Difference between revisions of "Extra keyboard keys in Xorg"

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[[Category:Keyboards]]
 
[[Category:Keyboards]]
[[Category:X Server]]
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[[Category:X server]]
[[ru:Extra Keyboard Keys in Xorg]]
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[[ja:Xorg での特別なキーボードキー]]
[[tr:X_sunucusunda_ek_klavye_tuşları]]
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[[ru:Extra keyboard keys in Xorg]]
{{Article summary start}}
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[[tr:X sunucusunda ek klavye tuşları]]
{{Article summary text|A general overview of how to assign actions to extra keyboard keys in [[Xorg]].}}
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{{Related articles start}}
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Related|Extra keyboard keys}}
{{Article summary wiki|Xorg}}
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{{Related|Extra keyboard keys in console}}
{{Article summary wiki|Xmodmap}}
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{{Related|Map scancodes to keycodes}}
{{Article summary wiki|Extra Keyboard Keys}}
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{{Related|Xorg}}
{{Article summary wiki|Extra Keyboard Keys in Console}}
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{{Related|Xmodmap}}
{{Article summary end}}
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{{Related articles end}}
  
When we are in a graphical environment we may want a key to print a special character or execute a command. There are some ways of doing that and they are covered in this HOWTO.
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== Mapping keysyms to actions ==
  
{{Box Note |This article assumes that your keys already have keycodes and that you know these codes, if not, see the [[Extra Keyboard Keys]] article where it is explained.}}
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{{Merge|Keyboard Shortcuts#X11_2|same topic}}
  
==Map keycodes to symbols==
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When we are in a graphical environment we may want to execute a command when certain key combination is pressed. There are multiple ways to do that:
===Introduction===
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The most traditional and proficient way to make a key output a character when you are in X is to use xmodmap. Xmodmap is roughly the X equivalent of ''loadkeys'': it reads a file containing some directives. As ''loadkeys'', it can be used to modify many aspects of the behaviour of your keyboard (such as modifiers, etc.), but I will not cover these aspects in this article. The only kind of directive I am interested in here associates an X keycode to a keysym. ''xmodmap'' is included in the {{pkg|xorg-server-utils}} package in the [[Official Repositories]].
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===Step 1: Create the xmodmap file===
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* The most portable way using low level tools, such as [[acpid]]. Not all keys are supported, but configuration in uniform way is possible for keyboard keys, power adapter connection and even headphone jack (un)plugging events. It is also difficult to run programs inside X session correctly.
In this file, you have to list the keycode directives, with the following syntax:
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* The universal way using [[Xorg]] utilities (e.g. [[xbindkeys]]) and eventually your desktop environment or window manager tools.
keycode <Xkeycode> = <keysym>
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* The quicker way using a third-party program to do everything in GUI, such as the Gnome Control Center or [[Keytouch]].
The list of X keysyms can be read in {{ic|/usr/include/X11/keysymdef.h}}. Anyway, most of them are intuitive. Let us say that the X keycode of my hotkey is 239. If I want it to output a literal 'e', I will write the following directive:
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keycode 239 = e
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If I want it to output the symbol of the American currency, I will write the following directive:
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keycode 239 = dollar
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This can also be used to assign functions to multimedia keys. Special functions can be found in {{ic|/usr/include/X11/XF86keysym.h}}.
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=== Third-party tools ===
  
An example {{ic|~/.Xmodmap}}:
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==== sxhkd ====
keycode 160 = XF86AudioMute
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keycode 176 = XF86AudioRaiseVolume
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keycode 174 = XF86AudioLowerVolume
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Multimedia programs such as Rhythmbox and Exaile are designed to work with keys assigned to XF86 Symbols out-of-the-box, without the need to configure a third-party application.
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A simple X hotkey daemon with a powerful and compact configuration syntax. See [[sxhkd]] for details.
  
===Step 2: Testing===
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==== keytouch ====
Finally I have to source the file with xmodmap:
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$ xmodmap ~/.Xmodmap
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===Step 3: Making it permanent===
 
Obviously, this will work only for the current X session, use [[xprofile]] to make it permanent.
 
 
==Map keycodes to actions==
 
 
===Using your Desktop Environment tools===
 
====Gnome====
 
Gnome Control Center is quite complete for the extra keyboard keys management. In fact it can directly detect scancodes which means that it can map any key seen by the kernel.
 
 
====KDE====
 
Keyboard shortcuts can be configured in '''System Settings''' -> '''Shortcuts and Gestures'''.
 
 
====Xfce4====
 
You can change the keyboard shortcuts in Keyboard Settings, which can be run using {{Ic|xfce4-keyboard-settings}}.
 
 
====Openbox====
 
You can set keyboard shortcuts and actions in the keyboard section of your {{ic|~/.config/openbox/rc.xml}} file. For example, the following will lower the volume with a media key:
 
<keybind key="XF86AudioLowerVolume">
 
<action name="Execute">
 
<execute>amixer set Master 5- unmute</execute>
 
</action>
 
</keybind>
 
For more information, please visit [http://urukrama.wordpress.com/openbox-guide/#Key_mouse urukrama's Openbox Guide] or the [http://openbox.org/wiki/Help:Actions Openbox Wiki].
 
 
You can use obkey utility from [[AUR]] for easy configuration.
 
 
====PekWM====
 
Setting keys in PekWM is accomplished by editing your {{ic|~/.pekwm/keys}} file. For example, adding the following at the bottom of the  Global section will lower the volume with a media key:
 
KeyPress = "XF86AudioLowerVolume" { Actions = "exec amixer set Master 5%- unmute &" }
 
 
====Xmonad====
 
If you use Xmonad as a stand alone window manager, you can edit the xmonad.hs to add unbound keyboard keys. You just need to find the Xf86 name of the key (such as XF86PowerDown) and look it up in {{Ic|/usr/include/X11/XF86keysym.h}}. It will give you a keycode (like 0x1008FF2A) which you can use to add a line like the following in the keybindings section of your {{ic|xmonad.hs}}:
 
((0,              0x1008FF2A), spawn "sudo pm-suspend")
 
 
====i3====
 
Open your ~/.i3/config and just bind the key (keysym or keycode) to a command:
 
bindsym XF86MonBrightnessDown  exec  xbacklight -dec 10
 
bindsym Print                  exec  scrot
 
 
===Using third-party programs===
 
====sxhkd====
 
A simple X hotkey daemon with a powerful and compact configuration syntax.
 
 
Available as {{aur|sxhkd-git}} and {{aur|sxhkd}} in [[AUR]].
 
====keytouch====
 
 
KeyTouch is a program which allows you to easily configure the extra function keys of your keyboard. This means that you can define, for every individual function key, what to do if it is pressed.
 
KeyTouch is a program which allows you to easily configure the extra function keys of your keyboard. This means that you can define, for every individual function key, what to do if it is pressed.
  
''See the detailed article: [[keytouch]].''
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See the main article: [[keytouch]].
  
 
==== actkbd ====
 
==== actkbd ====
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From [http://users.softlab.ece.ntua.gr/~thkala/projects/actkbd/ actkbd home page]:
 
From [http://users.softlab.ece.ntua.gr/~thkala/projects/actkbd/ actkbd home page]:
:'''actkbd''' (available [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=8056 in AUR]) is a simple daemon that binds actions to keyboard events. It recognises key combinations and can handle press, repeat and release events. Currently it only supports the linux-2.6 evdev interface. It uses a plain-text configuration file which contains all the bindings.
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:{{AUR|actkbd}} (available in [[AUR]]) is a simple daemon that binds actions to keyboard events. It recognises key combinations and can handle press, repeat and release events. Currently it only supports the linux-2.6 evdev interface. It uses a plain-text configuration file which contains all the bindings.
  
 
A sample configuration and guide is available [http://users.softlab.ece.ntua.gr/~thkala/projects/actkbd/latest/README here].
 
A sample configuration and guide is available [http://users.softlab.ece.ntua.gr/~thkala/projects/actkbd/latest/README here].
  
====xbindkeys====
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==== xbindkeys ====
''[[xbindkeys]]'' (available in the extra repository) allows advanced mapping of keycodes to actions independently of the Desktop Environment.
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A GUI called {{aur|xbindkeys_config}} is available in [[AUR]].
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[[xbindkeys]] allows advanced mapping of keysyms to actions independently of the Desktop Environment.
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{{Tip| If you find {{ic|xbindkeys}} difficult to use, try the graphical manager {{AUR|xbindkeys_config}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|xbindkeys_config}}}} from the [[AUR]].}}

Latest revision as of 10:25, 20 August 2015

Mapping keysyms to actions

Merge-arrows-2.pngThis article or section is a candidate for merging with Keyboard Shortcuts#X11_2.Merge-arrows-2.png

Notes: same topic (Discuss in Talk:Extra keyboard keys in Xorg#)

When we are in a graphical environment we may want to execute a command when certain key combination is pressed. There are multiple ways to do that:

  • The most portable way using low level tools, such as acpid. Not all keys are supported, but configuration in uniform way is possible for keyboard keys, power adapter connection and even headphone jack (un)plugging events. It is also difficult to run programs inside X session correctly.
  • The universal way using Xorg utilities (e.g. xbindkeys) and eventually your desktop environment or window manager tools.
  • The quicker way using a third-party program to do everything in GUI, such as the Gnome Control Center or Keytouch.

Third-party tools

sxhkd

A simple X hotkey daemon with a powerful and compact configuration syntax. See sxhkd for details.

keytouch

KeyTouch is a program which allows you to easily configure the extra function keys of your keyboard. This means that you can define, for every individual function key, what to do if it is pressed.

See the main article: keytouch.

actkbd

From actkbd home page:

actkbdAUR (available in AUR) is a simple daemon that binds actions to keyboard events. It recognises key combinations and can handle press, repeat and release events. Currently it only supports the linux-2.6 evdev interface. It uses a plain-text configuration file which contains all the bindings.

A sample configuration and guide is available here.

xbindkeys

xbindkeys allows advanced mapping of keysyms to actions independently of the Desktop Environment.

Tip: If you find xbindkeys difficult to use, try the graphical manager xbindkeys_configAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror] from the AUR.