Difference between revisions of "Fonts"

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[[Category:Fonts]]
 
[[Category:Fonts]]
[[Category:Graphics and desktop publishing]]
 
 
[[cs:Fonts]]
 
[[cs:Fonts]]
 
[[de:Schriftarten]]
 
[[de:Schriftarten]]
 
[[es:Fonts]]
 
[[es:Fonts]]
 
[[it:Fonts]]
 
[[it:Fonts]]
[[ja:Fonts]]
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[[ja:フォント]]
 
[[ru:Fonts]]
 
[[ru:Fonts]]
[[tr:Yazıtipleri]]
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[[zh-hans:Fonts]]
[[zh-CN:Fonts]]
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[[zh-hant:Fonts]]
[[zh-TW:Fonts]]
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{{Related articles start}}
From [[Wikipedia:Computer font|Wikipedia]]:
+
{{Related|Font configuration}}
:''A computer font (or font) is an electronic data file containing a set of glyphs, characters, or symbols such as dingbats.''
+
{{Related|Java Runtime Environment Fonts}}
 +
{{Related|Metric-compatible fonts}}
 +
{{Related articles end}}
  
{{Article summary start}}
+
From [[Wikipedia:Computer font]]: "A computer font (or font) is an electronic data file containing a set of glyphs, characters, or symbols such as dingbats."
{{Article summary text|Covers the selection and installation of fonts on Arch Linux}}
+
 
{{Article summary heading|Legal}}
+
Note that certain font licenses may impose some legal limitations.
{{Article summary text|Certain font licenses may impose some legal limitations}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|Font Configuration}}: Font setup and beautification
 
{{Article summary wiki|Java Runtime Environment Fonts}}: Fonts specific to Sun's Java machine
 
{{Article summary wiki|MS Fonts}}: Adding Microsoft fonts and mimicking Windows' font settings
 
{{Article summary wiki|KEYMAP}}: Information on keyboard layouts
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
  
 
== Font formats ==
 
== Font formats ==
Line 30: Line 24:
 
;Outline or ''vector'' fonts: Use Bézier curves, drawing instructions and mathematical formulae to describe each glyph, which make the character outlines scalable to any size.
 
;Outline or ''vector'' fonts: Use Bézier curves, drawing instructions and mathematical formulae to describe each glyph, which make the character outlines scalable to any size.
  
=== Common extensions ===
+
=== Bitmap formats ===
  
* {{ic|bdf}} and {{ic|bdf.gz}} – bitmap fonts, ''b''itmap ''d''istribution ''f''ormat and gzip compressed {{ic|bdf}}
+
* [[Wikipedia:Glyph Bitmap Distribution Format|Bitmap Distribution Format]] (BDF) by Adobe
* {{ic|pcf}} and {{ic|pcf.gz}} – bitmaps, ''p''ortable ''c''ompiled ''f''ont and gzip compressed {{ic|pcf}}
+
* [[Wikipedia:Portable Compiled Format|Portable Compiled Format]] (PCF) by Xorg
* {{ic|psf}}, {{ic|psfu}}, {{ic|psf.gz}} and {{ic|psfu.gz}} – bitmaps, ''P''C ''s''creen ''f''ont, ''P''C ''s''creen ''f''ont ''U''nicode and the gzipped versions (not compatible with X.Org)
+
* [[Wikipedia:PC Screen Font|PC Screen Font]] (PSF) used by the Kernel for console fonts, not supported by Xorg (for Unicode PSF files the extension is {{ic|psfu}})
* {{ic|pfa}} and {{ic|pfb}} – outline fonts, ''P''ostScript ''f''ont ''A''SCII and ''P''ostScript ''f''ont ''b''inary. PostScript fonts carry built-in printer instructions.
 
* {{ic|ttf}} – outline, ''T''rue''T''ype ''f''ont. Originally designed as a replacement for the PostScript fonts.
 
* {{ic|otf}} – outline, ''O''pen''T''ype ''f''ont. TrueType with PostScript typographic instructions.
 
  
For most purposes, the technical differences between TrueType and OpenType can be ignored, some fonts with a {{ic|ttf}} extension are actually OpenType fonts.
+
These formats can also be gzipped. See [[#Bitmap]] for the available bitmap fonts.
 +
 
 +
=== Outline formats ===
 +
 
 +
* [[Wikipedia:PostScript fonts|PostScript fonts]] by Adobe – has various formats, e.g: Printer Font ASCII (PFA) and Printer Font Binary (PFB)
 +
* [[Wikipedia:TrueType|TrueType]] by Apple and Microsoft (file extension: {{ic|ttf}})
 +
* [[Wikipedia:OpenType|OpenType]] by Microsoft, built on TrueType (file extensions: {{ic|otf}}, {{ic|ttf}})
 +
 
 +
For most purposes, the technical differences between TrueType and OpenType can be ignored.
  
 
=== Other formats ===
 
=== Other formats ===
Line 45: Line 44:
 
The typesetting application, ''TeX,'' and its companion font software, ''Metafont,'' render characters using their own methods. Some of the file extensions used for fonts by these two programs are {{ic|*pk}}, {{ic|*gf}}, {{ic|mf}} and {{ic|vf}}.
 
The typesetting application, ''TeX,'' and its companion font software, ''Metafont,'' render characters using their own methods. Some of the file extensions used for fonts by these two programs are {{ic|*pk}}, {{ic|*gf}}, {{ic|mf}} and {{ic|vf}}.
  
''FontForge,'' a font editing application, can store fonts in its native text-based format, {{ic|sfd}}, ''s''pline ''f''ont ''d''atabase.
+
[https://fontforge.github.io/en-US/ FontForge] ({{Pkg|fontforge}}), a font editing application, can store fonts in its native text-based format, {{ic|sfd}}, ''s''pline ''f''ont ''d''atabase.
  
 
The [http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/fonts.html SVG] format also has its own font description method.
 
The [http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/fonts.html SVG] format also has its own font description method.
Line 55: Line 54:
 
=== Pacman ===
 
=== Pacman ===
  
Fonts and font collections in the enabled repositories can be installed using [[Pacman|pacman]]. Available fonts may be found by using:
+
Fonts and font collections in the enabled repositories can be installed using [[pacman]].
$ pacman -Ss font
 
Or to search for {{ic|ttf}} fonts only:
 
$ pacman -Ss ttf
 
  
Some fonts like {{pkg|terminus-font}} are installed in {{ic|/usr/share/fonts/local}}, which is not added to the font path by default. By adding the following lines to {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}, the fonts can be used in X11:
+
Available fonts may be found by [[pacman#Querying package databases|querying packages]] (e.g. for {{ic|font}} or {{ic|ttf}}).
{{bc|
 
xset +fp /usr/share/fonts/local
 
xset fp rehash
 
}}
 
  
 
=== Creating a package ===
 
=== Creating a package ===
  
You should give pacman the ability to manage your fonts, which is done by creating an Arch package. These can also be shared with the community in the [[AUR]]. Here is an example of how to create a basic package.  To learn more about building packages, read [[PKGBUILD]].
+
You should give pacman the ability to manage your fonts, which is done by creating an Arch package. These can also be shared with the community in the [[AUR]]. The packages to install fonts are particularly similar; simply taking an existing [https://git.archlinux.org/svntogit/packages.git/tree/trunk/PKGBUILD?h=packages/adobe-source-code-pro-fonts package] as template should work well. To learn about how to modify it for your font, please refer to [[Creating packages]].
 
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
pkgname=ttf-fontname
 
pkgver=1.0
 
pkgrel=1
 
depends=('fontconfig' 'xorg-font-utils')
 
pkgdesc="custom fonts"
 
arch=('any')
 
source=(http://someurl.org/$pkgname.tar.bz2)
 
install=$pkgname.install
 
 
 
package() {
 
  install -d "$pkgdir/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
 
  cp -dpr --no-preserve=ownership "$srcdir/$pkgname/"*.ttf "$pkgdir/usr/share/fonts/TTF/"
 
}
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
This PKGBUILD assumes the fonts are TrueType. An install file ({{ic|ttf-fontname.install}}) will also need to be created to update the font cache:
 
 
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
post_install() {
 
  echo -n "Updating font cache... "
 
  fc-cache -fs >/dev/null
 
  mkfontscale /usr/share/fonts/TTF /usr/share/fonts/Type1
 
  mkfontdir /usr/share/fonts/TTF /usr/share/fonts/Type1
 
  echo "done"
 
}
 
 
 
post_upgrade() {
 
  post_install
 
}
 
  
post_remove() {
+
The family name of a font file can be aquired with the use of {{ic|fc-query}} for example: {{ic|fc-query -f '%{family[0]}\n' /path/to/file}}. The formatting is described in the FcPatternFormat(3) manual.
  post_install
 
}
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
 
=== Manual installation ===
 
=== Manual installation ===
  
The recommended way of adding fonts that are not in the repositories to your system is described in [[#Creating a package]]. This gives pacman the ability to remove or update them at a later time. Fonts can alternately be installed manually as well.
+
The recommended way of adding fonts that are not in the repositories to your system is described in [[#Creating a package]]. This gives pacman the ability to remove or update them at a later time. Fonts can alternately be installed manually as well.
 
 
To install fonts system-wide (available for all users), move the folder to the {{ic|/usr/share/fonts/}} directory.  To install fonts for only a single user, use {{ic|~/.fonts/}} instead.
 
 
 
Also you may need to update {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf}} or {{ic|/etc/xorg.conf}} with the new directory. Search for {{ic|FontPath}} to find the correct location within the file to add your new path. See [[#Fonts with X.Org]] for more detail.
 
 
 
Then update the fontconfig font cache:
 
 
 
$ fc-cache -vf
 
 
 
=== Manual installation: advanced method ===
 
 
 
Manual installation and maintenance of your font resources may be especially useful if your collection is more specialized, e.g. if you use commercial fonts,
 
if you use fonts in different formats, if you often install and remove font files, or if you just feel you need more control and better access than offered by
 
the package manager. There are numerous benefits to such an approach:
 
 
 
* You can avoid installation of multiple copies of the same family in different versions and formats (one of the most common reasons for rendering issues).
 
* You can use multiple and non-standard physical sources of font files (e.g. an additional hard drive, a separate partition).
 
* You can avoid relying on huge and cryptic local font sources which possibly contain 5 families you need and 55 you don't need (TeX Live & {{ic|09-texlive-fonts.conf}}, random font collections from the AUR, etc).
 
* You can avoid rendering issues because your fontconfig settings were tuned to a different format but the one installed in your system.
 
* You can quickly verify which families in which format(s) are present in the system and available for applications by visually inspecting the content of the main font directory (as a result, you don't need sophisticated and heavy-on-resources font management applications: {{Pkg|gtk2fontsel}} and basic CLI tools like {{ic|fc-query}} from {{Pkg|fontconfig}} package will do the job even better and faster).
 
* When you install or upgrade a single font, the same version will be available for all applications, including LaTeX related software.
 
* If necessary, you can quickly enable / disable a particular family because you know where exactly it can be found (useful for debugging).
 
* You don't need to worry about redundant {{ic|/etc/fonts/conf.avail/nn-foo.conf}} fontconfig files, potentially conflicting with your rendering settings (especially when you are using a [[Font_Configuration#Patched_packages|customized font configuration and patched libraries]]).
 
* In the long run, you save time needed to resolve issues and eliminate conflicts caused by careless use of the package manager.
 
 
 
In practical terms, there are at least a few ways to achieve this, which, if necessary, can be adopted by any package manager. The one described below has
 
proven to be very efficient and secure even with large font collections.
 
 
 
* We are going to separate font source locations (e.g. {{ic|/usr/share/fonts.avail}}: this is where our fonts will be stored) from a directory containing symbolic links to the families in use ({{ic|/usr/share/fonts}}).
 
 
 
* Each family is going to be located in a separate, clearly named subdirectory. The naming convention should be consistent and unambiguous, for instance:
 
 
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
<ttf|otf|t1>-<optional_global_group_or_foundry_name>-<font_family_name>
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
This way the content of the source directory will look like this:
 
 
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
$ ls /usr/share/fonts.avail
 
 
 
/usr/share/fonts.avail/otf-heuristica
 
/usr/share/fonts.avail/ttf-liberation
 
/usr/share/fonts.avail/ttf-ms-arial
 
...
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
* We are not going to touch TeX Live font directories to avoid issues with LaTeX software. Instead, since we can use multiple locations, we will create symlinks in {{ic|/usr/share/fonts}}, giving applications access to particular families:
 
 
 
{{bc|<nowiki>
 
# cd /usr/share/fonts
 
# ln -s ../fonts.avail/otf-heuristica .
 
# ln -s /opt/texlive/texmf-dist/fonts/truetype/public/opensans ttf-texlive-open.sans
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
The result:
 
  
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
To install fonts system-wide (available for all users), move the folder to the {{ic|/usr/share/fonts/}} directory. The files need to be readable by every user, use [[chmod]] to set the correct permissions (i.e. at least {{ic|0444}} for files and {{ic|0555}} for directories). To install fonts for only a single user, use {{ic|~/.local/share/fonts}} ({{ic|~/.fonts/}} is now deprecated).
$ ls /usr/share/fonts
 
  
ttf-liberation        -> ..fonts.avail/ttf-liberation
+
For Xserver to load fonts directly (as opposed to the use of a ''font server'') the directory for your newly added font must be added with a FontPath entry. This entry is located in the ''Files'' section [[Xorg#Configuration|of your Xorg configuration file]] (e.g. {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf}} or {{ic|/etc/xorg.conf}}). See [[#Older applications]] for more detail.
ttf-ms-arial          -> ..fonts.avail/ttf-ms-arial
 
otf-heuristica        -> ..fonts.avail/otf-heuristica
 
otf-texlive-tex.gyre  -> /opt/texlive/texmf-dist/fonts/opentype/public/tex-gyre
 
ttf-texlive-open.sans -> /opt/texlive/texmf-dist/fonts/truetype/public/opensans
 
...
 
</nowiki>}}
 
  
Finally, you may want to run the usual:
+
Then update the fontconfig font cache: (usually unnecessary as software using the fontconfig library do this.)
  
{{bc|<nowiki>
+
$ fc-cache
# fc-cache && mkfontscale && mkfontdir
 
</nowiki>}}
 
 
 
A similar approach can be found in [[TeX_Live|TeX Live]] Wiki article, but it's way simpler and describes a per-user scenario rather than a global implementation.
 
  
 
=== Older applications ===
 
=== Older applications ===
Line 195: Line 86:
  
 
  $ for dir in /font/dir1/ /font/dir2/; do xset +fp $dir; done && xset fp rehash
 
  $ for dir in /font/dir1/ /font/dir2/; do xset +fp $dir; done && xset fp rehash
 +
 +
Or if fonts were installed in a different sub-folders under the e.g. {{ic|/usr/share/fonts}}:
 +
 +
$ for dir in * ; do if [  -d  "$dir"  ]; then cd "$dir";xset +fp "$PWD" ;mkfontscale; mkfontdir;cd .. ;fi; done && xset fp rehash
  
 
At times the X server may fail to load the fonts directory and you will need to rescan all the {{ic|fonts.dir}} files:
 
At times the X server may fail to load the fonts directory and you will need to rescan all the {{ic|fonts.dir}} files:
Line 204: Line 99:
  
 
  $ xlsfonts | grep fontname
 
  $ xlsfonts | grep fontname
 +
 +
{{note|Many packages will automatically configure Xorg to use the font upon installation. If that is the case with your font, this step is not necessary.}}
 +
 +
This can also be set globally in {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf}} or {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d}}.
 +
 +
Here is an example of the section that must be added to {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf}}. Add or remove paths based on your particular font requirements.
 +
 +
# Let X.Org know about the custom font directories
 +
Section "Files"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cantarell"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cyrillic"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/encodings"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/truetype"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/util"
 +
EndSection
  
 
=== Pango Warnings ===
 
=== Pango Warnings ===
 +
 
When [http://www.pango.org/ Pango] is in use on your system it will read from [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/fontconfig fontconfig] to sort out where to source fonts.
 
When [http://www.pango.org/ Pango] is in use on your system it will read from [http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/fontconfig fontconfig] to sort out where to source fonts.
  
Line 211: Line 126:
 
  (process:5741): Pango-WARNING **: failed to choose a font, expect ugly output. engine-type='PangoRenderFc', script='latin'
 
  (process:5741): Pango-WARNING **: failed to choose a font, expect ugly output. engine-type='PangoRenderFc', script='latin'
  
If you are seeing errors similar to this and/or seeing blocks instead of characters in your application then you need to add fonts and update the font cache. This example uses the {{Pkg|ttf-liberation}} fonts to illustrate the solution and runs as root to enable them system-wide.
+
If you are seeing errors similar to this and/or seeing blocks instead of characters in your application then you need to add fonts and update the font cache. This example uses the {{Pkg|ttf-liberation}} fonts to illustrate the solution (after successful installation of the package) and runs as root to enable them system-wide.
 
 
# pacman -S ttf-liberation
 
  -- output abbreviated, assumes installation succeeded --
 
 
   
 
   
  # fc-cache -vfs
+
  # fc-cache
 
  /usr/share/fonts: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 3 dirs
 
  /usr/share/fonts: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 3 dirs
 
  /usr/share/fonts/TTF: caching, new cache contents: 16 fonts, 0 dirs
 
  /usr/share/fonts/TTF: caching, new cache contents: 16 fonts, 0 dirs
Line 222: Line 134:
 
  /usr/share/fonts/encodings/large: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
 
  /usr/share/fonts/encodings/large: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
 
  /usr/share/fonts/util: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
 
  /usr/share/fonts/util: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
  /var/cache/fontconfig: cleaning cache directory  
+
  /var/cache/fontconfig: cleaning cache directory
 
  fc-cache: succeeded
 
  fc-cache: succeeded
  
Line 230: Line 142:
 
  LiberationMono-Regular.ttf: "Liberation Mono" "Regular"
 
  LiberationMono-Regular.ttf: "Liberation Mono" "Regular"
  
=== Fonts with X.Org ===
+
== Console fonts ==
  
In order for [[Xorg]] to find and use your newly installed fonts, you must add the font paths to {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf}} (another X.Org configuration file may work too).
+
{{Note|This section is about the [[Wikipedia:Linux console|Linux console]]. For alternative console solutions offering more features (full Unicode fonts, modern graphics adapters etc.), see [[fbterm]], [[KMSCON]] or similar projects.}}
  
Here is an example of the section that must be added to {{ic|/etc/X11/xorg.conf}}. Add or remove paths based on your particular font requirements.
+
By default, the [[Wikipedia:Virtual console|virtual console]] uses the kernel built-in font with a [[Wikipedia:CP437|CP437]] character set,<sup>[https://git.kernel.org/cgit/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/drivers/tty/vt/Makefile#n4]</sup> but this can be easily changed.
# Let X.Org know about the custom font directories
 
Section "Files"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cantarell"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cyrillic"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/encodings"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/local"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/truetype"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
 
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/util"
 
EndSection
 
  
==Console fonts==
+
The [[Wikipedia:Linux console|Linux console]] uses UTF-8 encoding by default, but because the standard VGA-compatible framebuffer is used, a console font is limited to either a standard 256, or 512 glyphs. If the font has more than 256 glyphs, the number of colours is reduced from 16 to 8. In order to assign correct symbol to be displayed to the given Unicode value, a special translation map, often called ''unimap'', is needed. Nowadays most of the console fonts have the ''unimap'' built-in; historically, it had to be loaded separately.
  
The console, meaning a terminal running with no X Window System, uses the ASCII character set as the default. This font and the keymap used are easily changed.
+
The {{Pkg|kbd}} package provides tools to change virtual console font and font mapping. Available fonts are saved in the {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}} directory, those ending with ''.psfu'' or ''.psfu.gz'' have a Unicode translation map built-in.
  
A console font is limited to either 256 or 512 characters. The fonts are found in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}.
+
Keymaps, the connection between the key pressed and the character used by the computer, are found in the subdirectories of {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/}}, see [[Keyboard configuration in console]] for details.
  
Keymaps, the connection between the key pressed and the character used by the computer, are found in the subdirectories of {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/}}.
+
{{Note|Replacing the font can cause issues with programs that expect a standard VGA-style font, such as those using line drawing graphics.}}
  
=== Previewing and testing ===
+
{{Tip|For European based languages written in Latin/Greek letters you can use {{ic|eurlatgr}} font, it includes a broad range of Latin/Greek letter variations as well as
 +
special characters [https://lists.altlinux.org/pipermail/kbd/2014-February/000439.html].}}
  
An organized library of images for previewing is available at http://alexandre.deverteuil.net/consolefonts/consolefonts.html.
+
=== Preview and temporary changes ===
  
Moreover, the user can use {{ic|setfont}} to temporarily change the font and be able to consider its use as the default. The available glyphs, or letters in the font can also be viewed as a table with the command {{ic|showconsolefont}}.
+
{{Tip|An organized library of images for previewing is available: [http://alexandre.deverteuil.net/pages/consolefonts/ Linux console fonts screenshots].}}
  
If the newly changed font is not suitable, a return to the default font is done by issuing the command {{ic|setfont}} without any arguments. If the console display is totally unreadable, this command will still work—the user just types in {{ic|setfont}} while "working blind."
+
$ showconsolefont
  
Note that {{ic|setfont}} only works on the console currently being used. Any other consoles, active or inactive, remain unaffected.
+
shows a table of glyphs or letters of a font.
  
==== Examples ====
+
{{ic|setfont}} temporarily change the font if passed a font name (in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}) such as
  
Change the font. This example is distinctive:
+
  $ setfont lat2-16 -m 8859-2
  $ setfont /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/gr737b-9x16-medieval.psfu.gz
 
  
Or change the font to one with 512 glyphs and set the keymap to ''ISO 8859-5'' using the {{ic|-m}} option:
+
Font names are case-sensitive. With no parameter, {{ic|setfont}} returns the console to the default font.
$ setfont /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/LatArCyrHeb-16.psfu.gz -m 8859-5
 
  
Then issue commands that send text to the display, perhaps view a ''manpage'' and try ''vi'' or ''nano'', and view the table of glyphs with the command, {{ic|showconsolefont}}.
+
{{Tip|All font changing commands can be typed in "blind".}}
  
Return to the default font with:
+
{{Note|''setfont'' only works on the console currently being used. Any other consoles, active or inactive, remain unaffected.}}
$ setfont
 
  
=== Changing the default font ===
+
=== Persistent configuration ===
  
To change the default font, the {{ic|FONT<nowiki>=</nowiki>}} and {{ic|FONT_MAP<nowiki>=</nowiki>}} settings in {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}} (this file may need to be created) must be altered. Again, the fonts can be found in {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}} directory and keymaps can be found in the subdirectories of {{ic|/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/}}.
+
The {{ic|FONT}} variable in {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}} is used to set the font at boot, persistently for all consoles. See {{man|5|vconsole.conf}} for details.
  
==== Examples ====
 
 
For displaying characters such as ''Č, ž, đ, š'' or ''Ł, ę, ą, ś'' using the font {{ic|lat2-16.psfu.gz}}:
 
For displaying characters such as ''Č, ž, đ, š'' or ''Ł, ę, ą, ś'' using the font {{ic|lat2-16.psfu.gz}}:
FONT=lat2-16
 
It means that second part of ISO/IEC 8859 characters are used with size 16. You can change font size using other values like lat2-08...16. For the regions determined by 8859 specification, look at the [[wikipedia:ISO/IEC_8859#The_Parts_of_ISO.2FIEC_8859|Wikipedia]]. You can use a Terminus font which is recommended if you work a lot in console without X server. ter-216b for example is latin-2 part, size 16, bold. ter-216n is the same but normal weight. Terminus fonts have sizes up to 32.
 
  
Now, set the proper keymap, for lat2-16 it will be:
+
{{hc|/etc/vconsole.conf|2=
FONT_MAP=8859-2
+
...
 +
FONT=lat2-16
 +
FONT_MAP=8859-2
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
It means that second part of ISO/IEC 8859 characters are used with size 16. You can change font size using other values (e.g. {{ic|lat2-08}}). For the regions determined by 8859 specification, look at the [[Wikipedia:ISO/IEC 8859#The parts of ISO/IEC 8859]].
 +
 
 +
To use the specified font in early userspace, use the {{ic|consolefont}} hook in {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}. See [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS]] for more information.
 +
 
 +
If the fonts seems to not change on boot, or change only temporarily, it is most likely that they got reset when graphics driver was initialized and console was switched to framebuffer. To avoid this, load your graphics driver earlier. See for example [[Kernel mode setting#Early KMS start]], [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=145765] or other ways to setup your framebuffer before {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}} is applied.
 +
 
 +
== Font packages ==
 +
 
 +
This is a selective list that includes many font packages from the [[AUR]] along with those in the official repositories. Fonts are tagged "Unicode" if they have wide Unicode support, see the project or
 +
Wikipedia pages for detail.
 +
 
 +
The [https://github.com/ternstor/distrofonts Archfonts Python script] can be used to generate an overview of all the TTF fonts found in the official repositories / the AUR (the image generation is done using {{AUR|ttf2png}}).
 +
 
 +
=== Bitmap ===
 +
 
 +
* Default 8x16
 +
* [http://www.dcmembers.com/jibsen/download/61/ Dina] ({{Pkg|dina-font}}) – 6pt, 8pt, 9pt, 10pt, monospaced, based on Proggy
 +
* [http://font.gohu.org/ Gohu] ({{AUR|gohufont}}) – 11px, 14px, normal and bold
 +
* [http://artwizaleczapka.sourceforge.net/ Lime] ({{Pkg|artwiz-fonts}})
 +
* [http://tobiasjung.name/profont/ ProFont] ({{Pkg|profont}}) – 10px, 11px, 12px, 15px, 17px, 22px, 29px, normal
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Proggy programming fonts|Proggy]] ({{AUR|proggyfonts}}) – has different variants
 +
* [http://www.fial.com/~scott/tamsyn-font/ Tamsyn] ({{Pkg|tamsyn-font}})
 +
* [http://terminus-font.sourceforge.net/ Terminus] ({{Pkg|terminus-font}})
 +
* [https://github.com/lucy/tewi-font Tewi] ({{AUR|bdf-tewi-git}})
 +
* [http://unifoundry.com/unifont.html Unifont] ([[Wikipedia:Unicode font#Comparison of fonts|most extensive]] Unicode coverage of any font) ({{Pkg|bdf-unifont}})
 +
 
 +
=== Latin script ===
 +
 
 +
==== Families ====
 +
 
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Bitstream Vera|Bitstream Vera]] ({{Pkg|ttf-bitstream-vera}}) – serif, sans-serif, and monospace
 +
* [https://quoteunquoteapps.com/courierprime/ Courier Prime] ({{AUR|ttf-courier-prime}}) – Courier font alternative optimized for screenplays
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Croscore fonts|Croscore fonts]] ({{Pkg|ttf-croscore}}) – Google's substitute for Windows' Arial, Times New Roman, and Courier New
 +
* [[Wikipedia:DejaVu fonts|DejaVu fonts]] ({{Pkg|ttf-dejavu}}) – Bitstream Vera modified for greater Unicode coverage
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Droid (font)|Droid]] ({{Pkg|ttf-droid}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}}) – default font for older Android versions
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Roboto|Roboto]] ({{Pkg|ttf-roboto}}) – default font for newer Android versions
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Noto fonts|Google Noto]] ({{Pkg|noto-fonts}}) – Unicode
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Liberation fonts|Liberation fonts]] ({{Pkg|ttf-liberation}}) – free metric-compatible substitute for the Arial, Arial Narrow, Times New Roman and Courier New fonts found in Windows and Microsoft Office products
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Ubuntu Font Family|Ubuntu Font Family]] ({{Pkg|ttf-ubuntu-font-family}})
 +
* [[Microsoft fonts]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-win10}}) – Windows 10 fonts
 +
Legacy Microsoft font packages:
 +
* [http://corefonts.sourceforge.net/ Microsoft fonts] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}}) – Andalé Mono, Courier New, Arial, Arial Black, Comic Sans, Impact, Lucida Sans, Microsoft Sans Serif, Trebuchet, Verdana, Georgia, Times New Roman
 +
* Vista fonts ({{AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}}) – Consolas, Calibri, Candara, Corbel, Cambria, Constantia
 +
 
 +
==== Monospaced ====
 +
 
 +
For more monospaced fonts see [[#Bitmap]] and [[#Families]].
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.marksimonson.com/fonts/view/anonymous-pro Anonymous Pro] ({{pkg|ttf-anonymous-pro}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}})
 +
* [https://damieng.com/blog/2008/05/26/envy-code-r-preview-7-coding-font-released Envy Code R] ({{AUR|ttf-envy-code-r}})
 +
* Fantasque Sans Mono ({{AUR|ttf-fantasque-sans-git}})
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Fira Sans|Fira Mono]] ({{pkg|ttf-fira-mono}}, {{pkg|otf-fira-mono}}) – designed for Firefox OS
 +
* [[Wikipedia:GNU FreeFont|FreeMono]] ({{Pkg|ttf-freefont}}) - Unicode
 +
* [https://sourcefoundry.org/hack/ Hack] ({{pkg|ttf-hack}}) - an open source monospaced font, used as the default in KDE Plasma
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Inconsolata|Inconsolata]] ({{Pkg|ttf-inconsolata}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}}) - inspired by Consolas
 +
* [https://leonardo-m.livejournal.com/77079.html Inconsolata-g] ({{AUR|ttf-inconsolata-g}}) - adds some programmer-friendly modifications
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Lucida Typewriter|Lucida Typewriter]] (included in package {{AUR|jre}})
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Menlo (typeface)|Menlo]] (derivative: {{AUR|ttf-meslo}}) - default monospaced font of OS X
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Monaco (typeface)|Monaco]] ({{AUR|ttf-monaco}}) - proprietary font designed by Apple for OS X
 +
* Monofur ({{AUR|ttf-monofur}})
 +
* [https://madmalik.github.io/mononoki Mononoki] ({{AUR|ttf-mononoki}})
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Source_Code_Pro|Source Code Pro]] ({{pkg|adobe-source-code-pro-fonts}})
 +
 
 +
Relevant websites:
  
To use the specified font in early userspace, that is, early in the bootup process, add the {{ic|consolefont}} hook to {{ic|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}:
+
* [http://hivelogic.com/articles/top-10-programming-fonts Dan Benjamin's Top 10 Programming Fonts].
HOOKS="base udev autodetect modconf block filesystems keyboard fsck '''consolefont''' '''keymap'''"
+
* [http://www.lowing.org/fonts/ Trevor Lowing's font list]
 +
* [https://www.slant.co/topics/67/~what-are-the-best-programming-fonts Slant: What are the best programming fonts?]
 +
* [https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4689/recommended-fonts-for-programming Stack Overflow: Recommended fonts for programming]
  
Then rebuild the image:
+
==== Sans-serif ====
# mkinitcpio -p linux
 
  
{{Note|The above steps must be repeated for each kernel if more than one kernel package is installed.}}
+
* [http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=andika Andika] ({{AUR|ttf-andika}})
 +
* [[Wikipedia:GNU FreeFont|FreeSans]] ({{Pkg|ttf-freefont}}) - Unicode
 +
* [https://github.com/rsms/inter Inter UI] ({{AUR|ttf-inter-ui}}) – designed for user interfaces
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Linux Libertine|Linux Biolinum]] ({{Pkg|ttf-linux-libertine}}) – free substitute for Times New Roman
 +
* [[Wikipedia:PT Sans|PT Sans]] ({{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}}) - 3 major variations: normal, narrow, and caption - Unicode: Latin, Cyrillic
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Source Sans Pro|Source Sans Pro]] ({{pkg|adobe-source-sans-pro-fonts}})
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Tahoma (typeface)|Tahoma]] ({{AUR|ttf-tahoma}})
  
See [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS]] for more information.
+
==== Serif ====
  
If the fonts seems to not change on boot, or change only temporarily, it is most likely that they got reset when graphics driver was initialized and console was switched to framebuffer. To avoid this, load your graphics driver earlier. See for example [[KMS#Early_KMS_start]] or other ways to setup your framebuffer before {{ic|/etc/vconsole.conf}} gets applied.
+
* [http://www.georgduffner.at/ebgaramond/ EB Garamond] ({{AUR|otf-eb-garamond}})
 +
* [[Wikipedia:GNU FreeFont|FreeSerif]] ({{Pkg|ttf-freefont}}) - Unicode
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Gentium|Gentium]] ({{Pkg|ttf-gentium}}) - Unicode: Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Phonetic Alphabet
 +
* [[Wikipedia:Linux Libertine|Linux Libertine]] ({{Pkg|ttf-linux-libertine}}) - Unicode: Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew
  
==== Boot Error ====
+
==== Unsorted ====
  
If "Loading Console Font" fails at boot time, this is probably because you did not choose a valid font during your Arch Linux install.
+
{{Style|This section should be absorbed into the Monospace/Serif/Sans-Serif structure}}
  
To get rid of this message, simply empty the {{ic|CONSOLEFONT}} variable in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}}. It will fallback on default font at boot.
+
* {{Pkg|font-bh-ttf}} - X.Org Luxi fonts
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-cheapskate}} - Font collection from ''dustismo.com''
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-junicode}} - Junius font containing almost complete medieval latin script glyphs
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-mph-2b-damase}} - Covers full plane 1 and several scripts
 +
* {{Pkg|xorg-fonts-type1}} - IBM Courier and Adobe Utopia sets of [[Wikipedia:PostScript fonts|PostScript fonts]]
 +
* {{AUR|all-repository-fonts}} - Meta package for all fonts in the official repositories.
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}} - a huge collection of free fonts (including Ubuntu, Inconsolata, Droid, etc.) - Note: Your font dialog might get very long as >100 fonts will be added.
  
==Font packages==
+
=== Non-latin scripts ===
This is a selective list that includes many font packages from the [[AUR]] along with those in the official repositories. Fonts are tagged "Unicode" if they have wide Unicode support, see the project or Wikipedia pages for detail.
 
  
Github user Ternstor has created a python script that generates PNG images of all fonts in [http://ternstor.github.com/archfonts/extra.html extra], [http://ternstor.github.com/archfonts/community.html community] and the [http://ternstor.github.com/archfonts/aur.html AUR] so you can preview all the fonts below.
+
==== Ancient Scripts ====
 +
 
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-ancient-fonts}} - Font containing Unicode symbols for Aegean, Egyptian, Cuneiform, Anatolian, Maya, and Analecta scripts
 +
 
 +
==== Arabic ====
 +
 
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-amiri}} - A classical Arabic typeface in Naskh style poineered by Amiria Press
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-arabeyes-fonts}} - Collection of free Arabic fonts
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-qurancomplex-fonts}} - Fonts by King Fahd Glorious Quran Printing Complex in al-Madinah al-Munawwarah
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-sil-lateef}} - Unicode Arabic font from SIL
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-sil-scheherazade}} - Unicode Arabic font from SIL
 +
 
 +
==== Braille ====
  
===Braille===
 
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-ubraille}} - Font containing Unicode symbols for ''braille''
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-ubraille}} - Font containing Unicode symbols for ''braille''
  
===International users===
+
==== Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese ====
Applications and browsers select and display fonts depending upon fontconfig preferences and available font glyph for Unicode text. To list installed fonts for a particular language, issue a command {{ic|<nowiki>fc-list :lang="two letter language code"</nowiki>}}. For instance, to list installed Arabic fonts or fonts supporting Arabic glyph:
+
 
{{hc|$ fc-list :lang&#61;ar &#124; cut -d: -f1|2=
+
===== Pan-CJK =====
<nowiki>
+
*adobe source han fonts
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/FreeMono.ttf
+
Large collection of fonts which comprehensively support Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, with a consistent design and look.
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/DejaVuSansCondensed.ttf
+
**{{Pkg|adobe-source-han-sans-otc-fonts}} - Sans fonts
/usr/share/fonts/truetype/custom/DroidKufi-Bold.ttf
+
**{{Pkg|adobe-source-han-serif-otc-fonts}} - Serif fonts
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/DejaVuSansMono.ttf
+
 
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/FreeSerif.ttf
+
*{{Pkg|noto-fonts-cjk}} - Large collection of fonts which comprehensively support Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, with a consistent design and look. It is currently a rebadged version of {{Pkg|adobe-source-han-sans-otc-fonts}}.
</nowiki>
+
 
}}
+
===== Chinese =====
 +
* adobe source han fonts
 +
** {{Pkg|adobe-source-han-sans-cn-fonts}} - Simplified Chinese OpenType/CFF Sans fonts
 +
** {{Pkg|adobe-source-han-sans-tw-fonts}} - Traditional Chinese OpenType/CFF Sans fonts
 +
** {{Pkg|adobe-source-han-serif-cn-fonts}} - Simplified Chinese OpenType/CFF Serif fonts
 +
** {{Pkg|adobe-source-han-serif-tw-fonts}} - Traditional Chinese OpenType/CFF Serif fonts
 +
 
 +
* noto Chinese fonts
 +
** {{AUR|noto-fonts-sc}} - Noto CJK-SC fonts for Simplified Chinese
 +
** {{AUR|noto-fonts-tc}} - Noto CJK-TC fonts for Traditional Chinese
 +
 
 +
* wqy fonts
 +
 
 +
** {{Pkg|wqy-microhei}} - WenQuanYi Micro Hei font family (also known as Hei, Gothic or Dotum) is a sans-serif style derived from Droid Sans Fallback, it offers high quality CJK outline font and it is extremely compact (~5M).
 +
 
 +
** {{Pkg|wqy-zenhei}} - Hei Ti Style (sans-serif) Chinese Outline font embedded with bitmapped Song Ti (also supporting Japanese (partial) and Korean characters).
 +
** {{Pkg|wqy-bitmapfont}} - Bitmapped Song Ti (serif) Chinese font.
 +
 
 +
* arphic fonts
 +
** {{Pkg|ttf-arphic-ukai}} - ''Kaiti'' (brush stroke) Unicode font (enabling anti-aliasing is suggested)
 +
** {{Pkg|ttf-arphic-uming}} - ''Mingti'' (printed) Unicode font
 +
 
 +
* {{Pkg|opendesktop-fonts}} - ''New Sung'' font, previously is ttf-fireflysung package
 +
 
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-hannom}} - Chinese and Vietnamese ttf fonts
 +
 
 +
* Standart fonts of the Republic of China ministry of education in Taiwan
 +
** {{AUR|ttf-tw}} - Kai and Song traditional Chinese font from the Ministry of Education of Taiwan
 +
** {{AUR|ttf-twcns-fonts}} Chinese TrueType fonts by Ministry of Education of Taiwan government, support CNS11643 standard, including Kai and Sung fontface.
 +
 
 +
*Windows Chinese fonts
 +
**{{AUR|ttf-ms-win8-zh_cn}} - windows8 simple Chinese fonts。
 +
**{{AUR|ttf-ms-win8-zh_tw}} - windows8 traditional Chinese fonts。
 +
**{{AUR|ttf-ms-win10-zh_cn}} - windows10 simple Chinese fonts。
 +
**{{AUR|ttf-ms-win10-zh_tw}} - windows10 traditional Chinese fonts。
 +
 
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-i.bming}} - CJK serif font that emphasis on an old-style typeface.
 +
 
 +
===== Japanese =====
 +
 
 +
* {{Pkg|adobe-source-han-sans-jp-fonts}} - Japanese OpenType/CFF fonts
 +
* {{Pkg|otf-ipafont}} - Formal style Japanese Gothic (sans-serif) and Mincho (serif) fonts set; one of the highest quality open source font. Default of openSUSE-ja.
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-hanazono}} - A free Japanese kanji font, style Mincho (serif).
 +
* {{Pkg|ttf-sazanami}} - Japanese free TrueType font. This is outdated and not maintained any more, but may be defined as a fallback font on several environments.
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-koruri}} - Japanese TrueType font obtained by mixing {{AUR|ttf-mplus}} and Open Sans
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-monapo}} - Japanese fonts to show [[wikipedia:2channel_Shift_JIS_art|2channel Shift JIS art]] properly.
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-mplus}} - Modern Gothic style Japanese outline fonts. It includes all of Japanese Hiragana/Katakana, Basic Latin, Latin-1 Supplement, Latin Extended-A, IPA Extensions and most of Japanese Kanji, Greek, Cyrillic, Vietnamese with 7 weights (proportional) or 5 weights (monospace).
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-vlgothic}} - Japanese Gothic fonts. Default of Debian/Fedora/Vine Linux
  
To properly render fonts for multilingual websites like Wikipedia or this Arch Linux wiki, install these packages: {{Pkg|ttf-freefont}}, {{Pkg|ttf-arphic-uming}}, {{Pkg|ttf-baekmuk}}
+
===== Korean =====
  
====Arabic====
+
* {{Pkg|adobe-source-han-sans-kr-fonts}} - Korean OpenType/CFF fonts
*{{AUR|ttf-qurancomplex-fonts}} - Fonts by King Fahd Glorious Quran Printing Complex in al-Madinah al-Munawwarah ''(AUR)''
+
* {{Pkg|ttf-baekmuk}} - Collection of Korean TrueType fonts
*{{AUR|ttf-amiri}} - A classical Arabic typeface in Naskh style poineered by Amiria Press ''(AUR)''
+
* {{AUR|spoqa-han-sans}} - Source Han Sans customized by Spoqa
*{{AUR|ttf-sil-lateef}} - Unicode Arabic font from SIL ''(AUR)''
+
* {{AUR|ttf-d2coding}} - D2Coding fixed width TrueType font made by Naver
*{{AUR|ttf-sil-scheherazade}} - Unicode Arabic font from SIL ''(AUR)''
+
* {{AUR|ttf-nanum}} - Nanum series TrueType fonts
*{{AUR|ttf-arabeyes-fonts}} - Collection of free Arabic fonts ''(AUR)''
+
* {{AUR|ttf-nanumgothic_coding}} - Nanum series fixed width TrueType fonts
  
====Birman====
+
===== Vietnamese =====
*{{AUR|ttf-myanmar3}} - Font for Myanmar/Burmese script ''(AUR)''
 
  
====Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese====
+
* {{Pkg|ttf-hannom}} - Vietnamese TrueType font for chữ Nôm characters
  
=====(Mainly) Chinese=====
+
==== Cyrillic ====
*{{AUR|ttf-tw}} - Kai and Song traditional Chinese font from the Ministry of Education of Taiwan ''(AUR)''.
 
*{{Pkg|wqy-microhei}} - A Sans-Serif style high quality CJKV outline font.
 
*{{Pkg|wqy-zenhei}} - Hei Ti Style (sans-serif) Chinese Outline font embedded with bitmapped Song Ti (also supporting Japanese (partial) and Korean characters).
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-arphic-ukai}} - ''Kaiti'' (brush stroke) Unicode font (enabling anti-aliasing is suggested)
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-arphic-uming}} - ''Mingti'' (printed) Unicode font
 
*{{Pkg|opendesktop-fonts}} - ''New Sung'' font, previously is ttf-fireflysung package
 
*{{Pkg|wqy-bitmapfont}} - Bitmapped Song Ti (serif) Chinese font
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-hannom}} - Chinese and Vietnamese TrueType font
 
  
=====Japanese=====
+
See also [[#Latin script]].
*{{Pkg|otf-ipafont}} - Formal style Japanese Gothic (sans-serif) and Mincho (serif) fonts set; one of the highest quality open source font. Default of openSUSE-ja.
 
*{{AUR|ttf-vlgothic}} - Japanese Gothic fonts. Default of Debian/Fedora/Vine Linux ''(AUR)''
 
*{{AUR|ttf-mplus}} - Modern Gothic style Japanese outline fonts. It includes all of Japanese Hiragana/Katakana, Basic Latin, Latin-1 Supplement, Latin Extended-A, IPA Extensions and most of Japanese Kanji, Greek, Cyrillic, Vietnamese with 7 weights (proportional) or 5 weights (monospace). ''(AUR)''
 
*{{AUR|ttf-ipa-mona}}, {{AUR|ttf-monapo}} - Japanese fonts to show [[wikipedia:2channel_Shift_JIS_art|2channel Shift JIS art]] properly. ''(AUR)''
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-sazanami}} - Japanese free TrueType font. This is outdated and not maintained any more, but may be defined as a fallback font on several environments.
 
  
=====Korean=====
+
* {{AUR|ttf-paratype}} - Font family by ParaType: sans, serif, mono, extended cyrillic and latin, OFL license
*{{Pkg|ttf-baekmuk}} - Collection of Korean TrueType fonts
+
* {{AUR|otf-russkopis}} - A free OpenType cursive font for Cyrillic script
*{{AUR|ttf-alee}} - Set of free Hangul TrueType fonts (''AUR'')
 
*{{AUR|ttf-unfonts-core}} - Un fonts (default Baekmuk fonts may be unsatisfactory) (''AUR'')
 
*{{AUR|ttf-nanum}} - Nanum series TrueType fonts (''AUR'')
 
*{{AUR|ttf-nanumgothic_coding}} - Nanum series fixed width TrueType fonts (''AUR'')
 
  
====Cyrillic====
+
==== Greek ====
''Also see [[#Monospace]], [[#Sans]] and [[#Serif]]''
 
*{{AUR|font-arhangai}} - Mongolian Cyrillic (''AUR'')
 
*{{AUR|ttf-pingwi-typography}} - PingWi Typography (PWT) fonts (''AUR'')
 
  
====Greek====
 
 
Almost all Unicode fonts contain the Greek character set (polytonic included). Some additional font packages, which might not contain the complete Unicode set but utilize high quality Greek (and Latin, of course) typefaces are:
 
Almost all Unicode fonts contain the Greek character set (polytonic included). Some additional font packages, which might not contain the complete Unicode set but utilize high quality Greek (and Latin, of course) typefaces are:
*{{AUR|otf-gfs}} - Selection of OpenType fonts from the Greek Font Society ''(AUR)''
 
*{{AUR|ttf-mgopen}} - Professional TrueType fonts from Magenta ''(AUR)''
 
  
====Hebrew====
+
* {{AUR|otf-gfs}} - Selection of OpenType fonts from the Greek Font Society
*{{AUR|culmus}} - Nice collection of free Hebrew fonts ''(AUR)''
+
* {{AUR|ttf-mgopen}} - Professional TrueType fonts from Magenta
  
====Indic====
+
==== Hebrew ====
*{{Pkg|ttf-freebanglafont}} - Font for Bangla
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-indic-otf}} - Indic OpenType Fonts collection (containing ttf-freebanglafont)
 
:(This one contains a "look of disapproval" that might be more to your liking than the {{Pkg|bdf-unifont}} one mentioned elsewhere in this document)
 
* {{AUR|lohit-fonts}} - Indic TrueType fonts from Fedora Project (containing Oriya Fonts and more) ''(AUR)''
 
  
====Khmer====
+
* {{AUR|culmus}} - Nice collection of free Hebrew fonts
*{{Pkg|ttf-khmer}} - Font covering glyphs for Khmer language
 
*[http://code.google.com/webfonts/family?family=Hanuman&subset=khmer Hanuman] ({{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} or {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}})
 
  
====Sinhala====
+
==== Indic ====
*{{AUR|ttf-lklug}} - Sinhala Unicode font (''AUR'')
 
  
====Tamil====
+
* {{Pkg|ttf-freebanglafont}} - Font for Bangla
*{{AUR|ttf-tamil}} - Tamil Unicode fonts (''AUR'')
+
* {{Pkg|ttf-indic-otf}} - Indic OpenType Fonts collection (containing ttf-freebanglafont), provides the character [http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/ca0/index.htm U+0CA0] "ಠ"
 +
* {{AUR|lohit-fonts}} - Indic TrueType fonts from Fedora Project (containing Oriya Fonts and more)
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-devanagarifonts}} - Devanagari TrueType fonts (contains 283 fonts)
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-gurmukhi-fonts_sikhnet}} - TrueType Gurmukhi fonts (gurbaniwebthick,prabhki)
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-gurmukhi_punjabi}} - TTF Gurmukhi / Punjabi (contains 252 fonts)
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-gujrati-fonts}} - TTF Gujarati fonts (Avantika,Gopika,Shree768)
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-kannada-font}} - Kannada, the language of Karnataka state in India
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-lklug}} - Sinhala Unicode font
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-tamil}} - Tamil Unicode fonts
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-urdufonts}} - Urdu fonts (Jameel Noori Nastaleeq (+kasheeda), Nafees Web Naskh, PDMS Saleem Quran Font) and font configuration to set Jameel Noori Nastaleeq as default font for Urdu
  
====Tibetan====
+
==== Khmer ====
*{{Pkg|ttf-tibetan-machine}} - Tibetan Machine TTFont
 
  
===Math===
+
* {{Pkg|ttf-khmer}} - Font covering glyphs for Khmer language
*{{Pkg|font-mathematica}} - Mathematica fonts by Wolfram Research, Inc.
+
* [https://www.google.com/fonts/specimen/Hanuman Hanuman] ({{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}})
*{{AUR|ttf-mathtype}} - MathType fonts ''(AUR)''
 
*{{AUR|ttf-computer-modern-fonts}} - ''(AUR)''
 
  
===Microsoft fonts===
+
==== Mongolic and Tungusic ====
See [[MS Fonts]].
 
  
=== Apple Mac OS X fonts ===
+
* {{AUR|ttf-abkai}} - Fonts for Sibe, Manchu and Daur scripts (incomplete, currently in development)
  
* {{AUR|ttf-mac-fonts}} - Mac OS X TrueType fonts
+
==== Persian ====
* {{AUR|ttf-mac}} - Mac OS X TrueType fonts (This package does not come with the ttf fonts (only the otf fonts), they have to be provided on their own.
 
  
===Monospaced===
+
* {{AUR|persian-fonts}} - Meta package for installing all Persian fonts in AUR.
Here are some suggestions. Every user has their own favorite, so experiment to find yours.  
+
* {{AUR|borna-fonts}} - Borna Rayaneh Co. Persian B font series.
If you are in a hurry, you read Dan Benjamin's blog post: [http://hivelogic.com/articles/top-10-programming-fonts ''Top 10 Programming Fonts''].
+
* {{AUR|iran-nastaliq-fonts}} - A free Unicode calligraphic Persian font.
 +
* {{AUR|iranian-fonts}} - Iranian-Sans and Iranian-Serif Persian font family.
 +
* {{AUR|ir-standard-fonts}} - Iran Supreme Council of Information and Communication Technology (SCICT) standard Persian fonts.
 +
* {{AUR|persian-hm-ftx-fonts}} - A Persian font series derived from X Series 2, Metafont and FarsiTeX fonts with Kashida feature.
 +
* {{AUR|persian-hm-xs2-fonts}} - A Persian font series derived from X Series 2 fonts with Kashida feature.
 +
* {{AUR|sina-fonts}} - Sina Pardazesh Co. Persian font series.
 +
* {{AUR|gandom-fonts}}, {{AUR|parastoo-fonts}}, {{AUR|sahel-fonts}}, {{AUR|samim-fonts}}, {{AUR|shabnam-fonts}}, {{AUR|tanha-fonts}}, {{AUR|vazir-fonts}}, {{AUR|vazir-code-fonts}} - Beautiful Persian fonts made by Ali Rasti Kerdar.
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-yas}} - The Yas Persian font series (with '''hollow zero''').
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-x2}} - Free fonts with support for Persian, Arabic, Urdu, Pashto, Dari, Uzbek, Kurdish, Uighur, old Turkish (Ottoman) and modern Turkish (Roman).
  
Here is a long list of fonts by Trevor Lowing: http://www.lowing.org/fonts/.
+
==== Tai–Kadai ====
  
====TrueType====
+
* {{Pkg|fonts-tlwg}} - Collection of scalable Thai fonts
* Agave ({{AUR|ttf-agave}})
+
* {{AUR|ttf-lao}} - Lao TTF font (Phetsarath_OT)
* [[Wikipedia:Andalé Mono|Andalé Mono]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
+
* {{AUR|ttf-lao-fonts}} - Lao TTF fonts, both Unicode and non-Unicode for Windows
* Anka/Coder ({{AUR|ttf-anka-coder}})
+
 
* Anonymous Pro ({{AUR|ttf-anonymous-pro}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} and {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}})
+
==== Tibeto-Burman ====
* [[Wikipedia:Bitstream Vera|Bitstream Vera Mono]] ({{Pkg|ttf-bitstream-vera}})
+
 
* [[Wikipedia:Consolas|Consolas]] ({{AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}}) - Windows programming font
+
* {{Pkg|ttf-tibetan-machine}} - Tibetan Machine TTFont
* [[Wikipedia:Courier New|Courier New]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
+
* {{AUR|ttf-myanmar-fonts}} - 121 Fonts from myordbok.com
* Cousine ({{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} or {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}}) - Chrome/Chromium OS replacement for Courier New (metric-compatible)
+
 
* [[Wikipedia:DejaVu fonts|DejaVu Sans Mono]] ({{Pkg|ttf-dejavu}}) - Unicode
+
=== Emoji and symbols ===
* [[Wikipedia:Droid (font)|Droid Sans Mono]] ({{Pkg|ttf-droid}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} and {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}})
+
 
* Envy Code R ({{AUR|ttf-envy-code-r}})
+
A section of the Unicode standard is designated for pictographic characters called "emoji".
* [[Wikipedia:GNU FreeFont|FreeMono]] ({{Pkg|ttf-freefont}}) - Unicode
 
* [[Wikipedia:Inconsolata|Inconsolata]] ({{Pkg|ttf-inconsolata}}) - Excellent programming font
 
* [[Wikipedia:Inconsolata|Inconsolata-g]] ({{AUR|ttf-inconsolata-g}}) - adds some programmer-friendly modifications
 
* Anonymous-Pro ({{AUR|ttf-anonymous-pro}})
 
* [[Wikipedia:Liberation fonts|Liberation Mono]] ({{Pkg|ttf-liberation}}) - Alternative to Courier New (metric-compatible)
 
* [[Wikipedia:Lucida Console|Lucida Console]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
* [[Wikipedia:Lucida Typewriter|Lucida Typewriter]] (included in package {{Pkg|jre}})
 
* [[Wikipedia:Monaco (typeface)|Monaco]] ({{AUR|ttf-monaco}}) - Popular programming font on OSX/Textmate
 
* Monofur ({{AUR|ttf-monofur}})
 
  
====Bitmap====
+
* {{Pkg|noto-fonts-emoji}} - Google's own emoji font, like on Android or Google Hangouts.
*Default 8x16
+
* {{Pkg|ttf-symbola}} - provides many Unicode symbols, including emoji, in outline style.
*Dina ({{Pkg|dina-font}})
+
* {{AUR|ttf-emojione}} - Official colorful EmojiOne font.
*[http://font.gohu.org/ Gohu] ({{AUR|gohufont}})
+
* {{AUR|ttf-emojione-color}} - a color and B&W emoji SVGinOT font built from EmojiOne.
*Lime ({{Pkg|artwiz-fonts}})
+
* {{AUR|ttf-twemoji-color}} - Twitter's open-sourced emoji glyphs.
*[[Wikipedia:ProFont|ProFont]] ({{Pkg|profont}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Proggy Programming Fonts|Proggy Programming Fonts]] ({{AUR|proggyfonts}})
 
*Proggy opti cyrillic ({{AUR|proggyopticyr-font}})
 
*Tamsyn ({{Pkg|tamsyn-font}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Terminus (typeface)|Terminus]] ({{Pkg|terminus-font}})
 
*Unifont (glyphs like (look of disapproval)) ({{Pkg|bdf-unifont}})
 
  
===Sans-serif===
+
[[wikipedia:Emoticon#Japanese_style|Kaomoji]] are sometimes referred to as "Japanese emoticons" and are composed of characters from various character sets, including CJK and Indic fonts. For example, the following set of packages covers most of existing kaomoji: {{Pkg|ttf-freefont}}, {{Pkg|ttf-arphic-uming}}, and {{Pkg|ttf-indic-otf}}.
  
*[http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=andika Andika] ({{AUR|ttf-andika}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}})
+
=== Math ===
*[[Wikipedia:Arial|Arial]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Arial Black|Arial Black]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
*Arimo ({{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} or {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}}) - Chrome/Chromium OS replacement for Arial (metric-compatible)
 
*[[Wikipedia:Calibri|Calibri]] ({{AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Candara|Candara]] ({{AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Constantia (typeface)|Constantia]] ({{AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Corbel (typeface)|Corbel]] ({{AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:DejaVu fonts|DejaVu Sans]] ({{Pkg|ttf-dejavu}}) - Unicode
 
*[[Wikipedia:Droid (font)|Droid Sans]] ({{Pkg|ttf-droid}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} and {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:GNU FreeFont|FreeSans]] ({{Pkg|ttf-freefont}}) - Unicode
 
*[[Wikipedia:Impact (typeface)|Impact]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Liberation fonts|Liberation Sans]] ({{Pkg|ttf-liberation}}, improved/reworked Cyrillic: {{AUR|ttf-liberastika}}) - Alternative to Arial  (metric-compatible)
 
*[[Wikipedia:Linux Libertine|Linux Biolinum]] ({{Pkg|ttf-linux-libertine}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Lucida Sans|Lucida Sans]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Microsoft Sans Serif|Microsoft Sans Serif]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:PT Sans|PT Sans]] ({{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} or {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}}) - 3 major variations: normal, narrow, and caption - Unicode: Latin, Cyrillic
 
*[[Wikipedia:Tahoma (typeface)|Tahoma]] ({{AUR|ttf-tahoma}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Trebuchet MS|Trebuchet]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Ubuntu-Title|Ubuntu-Title]] ({{AUR|ttf-ubuntu-title}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Ubuntu Font Family|Ubuntu Font Family]] ({{Pkg|ttf-ubuntu-font-family}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Verdana|Verdana]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
  
===Script===
+
* {{Pkg|font-mathematica}} - Mathematica fonts by Wolfram Research, Inc.
 +
* {{Pkg|texlive-core}} and {{Pkg|texlive-fontsextra}} contain many math fonts such as Latin Modern Math and [[Wikipedia:STIX Fonts project|STIX Fonts]]. See [[TeX Live#Fonts]] for configuration.
 +
* {{AUR|otf-stix}} - A standalone, more recent version of STIX
 +
* {{AUR|otf-latin-modern}}, {{AUR|otf-latinmodern-math}} - Improved version of Computer Modern fonts as used in LaTeX
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-computer-modern-fonts}}, {{AUR|otf-cm-unicode}} - [[wikipedia:Computer Modern|Computer Modern]] (of TeX fame)
 +
* {{AUR|ttf-mathtype}} - MathType fonts
  
*[[Wikipedia:Comic Sans|Comic Sans]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
+
=== Other operating system fonts ===
  
===Serif===
+
* {{AUR|ttf-mac-fonts}} - Apple MacOS TrueType fonts
*[[Wikipedia:Cambria (typeface)|Cambria]] ({{AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Charis SIL|Charis]] ({{AUR|ttf-charis}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}}) - Unicode: Latin, Cyrillic
 
*[[Wikipedia:DejaVu fonts|DejaVu Serif]] ({{Pkg|ttf-dejavu}}) - Unicode
 
*[[Wikipedia:Doulos SIL|Doulos]] ({{AUR|doulos-sil}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}}) - Unicode: Latin, Cyrillic
 
*[[Wikipedia:Droid (font)|Droid Serif]] ({{Pkg|ttf-droid}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} and {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:GNU FreeFont|FreeSerif]] ({{Pkg|ttf-freefont}}) - Unicode
 
*[[Wikipedia:Gentium|Gentium]] ({{Pkg|ttf-gentium}}, included in {{AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}}) - Unicode: Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Phonetic Alphabet
 
*[[Wikipedia:Georgia (typeface)|Georgia]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
*[[Wikipedia:Liberation fonts|Liberation Serif]] ({{Pkg|ttf-liberation}}) - Alternative to Times New Roman (metric-compatible)
 
*[[Wikipedia:Linux Libertine|Linux Libertine]] ({{Pkg|ttf-linux-libertine}}) - Unicode: Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew
 
*[[Wikipedia:Times New Roman|Times New Roman]] ({{AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 
*Tinos ({{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} or {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}}) - Chrome/Chromium OS replacement for Times New Roman (metric-compatible)
 
  
===Unsorted===
+
See [[Metric-compatible fonts]], which lists available alternatives for [[Microsoft fonts]].
<!--This section should be absorbed into the Monospace/Serif/Sans-Serif structure-->
 
*{{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}} and {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} — a huge collection of free fonts (including ubuntu, inconsolata, droid, etc.) - Note: Your font dialog might get very long as >100 fonts will be added. {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-hg}} pulls down the entire Mercurial repository from the upstream Web Fonts project. {{AUR|ttf-google-fonts-git}} pulls from a much smaller and leaner unofficial repository hosted on GitHub. ''(AUR)''
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-mph-2b-damase}} — Covers full plane 1 and several scripts
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-symbola}} — Provides emoji and many many other symbols. ''(AUR)''
 
*{{AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}} — Gentium, Charis, Doulos, Andika and Abyssinica from SIL ''(AUR)''
 
*{{Pkg|font-bh-ttf}} — X.Org Luxi fonts
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-cheapskate}} — Font collection from ''dustismo.com''
 
*{{AUR|ttf-isabella}} — Calligraphic font based on the ''Isabella Breviary'' of 1497
 
*{{Pkg|ttf-junicode}} — Junius font containing almost complete medieval latin script glyphs
 
*arkpandorafonts {{AUR|ttf-arkpandora}} — Alternative to Arial and Times New Roman fonts ''(AUR)''
 
*{{Pkg|xorg-fonts-type1}} — IBM Courier and Adobe Utopia sets of [[Wikipedia:PostScript fonts|PostScript fonts]]
 
  
 
== Fallback font order with X11 ==
 
== Fallback font order with X11 ==
 +
 
Fontconfig automatically chooses a font that matches the current requirement. That is to say, if one is looking at a window containing English and Chinese for example, it will switch to another font for the Chinese text if the default one does not support it.
 
Fontconfig automatically chooses a font that matches the current requirement. That is to say, if one is looking at a window containing English and Chinese for example, it will switch to another font for the Chinese text if the default one does not support it.
  
 
Fontconfig lets every user configure the order they want via {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/fontconfig/fonts.conf}}.
 
Fontconfig lets every user configure the order they want via {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/fontconfig/fonts.conf}}.
 
If you want a particular Chinese font to be selected after your favorite Serif font, your file would look like this:
 
If you want a particular Chinese font to be selected after your favorite Serif font, your file would look like this:
 +
 
  <?xml version="1.0"?>
 
  <?xml version="1.0"?>
 
  <!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM "fonts.dtd">
 
  <!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM "fonts.dtd">
Line 526: Line 490:
 
  </fontconfig>
 
  </fontconfig>
  
You can add a section for Sans-serif and monospaced as well. For more informations, have a look at the fontconfig manual.
+
{{Tip|If you use a Chinese locale, set {{ic|LC_LANG}} to {{ic|und}} to make this work. Otherwise both English and Chinese text will be rendered in the Chinese font.}}
 +
 
 +
You can add a section for sans-serif and monospace as well. For more information, have a look at the fontconfig manual.
 +
 
 +
See also [[Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts]].
  
 
== Font alias ==
 
== Font alias ==
In Linux there are several font aliases which represent other fonts in order that applications may use similar fonts. The most common aliases are: {{ic|serif}} for a font of the serif type (e.g. DejaVu Serif); {{ic|sans-serif}} for a font of the sans-serif type (e.g. DejaVu Sans); and {{ic|monospace}} for a monospaced font (e.g. DejaVu Sans Mono). However, the fonts which these aliases represent may vary and the relationship is often not shown in font management tools such as those found in KDE and other desktop environments.
+
 
 +
There are several font aliases which represent other fonts in order that applications may use similar fonts. The most common aliases are: {{ic|serif}} for a font of the serif type (e.g. DejaVu Serif); {{ic|sans-serif}} for a font of the sans-serif type (e.g. DejaVu Sans); and {{ic|monospace}} for a monospaced font (e.g. DejaVu Sans Mono). However, the fonts which these aliases represent may vary and the relationship is often not shown in font management tools, such as those found in [[KDE]] and other [[desktop environments]].
  
 
To reverse an alias and find which font it is representing, run:
 
To reverse an alias and find which font it is representing, run:
$ fc-match monospace
 
DejaVuSansMono.ttf: "DejaVu Sans Mono" "Book"
 
  
In this case {{ic|DejaVuSansMono.ttf}} is the font represented by the monospace alias.
+
{{hc|$ fc-match monospace|
 +
DejaVuSansMono.ttf: "DejaVu Sans Mono" "Book"
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
In this case, {{ic|DejaVuSansMono.ttf}} is the font represented by the monospace alias.
 +
 
 +
== Tips and tricks ==
 +
 
 +
=== List all installed fonts ===
 +
 
 +
You can use the following command to list all installed Fontconfig fonts that are available on your system.
 +
 
 +
$ fc-list
 +
 
 +
=== Lists installed fonts for a particular language ===
 +
 
 +
Applications and browsers select and display fonts depending upon fontconfig preferences and available font glyph for Unicode text. To list installed fonts for a particular language, issue a command {{ic|<nowiki>fc-list :lang="two letter language code"</nowiki>}}. For instance, to list installed Arabic fonts or fonts supporting Arabic glyph:
 +
{{hc|$ fc-list -f '%{file}\n' :lang&#61;ar|2=
 +
<nowiki>
 +
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/FreeMono.ttf
 +
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/DejaVuSansCondensed.ttf
 +
/usr/share/fonts/truetype/custom/DroidKufi-Bold.ttf
 +
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/DejaVuSansMono.ttf
 +
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/FreeSerif.ttf
 +
</nowiki>
 +
}}
 +
 
 +
=== Set terminal font on-the-fly ===
 +
 
 +
{{Expansion|Which terminals specifically support this method? Where is the documentation for the escape codes?}}
 +
 
 +
For terminal emulators that use {{ic|Xresources}}, fonts can be set by using escape sequences. Specifically, {{ic|echo -e "\033]710;$font\007"}} to change the normal font ({{ic|*font}} in {{ic|~/.Xresources}}), and replace {{ic|710}} with {{ic|711}}, {{ic|712}}, and {{ic|713}} to change the {{ic|*boldFont}}, {{ic|*italicFont}}, and {{ic|*boldItalicFont}}, respectively.
 +
 
 +
{{ic|$font}} uses the same syntax as in {{ic|~/.Xresources}} and can be anything the terminal emulator will support. (Example: {{ic|1=xft:dejavu sans mono:size=9}})
 +
 
 +
=== Application-specific font cache ===
  
== Hints ==
+
Matplotlib ({{pkg|python-matplotlib}} or {{pkg|python2-matplotlib}}) uses its own font cache, so after updating fonts, be sure to remove {{ic|~/.matplotlib/fontList.cache}},
=== Install fonts from official repositories ===
+
{{ic|~/.cache/matplotlib/fontList.cache}}, {{ic|~/.sage/matplotlib-1.2.1/fontList.cache}}, etc. so it will regenerate its cache and find the new fonts [http://matplotlib.1069221.n5.nabble.com/getting-matplotlib-to-recognize-a-new-font-td40500.html].
Maybe you want to install all fonts available in ''official repositories''.
 
;All fonts:
 
$ pacman -S $(pacman -Ssq font)
 
;All ''TrueType'' fonts:
 
$ pacman -S $(pacman -Ssq ttf)
 
  
== See Also ==
+
== See also ==
  
* [[Font Configuration]]
+
* [http://behdad.org/text/ State of Text Rendering]
 +
* [https://fontlibrary.org/en Font Library] - Fonts under Free licenses
 +
* [https://screenshots.debian.net/packages?search=fonts&show=with Fonts on screenshots.debian.net]

Latest revision as of 12:28, 18 May 2018

From Wikipedia:Computer font: "A computer font (or font) is an electronic data file containing a set of glyphs, characters, or symbols such as dingbats."

Note that certain font licenses may impose some legal limitations.

Font formats

Most computer fonts used today are in either bitmap or outline data formats.

Bitmap fonts
Consist of a matrix of dots or pixels representing the image of each glyph in each face and size.
Outline or vector fonts
Use Bézier curves, drawing instructions and mathematical formulae to describe each glyph, which make the character outlines scalable to any size.

Bitmap formats

These formats can also be gzipped. See #Bitmap for the available bitmap fonts.

Outline formats

  • PostScript fonts by Adobe – has various formats, e.g: Printer Font ASCII (PFA) and Printer Font Binary (PFB)
  • TrueType by Apple and Microsoft (file extension: ttf)
  • OpenType by Microsoft, built on TrueType (file extensions: otf, ttf)

For most purposes, the technical differences between TrueType and OpenType can be ignored.

Other formats

The typesetting application, TeX, and its companion font software, Metafont, render characters using their own methods. Some of the file extensions used for fonts by these two programs are *pk, *gf, mf and vf.

FontForge (fontforge), a font editing application, can store fonts in its native text-based format, sfd, spline font database.

The SVG format also has its own font description method.

Installation

There are various methods for installing fonts.

Pacman

Fonts and font collections in the enabled repositories can be installed using pacman.

Available fonts may be found by querying packages (e.g. for font or ttf).

Creating a package

You should give pacman the ability to manage your fonts, which is done by creating an Arch package. These can also be shared with the community in the AUR. The packages to install fonts are particularly similar; simply taking an existing package as template should work well. To learn about how to modify it for your font, please refer to Creating packages.

The family name of a font file can be aquired with the use of fc-query for example: fc-query -f '%{family[0]}\n' /path/to/file. The formatting is described in the FcPatternFormat(3) manual.

Manual installation

The recommended way of adding fonts that are not in the repositories to your system is described in #Creating a package. This gives pacman the ability to remove or update them at a later time. Fonts can alternately be installed manually as well.

To install fonts system-wide (available for all users), move the folder to the /usr/share/fonts/ directory. The files need to be readable by every user, use chmod to set the correct permissions (i.e. at least 0444 for files and 0555 for directories). To install fonts for only a single user, use ~/.local/share/fonts (~/.fonts/ is now deprecated).

For Xserver to load fonts directly (as opposed to the use of a font server) the directory for your newly added font must be added with a FontPath entry. This entry is located in the Files section of your Xorg configuration file (e.g. /etc/X11/xorg.conf or /etc/xorg.conf). See #Older applications for more detail.

Then update the fontconfig font cache: (usually unnecessary as software using the fontconfig library do this.)

$ fc-cache

Older applications

With older applications that do not support fontconfig (e.g. GTK+ 1.x applications, and xfontsel) the index will need to be created in the font directory:

$ mkfontscale
$ mkfontdir

Or to include more than one folder with one command:

$ for dir in /font/dir1/ /font/dir2/; do xset +fp $dir; done && xset fp rehash

Or if fonts were installed in a different sub-folders under the e.g. /usr/share/fonts:

$ for dir in * ; do if [  -d  "$dir"  ]; then cd "$dir";xset +fp "$PWD" ;mkfontscale; mkfontdir;cd .. ;fi; done && xset fp rehash

At times the X server may fail to load the fonts directory and you will need to rescan all the fonts.dir files:

# xset +fp /usr/share/fonts/misc # Inform the X server of new directories
# xset fp rehash                # Forces a new rescan

To check that the font(s) is included:

$ xlsfonts | grep fontname
Note: Many packages will automatically configure Xorg to use the font upon installation. If that is the case with your font, this step is not necessary.

This can also be set globally in /etc/X11/xorg.conf or /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d.

Here is an example of the section that must be added to /etc/X11/xorg.conf. Add or remove paths based on your particular font requirements.

# Let X.Org know about the custom font directories
Section "Files"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cantarell"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cyrillic"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/encodings"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/truetype"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/util"
EndSection

Pango Warnings

When Pango is in use on your system it will read from fontconfig to sort out where to source fonts.

(process:5741): Pango-WARNING **: failed to choose a font, expect ugly output. engine-type='PangoRenderFc', script='common'
(process:5741): Pango-WARNING **: failed to choose a font, expect ugly output. engine-type='PangoRenderFc', script='latin'

If you are seeing errors similar to this and/or seeing blocks instead of characters in your application then you need to add fonts and update the font cache. This example uses the ttf-liberation fonts to illustrate the solution (after successful installation of the package) and runs as root to enable them system-wide.

# fc-cache
/usr/share/fonts: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 3 dirs
/usr/share/fonts/TTF: caching, new cache contents: 16 fonts, 0 dirs
/usr/share/fonts/encodings: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 1 dirs
/usr/share/fonts/encodings/large: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
/usr/share/fonts/util: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
/var/cache/fontconfig: cleaning cache directory
fc-cache: succeeded

You can test for a default font being set like so:

# fc-match
LiberationMono-Regular.ttf: "Liberation Mono" "Regular"

Console fonts

Note: This section is about the Linux console. For alternative console solutions offering more features (full Unicode fonts, modern graphics adapters etc.), see fbterm, KMSCON or similar projects.

By default, the virtual console uses the kernel built-in font with a CP437 character set,[1] but this can be easily changed.

The Linux console uses UTF-8 encoding by default, but because the standard VGA-compatible framebuffer is used, a console font is limited to either a standard 256, or 512 glyphs. If the font has more than 256 glyphs, the number of colours is reduced from 16 to 8. In order to assign correct symbol to be displayed to the given Unicode value, a special translation map, often called unimap, is needed. Nowadays most of the console fonts have the unimap built-in; historically, it had to be loaded separately.

The kbd package provides tools to change virtual console font and font mapping. Available fonts are saved in the /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/ directory, those ending with .psfu or .psfu.gz have a Unicode translation map built-in.

Keymaps, the connection between the key pressed and the character used by the computer, are found in the subdirectories of /usr/share/kbd/keymaps/, see Keyboard configuration in console for details.

Note: Replacing the font can cause issues with programs that expect a standard VGA-style font, such as those using line drawing graphics.
Tip: For European based languages written in Latin/Greek letters you can use eurlatgr font, it includes a broad range of Latin/Greek letter variations as well as special characters [2].

Preview and temporary changes

Tip: An organized library of images for previewing is available: Linux console fonts screenshots.
$ showconsolefont

shows a table of glyphs or letters of a font.

setfont temporarily change the font if passed a font name (in /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/) such as

$ setfont lat2-16 -m 8859-2

Font names are case-sensitive. With no parameter, setfont returns the console to the default font.

Tip: All font changing commands can be typed in "blind".
Note: setfont only works on the console currently being used. Any other consoles, active or inactive, remain unaffected.

Persistent configuration

The FONT variable in /etc/vconsole.conf is used to set the font at boot, persistently for all consoles. See vconsole.conf(5) for details.

For displaying characters such as Č, ž, đ, š or Ł, ę, ą, ś using the font lat2-16.psfu.gz:

/etc/vconsole.conf
...
FONT=lat2-16
FONT_MAP=8859-2

It means that second part of ISO/IEC 8859 characters are used with size 16. You can change font size using other values (e.g. lat2-08). For the regions determined by 8859 specification, look at the Wikipedia:ISO/IEC 8859#The parts of ISO/IEC 8859.

To use the specified font in early userspace, use the consolefont hook in /etc/mkinitcpio.conf. See Mkinitcpio#HOOKS for more information.

If the fonts seems to not change on boot, or change only temporarily, it is most likely that they got reset when graphics driver was initialized and console was switched to framebuffer. To avoid this, load your graphics driver earlier. See for example Kernel mode setting#Early KMS start, [3] or other ways to setup your framebuffer before /etc/vconsole.conf is applied.

Font packages

This is a selective list that includes many font packages from the AUR along with those in the official repositories. Fonts are tagged "Unicode" if they have wide Unicode support, see the project or Wikipedia pages for detail.

The Archfonts Python script can be used to generate an overview of all the TTF fonts found in the official repositories / the AUR (the image generation is done using ttf2pngAUR).

Bitmap

Latin script

Families

Legacy Microsoft font packages:

  • Microsoft fonts (ttf-ms-fontsAUR) – Andalé Mono, Courier New, Arial, Arial Black, Comic Sans, Impact, Lucida Sans, Microsoft Sans Serif, Trebuchet, Verdana, Georgia, Times New Roman
  • Vista fonts (ttf-vista-fontsAUR) – Consolas, Calibri, Candara, Corbel, Cambria, Constantia

Monospaced

For more monospaced fonts see #Bitmap and #Families.

Relevant websites:

Sans-serif

Serif

Unsorted

Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements.Tango-edit-clear.png

Reason: This section should be absorbed into the Monospace/Serif/Sans-Serif structure (Discuss in Talk:Fonts#)

Non-latin scripts

Ancient Scripts

  • ttf-ancient-fontsAUR - Font containing Unicode symbols for Aegean, Egyptian, Cuneiform, Anatolian, Maya, and Analecta scripts

Arabic

Braille

Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese

Pan-CJK
  • adobe source han fonts

Large collection of fonts which comprehensively support Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, with a consistent design and look.

  • noto-fonts-cjk - Large collection of fonts which comprehensively support Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, with a consistent design and look. It is currently a rebadged version of adobe-source-han-sans-otc-fonts.
Chinese
  • noto Chinese fonts
  • wqy fonts
    • wqy-microhei - WenQuanYi Micro Hei font family (also known as Hei, Gothic or Dotum) is a sans-serif style derived from Droid Sans Fallback, it offers high quality CJK outline font and it is extremely compact (~5M).
    • wqy-zenhei - Hei Ti Style (sans-serif) Chinese Outline font embedded with bitmapped Song Ti (also supporting Japanese (partial) and Korean characters).
    • wqy-bitmapfont - Bitmapped Song Ti (serif) Chinese font.
  • Standart fonts of the Republic of China ministry of education in Taiwan
    • ttf-twAUR - Kai and Song traditional Chinese font from the Ministry of Education of Taiwan
    • ttf-twcns-fontsAUR Chinese TrueType fonts by Ministry of Education of Taiwan government, support CNS11643 standard, including Kai and Sung fontface.
  • ttf-i.bmingAUR - CJK serif font that emphasis on an old-style typeface.
Japanese
  • adobe-source-han-sans-jp-fonts - Japanese OpenType/CFF fonts
  • otf-ipafont - Formal style Japanese Gothic (sans-serif) and Mincho (serif) fonts set; one of the highest quality open source font. Default of openSUSE-ja.
  • ttf-hanazono - A free Japanese kanji font, style Mincho (serif).
  • ttf-sazanami - Japanese free TrueType font. This is outdated and not maintained any more, but may be defined as a fallback font on several environments.
  • ttf-koruriAUR - Japanese TrueType font obtained by mixing ttf-mplusAUR and Open Sans
  • ttf-monapoAUR - Japanese fonts to show 2channel Shift JIS art properly.
  • ttf-mplusAUR - Modern Gothic style Japanese outline fonts. It includes all of Japanese Hiragana/Katakana, Basic Latin, Latin-1 Supplement, Latin Extended-A, IPA Extensions and most of Japanese Kanji, Greek, Cyrillic, Vietnamese with 7 weights (proportional) or 5 weights (monospace).
  • ttf-vlgothicAUR - Japanese Gothic fonts. Default of Debian/Fedora/Vine Linux
Korean
Vietnamese
  • ttf-hannom - Vietnamese TrueType font for chữ Nôm characters

Cyrillic

See also #Latin script.

  • ttf-paratypeAUR - Font family by ParaType: sans, serif, mono, extended cyrillic and latin, OFL license
  • otf-russkopisAUR - A free OpenType cursive font for Cyrillic script

Greek

Almost all Unicode fonts contain the Greek character set (polytonic included). Some additional font packages, which might not contain the complete Unicode set but utilize high quality Greek (and Latin, of course) typefaces are:

  • otf-gfsAUR - Selection of OpenType fonts from the Greek Font Society
  • ttf-mgopenAUR - Professional TrueType fonts from Magenta

Hebrew

  • culmusAUR - Nice collection of free Hebrew fonts

Indic

Khmer

Mongolic and Tungusic

  • ttf-abkaiAUR - Fonts for Sibe, Manchu and Daur scripts (incomplete, currently in development)

Persian

Tai–Kadai

  • fonts-tlwg - Collection of scalable Thai fonts
  • ttf-laoAUR - Lao TTF font (Phetsarath_OT)
  • ttf-lao-fontsAUR - Lao TTF fonts, both Unicode and non-Unicode for Windows

Tibeto-Burman

Emoji and symbols

A section of the Unicode standard is designated for pictographic characters called "emoji".

Kaomoji are sometimes referred to as "Japanese emoticons" and are composed of characters from various character sets, including CJK and Indic fonts. For example, the following set of packages covers most of existing kaomoji: ttf-freefont, ttf-arphic-uming, and ttf-indic-otf.

Math

Other operating system fonts

See Metric-compatible fonts, which lists available alternatives for Microsoft fonts.

Fallback font order with X11

Fontconfig automatically chooses a font that matches the current requirement. That is to say, if one is looking at a window containing English and Chinese for example, it will switch to another font for the Chinese text if the default one does not support it.

Fontconfig lets every user configure the order they want via $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/fontconfig/fonts.conf. If you want a particular Chinese font to be selected after your favorite Serif font, your file would look like this:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM "fonts.dtd">
<fontconfig>
<alias>
   <family>serif</family>
   <prefer>
     <family>Your favorite Latin Serif font name</family>
     <family>Your Chinese font name</family>
   </prefer>
 </alias>
</fontconfig>
Tip: If you use a Chinese locale, set LC_LANG to und to make this work. Otherwise both English and Chinese text will be rendered in the Chinese font.

You can add a section for sans-serif and monospace as well. For more information, have a look at the fontconfig manual.

See also Font configuration#Replace or set default fonts.

Font alias

There are several font aliases which represent other fonts in order that applications may use similar fonts. The most common aliases are: serif for a font of the serif type (e.g. DejaVu Serif); sans-serif for a font of the sans-serif type (e.g. DejaVu Sans); and monospace for a monospaced font (e.g. DejaVu Sans Mono). However, the fonts which these aliases represent may vary and the relationship is often not shown in font management tools, such as those found in KDE and other desktop environments.

To reverse an alias and find which font it is representing, run:

$ fc-match monospace
DejaVuSansMono.ttf: "DejaVu Sans Mono" "Book"

In this case, DejaVuSansMono.ttf is the font represented by the monospace alias.

Tips and tricks

List all installed fonts

You can use the following command to list all installed Fontconfig fonts that are available on your system.

$ fc-list

Lists installed fonts for a particular language

Applications and browsers select and display fonts depending upon fontconfig preferences and available font glyph for Unicode text. To list installed fonts for a particular language, issue a command fc-list :lang="two letter language code". For instance, to list installed Arabic fonts or fonts supporting Arabic glyph:

$ fc-list -f '%{file}\n' :lang=ar
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/FreeMono.ttf
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/DejaVuSansCondensed.ttf
/usr/share/fonts/truetype/custom/DroidKufi-Bold.ttf
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/DejaVuSansMono.ttf
/usr/share/fonts/TTF/FreeSerif.ttf

Set terminal font on-the-fly

Tango-view-fullscreen.pngThis article or section needs expansion.Tango-view-fullscreen.png

Reason: Which terminals specifically support this method? Where is the documentation for the escape codes? (Discuss in Talk:Fonts#)

For terminal emulators that use Xresources, fonts can be set by using escape sequences. Specifically, echo -e "\033]710;$font\007" to change the normal font (*font in ~/.Xresources), and replace 710 with 711, 712, and 713 to change the *boldFont, *italicFont, and *boldItalicFont, respectively.

$font uses the same syntax as in ~/.Xresources and can be anything the terminal emulator will support. (Example: xft:dejavu sans mono:size=9)

Application-specific font cache

Matplotlib (python-matplotlib or python2-matplotlib) uses its own font cache, so after updating fonts, be sure to remove ~/.matplotlib/fontList.cache, ~/.cache/matplotlib/fontList.cache, ~/.sage/matplotlib-1.2.1/fontList.cache, etc. so it will regenerate its cache and find the new fonts [4].

See also