!
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IT IS '''CRITICAL''', before exiting the install, that you modify GRUB2 and initcpio so that it will unlock your LUKS container on boot! 
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Edit '''/etc/mkinitcpio.conf''', and change HOOKS=" " to include (order is important here):
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# ....... keymap lvm2 encrypt filesystems..."
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Next, edit '''/etc/default/grub''' and change the following line to say:
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# GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="cryptdevice=/dev/mapper/MyStorage-rootvol:root root=/dev/mapper/root rw"
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Rebuild:
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# mkinitcpio -p linux
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# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
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'''A note about LUKS encryption keys:'''  below we will be editing /etc/crypttab.  This is necessary to unlock each non-root LUKS container (like /home, /media, etc) -- these logical volumes are just as important as /root, and if they are not visible the entire system will fail to boot!  LVM must have '''all''' volumes present and accounted for.
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Now, in order to avoid typing in multiple passwords (1 per container) every boot, we may generate some strong encryption keys and save them in /etc. Some more background about possible encryption keys, you find [[LUKS#Using_LUKS_to_Format_Partitions_with_a_Keyfile|here]].
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When the PC is powered off, these keys are perfectly safe: they are being saved inside the root LVM container, which must be unlocked by you at boot with a password.  As well, having different passwords for each disk makes breaking the encryption even more difficult -- even if one password is compromised, the LVM WILL NOT activate without the other partitions.
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# dd if=/dev/frandom of=/etc/home.key bs=512 count=4
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# dd if=/dev/frandom of=/etc/media.key bs=512 count=4
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# cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/mapper/MyStorage-homevol /etc/home.key
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# cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/mapper/MyStorage-mediavol /etc/media.key
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Finally, we must add the non-root LVMs to '''/etc/crypttab'''
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# home          /dev/mapper/MyStorage-homevol           /etc/home.key
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# media        /dev/mapper/MyStorage-mediavol          /etc/media.key
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'''IF YOU DO NOT WANT TO USE KEYS HERE''', simply delete the columns above containing "/etc/<keyname>" and you will be asked for each unlock password on boot.
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Now exit the chroot, unmount all your partitions and reboot.  After GRUB2 loads, you will be prompted to enter your volume password -- do so and Arch will continue to boot.
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==Spanned/Multiple Disks==
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===Why So Serious?===
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This section is a continuation of the [[Encrypted_LVM#LUKS_on_LVM]] config, above.  '''It is required you have setup your initial LVM drive in this way.'''  If you have not, go back and start over.  Why, you ask?
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Because the {{ic|encrypt}} hook only allows for a '''single''' {{ic|cryptdevice<nowiki>=</nowiki>}} entry.  For example, take "LVM on LUKS":  The entire LVM exists inside a LUKS container.  This is perfectly fine for a single-drive system:  there is only one container to decrypt.  But what happens when you want to increase the size of your LVM?  This is in fact the main advantage of LVM: you can add and remove entire drives without having to change the underlying partition.
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So, you add another hard drive in order to expand {{ic|home}} (which is a logical volume of its own).  You encrypt the second drive, add it to the volume group, expand the {{ic|home}} LV.  But now, how do you tell initrd to unlock BOTH drives at the same time?  You cannot, at least not without modifying the {{ic|encrypt}} hook.  And as stated in the section above: if only a part of an LVM is available, it will '''not''' boot.  So, adding a second drive that requires decryption before it can be read is out of the picture.
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Luckily, we can get around this by making the LVM's visible to the system even before they are encrypted. This is why LUKS on LVM is, in general, the option offering more flexibility to change partitioning.
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===Add A New Drive===
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Assuming you now have a working single-drive LUKS-on-LVM configuration, it's now time to expand one of your logical volumes.
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Connect your drive (if it's new, or completely randomize it as you did with your root drive).  Open gdisk and create a single partiion:
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* /dev/sdy1: Use ALL space, Partition type 8E00 (Linux LVM)
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Now, attach this new disk to your existing LVM:
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# pvcreate /dev/sdy1
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# vgextend MyStorage /dev/sdy1
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===Extend The Logical Volume===
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You will have to unmount whatever partition you want to grow, meaning you may need to boot via an install cd.  Details for this will follow below.
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In this example, we will extend the "HOME" logical volume by 100% of the free space of our new drive (ie, put the WHOLE thing into /home!)
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From a root console:
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# umount /home
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# fsck /dev/mapper/home
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# cryptsetup luksClose /dev/mapper/home
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# lvextend -l +100%FREE MyStorage/homevol
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Now the LV is extended.  Let us make LUKS aware of the change:
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# cryptsetup open --type luks /dev/mapper/MyStorage-homevol home
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# umount /home      ((JUST IN CASE IT WAS AUTO RE-MOUNTED AGAIN))
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# cryptsetup --verbose resize home
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And finally resize the ext4 partition itself:
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# e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/home
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# resize2fs /dev/mapper/home
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Done!
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# mount /dev/mapper/home /home
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Note how /home now includes the span of the new drive, and you DO not have to change or add any more encryption keys -- the key for your Home LVM will continue to work and fill into the newly added space.
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* A note on extending your root partition:
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The procedure works exactly the same for your root LVM, with the exception that it must be done from an Arch INSTALL CD.  (you can't unmount your root partition while it's in use).
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==Troubleshooting==
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===Help It's Not Booting!===
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First, DONT PANIC!  You can always boot a rescue CD and get into your LVM manually! 
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Start up via the Arch installer.
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When you reach the root shell, for each encrypted LVM:
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# cryptsetup open --type luks /dev/mapper/MyStorage-rootvol
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Simply unlock each logical partition -- they will appear in /dev/mapper/<lv> and you can mount each from there.
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Revision as of 08:04, 26 December 2013