Frequently asked questions (正體中文)
- 1 一般性問題
- 2 安裝包管理
- 2.1 Q) 我在 X 包中找到了一個錯誤。然後怎麼做？
- 2.2 Q) Arch 會有一個 pacman 的數據庫嗎？
- 2.3 Q) Pacman 變慢了! 它的初始化時間怎麼增加的?
- 2.4 Q) Arch 安裝包需要使用一套獨一無二的命名系統 . .pkg.tar.gz ，這會不會太長了點，也讓人摸不清頭腦
- 2.5 Q) Pacman 需要一個庫，這樣別的程式就能方便的得到安裝包的資訊了。
- 2.6 Q) Pacman 為何沒有一個圖形化的 GUI 前端？
- 2.7 Q) Pacman 還需要增加 X 特性!
- 2.8 Q) Arch 的安裝包需使用其穩健的分支版本
- 2.9 Q) What's the difference between all these repositories?
- 2.10 Q) Arch 的安裝包中為什么不含有說明文檔與資訊頁面？
- 2.11 Q) 我剛安裝了 X 包，要怎樣開始運行它？
- 3 安裝過程
Q) 我是一個徹頭徹尾的 Linux 新手，我應該用 Arch 嗎？
A) 這個問題有諸多爭議。Arch 的目標用戶是比較熟悉 Linux 的用戶，但是一些人也認為"Arch 是一個很好的開始」。如果你是一名新手，並打算使用 Arch, 僅僅提醒你，你必須是願意學習的。在開始問任何問題之前，自己先通過google、Wiki或者論壇進行搜索（以及閱讀過去的常見問題集）。如果你這樣做了，就沒什麼可說的。你也應該知道很多人不想一遍又一遍的回答同樣的基礎問題，所以在那種情況下你很可能碰一鼻子灰。 這是為什麼我們為你創建了這些資源並讓你可以隨時訪問。你應當參考 Beginner's Guide
A) Arch Linux releases are quite infrequent, and usually happen only when a major change has been made to the installer or something has happened that makes it difficult to run pacman -Syu to update from the previous release.
Releases are not terribly important in Arch, because the rolling-release system makes new releases out of date as soon as a package has been updated. If you are looking to obtain the latest Arch Linux release, you do not need to reinstall. You simply run the pacman -Syu command and your system will be identical to what you would get with a brand-new install.
For this same reason, new Arch Linux releases are not typically full of new and exciting features. New and exciting features are released as needed with the packages that are updated, and can be obtained immediately via pacman -Syu.
Q) Arch 需要更多/更少的出版商支援 (比如廣告商)
A) Arch gets plenty of press as it is. The goal of Arch Linux is not to be large. The goal is to be well done. Let growth occur naturally. Trying to force it to grow too quickly will just cause problems.
Similarly, do not try to restrict the natural growth. More users might mean more devs to work on Arch Linux. This may cause some organizational issues at the "top", but those will be dealt with when they arrive.
Q) Arch 需要更多的文檔支援
A) This is essentially true, so feel free to contribute. Documentation does not occur ex nihilo. After searching the forums and the wiki, if you cannot find the documentation you require, try creating it. Start a page on the wiki, and post in the forums regarding it. Likely other people have experience in the area, or are at least willing to help. If nobody does, don't be discouraged. When you finish your documentation, other people will likely find it an extremely valuable resource. There is always a need for documentation; contribute to the wiki.
Q) Arch 還需要繼續開發
A) Possibly so. Feel free to volunteer your time! Visit the forums, IRC channel, and mailing lists, and see what needs to be done. There is always a need for documentation; contribute to the wiki.
Q) Arch 怎么這麼慢? 我覺得它本應該更快!
A) There are two common reasons that your system may be slower than it should be. First, ensure that loopback (lo in /etc/rc.conf) is enabled. Second, make sure that your hostname is correctly set in /etc/hosts (i.e., that it matches the hostname in rc.conf. Have a look at "Configure the System" in The Beginner's Guide). Either reason can cause applications to start up very slowly, for example.
A) Is your network configured correctly? Have you double checked your /etc/rc.conf /etc/hosts and /etc/resolv.conf? Have a look at "Configure the System" in The Beginner's Guide and pay particular attention to the localhost syntax.
Q) 我在 X 包中找到了一個錯誤。然後怎麼做？
A) First, you need to figure out if this error is something the Arch team can fix. Sometimes it's not (that Firefox crash may be the fault of the Mozilla team) - this is called an upstream error. If it is an Arch problem, there is a series of steps you can take:
- Search the forums for information. See if anyone else has noticed it.
- Notify the package maintainer. Try a "pacman -Qi <package name>" for this info.
- Post a bug report with detailed information at http://bugs.archlinux.org.
- If you'd like, write a forum post detailing the problem and the fact that you have reported it already. This will help prevent a lot of people from reporting the same error.
Q) Arch 會有一個 pacman 的數據庫嗎？
Q) Pacman 變慢了! 它的初始化時間怎麼增加的?
A) See the previous entry relating to a database back-end for pacman. Only the first pacman run after a boot should be slow. After that, things are generally cached. Still, initial start time is an issue for some people. There is discussion on addressing this. If you are on ReiserFS, there are issues with fragmentation that slow down pacman more than necessary. Since version 2.9.6, the pacman package bundles a bash script called pacman-optimize that should help anyone experiencing slow start-up times. Also see Improve Pacman Performance.
Q) Arch 安裝包需要使用一套獨一無二的命名系統 . .pkg.tar.gz ，這會不會太長了點，也讓人摸不清頭腦
A) This has been discussed on the Arch mailing list. Some proposed a .pac file extension. As far as is currently known, there is no plan to change the package extension. As Tobias Kieslich, one of the Arch devs, put it, "A package is a gzipped tarball! And it can be opened, investigated and manipulated by any tar-capable application. Moreover, the mime-type is automatically detected correctly by most applications."
Q) Pacman 需要一個庫，這樣別的程式就能方便的得到安裝包的資訊了。
A) 自從版本3.0.0開始, pacman 已是 libalpm (Arch Linux 套件管理庫) 的前端, 這個庫容許其他的前端 (如圖形介面的前端)的建立。
Q) Pacman 為何沒有一個圖形化的 GUI 前端？
A) Did you read The Arch Way and Arch Linux and Devland? The answer is basically that the Arch dev team will not be providing one. Feel free to use one of those developed by users. There is a nice list of them on the UserContributionsPage in the links section, and a selective list on Pacman_GUI_Frontends. Once the library for pacman is done, it will be much easier for the various front-ends to interact with Arch packages.
Q) Pacman 還需要增加 X 特性!
A) Did you read TheArchWay and Arch Linux and Devland? The Arch philosophy is "Keep It Simple". If you think the idea has merit, and does not violate this simple litany, then by all means, discuss it on the forum here. You might also like to check here; it's a place for feature requests if you find it is important.
However, the best way to get a feature added to Pacman or Arch Linux is to implement it yourself. There's no telling whether the patch will be officially accepted, but others will appreciate and test your effort.
Q) Arch 的安裝包需使用其穩健的分支版本
Never say never.
Some of the many discussions on the topic:
Q) What's the difference between all these repositories?
A) See Official Repositories.
Q) Arch 的安裝包中為什么不含有說明文檔與資訊頁面？
A) In its goal to be simple and lightweight, the relatively useless portions of a Linux system have been left out, things like /usr/doc and the info pages, in favor of man pages. This question is brought up a lot; read some past discussions about it:
Q) 我剛安裝了 X 包，要怎樣開始運行它？
A) If you're using a desktop environment like KDE or GNOME, the program should automatically show up in your menu. If you're trying to run the program from a terminal and don't know the binary name, try executing "pacman -Ql packagename | grep bin". A common problem for packages like Firefox or OpenOffice is that they are installed to /opt, which is not in your $PATH - you can "source /etc/profile" or logout/login to fix this.
Q) Arch 需要一個更好的安裝程式。也許要一個 GUI 安裝程式。
A) The discussion of a "better" installer is a subjective opinion. The best way to cope with these issues it to fit the installer to "the Arch way". If this opinion on a better installer is backed with more-concrete arguments, it might be taken into account for further development of the installer. Since installation doesn't occur often (see the question above on rolling release), it is not a high priority for developers or users. However, two unofficial methods exist: Archie Live CD for XFCE (other desktops in development) and Arch Linux Office Install CD for KDE.