Fonts (Español)

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Introducción

La instalación estándar de un escritorio en Arch Linux nos proporcionará un gran soporte de fuentes, con las últimas versiones estables de X org, X server, freetype2 (con el intérprete bytecode habilitado) y fontconfig. Para más información sobre la configuración de fuentes, podéis visitar Configuración de fuentes.

Diferentes clases de fuentes

En Linux existen varias clases de fuentes.

  • fuentes bitmap (.pcf .bdf .pcf.gz .bdf.gz)
  • fuentes PostScript (.pfa .pfb)

(pfa:formato ascii; pfb:formato binario)

  • fuentes TrueType/OpenType (.ttf)

Instalando fuentes

En un sistema Linux moderno, añadir e instalar fuentes resulta mucho más fácil que antes. Veremos a continuación algunos consejos que harán el proceso más claro y asequible para el usuario medio. En primer lugar hemos de plantearnos el lugar donde se guardarán las nuevas fuentes. En general, los directorios más usados son:

  • /usr/share/fonts
  • /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts

De esta manera todos los usuarios del sistema tendrán acceso a ellas (siempre bajo privilegios de root). Copiarlas a ~/.fonts puede ser también una buena idea.

En Arch Linux disponemos de algunas colecciones de fuentes ya preempaquetadas. Para buscarlas podemos ejecutar

pacman -Ss fonts

Entre los paquetes disponibles podemos encontrar

extra/artwiz-fonts 1.3-3
 This is set of (improved) artwiz fonts.
extra/ttf-ms-fonts 2.0-1
 Un-extracted TTF Fonts from Microsoft

Para la instalación de los paquetes hacemos:

pacman -S artwiz-fonts ttf-ms-fonts

De esta manera, las fuentes quedarán bajo el directorio /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts. Se recomienda a los usuarios CJK (chinos, japoneses y coreanos) la instalación de ttf-arphic-uming, ttf-arphic-ukai y ttf-fireflysung para una visualización apropiada

Otra opción podría ser el uso de KDE Font Installer, en KDE Control Center. Funciona perfectamente para aquellos que usen KDE. Además, las fuentes pueden ser instaladas manualmente bajo los tres directorios arriba especificados. En ese caso, como root hemos de hacer

fc-cache -vf

{translate_me}

Configuración

FreeType autohinter (optional)

You can set the FreeType autohinter. As root :

ln -s /etc/fonts/conf.avail/10-autohint.conf /etc/fonts/conf.d/10-autohint.conf

Disable Unattractive Bitmap Fonts (optional)

Edit ~/.fonts.conf with the following content:

   <selectfont>
       <rejectfont>
           <pattern>
               <patelt name="scalable">
                   <bool>false</bool>
               </patelt>
           </pattern>
       </rejectfont>
   </selectfont>

Restart X11 (ctrl+alt+backspace)

At this point if you think fonts look too bold, modify the fonts configuration file: edit (or create if it doesn't exist yet) the file ~/.fonts.conf with the following content:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM "fonts.dtd">
<fontconfig>
<match target="font" >
<test compare="more" name="weight">
<const>medium</const>
</test>
<edit mode="assign" name="autohint">
<bool>false</bool>
</edit>
</match>
</fontconfig>

FAQ

Q. My fonts are too large or too small. The resolution seems wrong. My fonts are mis-shapen.

A(1). Read the Display Size/DPI section of Xorg for configuration sample settings and formula.

A(2). Get your proper resolution from a console, by typing:

xdpyinfo | grep resolution

Change the value to this in the Gnome font configurator. Restart X. Sometimes, the videocard gives bogus information to X. It may be better to settle on a value between 72-78 DPI for 1024x768 displays. 96 DPI is a good value for 1280x1024, but it depends on the exact resolution. I actually prefer 75 on my home machine, and the font sizes seem to be a bit more true to their proper sizes when this is set. In most cases, if the numbers don't match, you may use the following method.

You may also opt to force X to start with a forced resolution. This may produce good results in some display modes. For example, you may use:

startx -- -dpi 75

This will force X to start in 75x75 DPI mode. You may change your Gnome font settings (From the menu: Applications/Desktop Preferences/Font) to 75 DPI and you should get a good match.

If this worked well for you, you may edit your "startx" script to always force this option on startup. Edit the file "/usr/bin/startx" as root.

Change the following line:

defaultserverargs=""

to...

defaultserverargs="-dpi 75"

Q. How do I install fonts?

A. An easy way to install fonts is to drop them into your "$HOME/.fonts" directory and running "fc-cache". You can also perform a system-wide font installation by copying the fonts to "/usr/share/fonts" or another font directory (as long as it is listed in your "/etc/fonts/fonts.conf" file), and then performing the "fc-cache" command as root. You may also need to run "ttmkfdir" or "mkfontdir" as well.

Q. The fonts in GNU Emacs are displayed as squares.

A. You need to install the xorg-fonts-75dpi or xorg-fonts-100dpi package.

Q. The fonts in OpenOffice.org look very bad.

A. If we have a bug/font-issue in the openoffice-base package, using the original rpm-packages from the office website will allways work. "Bad fonts are a thing of the past with the newest version (2.3.1)." (http://www.stchman.com/tweaks.html).

Note that OpenOffice.org for Linux ships with an (inferior) copy of freetype2 that are built directly into the code. In the past you could force it to link to your system's, shared, freetype2 by setting the following before starting the suit.

export LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/xorg/modules/fonts/libfreetype.so

The (Jan 2008) above is reported to not work anymore but at qa.openoffice.org a patch to do this bypass is emering.

Q. The OpenOffice.org menu font looks really bad. It doesn't use antialiasing either.

A. This can be changed in the OpenOffice.org configurator. From the drop-down menu, select "Tools/Options/OpenOffice.org/Fonts". Check the box that says "Apply Replacement Table". Type "Andale Sans UI" in the font box (this may have to be input manually, if it doesn't appear in the drop-down menu) and choose your desired font for the "Replace With" option. Dropline users may prefer the system default, "Trebuchet MS". When selected, click the checkmark box. Then choose the "always" and "screen" options in the box below. Apply the changes, and your menu fonts should look great.

Q. OpenOffice.org doesn't detect my TrueType fonts!

A. Make sure that you add the appropriate entry in your /etc/X11/xorg.conf file that points your programs to the /usr/share/fonts/ directory.

For example, here's a sample of an xorg.conf file

Section "Files"
    RgbPath         "/usr/share/X11/rgb"
    ModulePath      "/usr/lib/xorg/modules"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/Type1"
EndSection

Another solution is to run the openoffice administration tool

# /opt/openoffice/program/spadmin

from which you can add fonts.

Q. Mozilla and other programs can no longer access TrueType fonts on my system, and are reverting to ugly fonts instead.

A. Make sure the "freetype" module is loaded in your /etc/X11/xorg.conf file and your /usr/share/fonts/TTF/fonts.dir lists all of the TrueType fonts you have installed.

Try checking your "Files" section of your xorg.conf, and make sure that you have all (or most) of these directories listed.

Section "Files"
    RgbPath         "/usr/share/X11/rgb"
    ModulePath      "/usr/lib/xorg/modules"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/Type1"
EndSection

Finally, go to the following font directories:

/usr/share/fonts/TTF
/usr/share/fonts

Try deleting the "fonts.dir" and "fonts.scale" files in these directories. You may want to make backups first though. Run these commands to replace them.

mkfontscale
mkfontdir

Make sure you restart X for the changes to come into effect.

Q. What are some suggested font settings for Mozilla/Firefox?

A. These are recommended for Firefox:

Proportional: Serif   Size (pixels): 16
Serif: Times New Roman
Sans-serif: Arial
Monospace: Courier New   Size (pixels): 13
Display resolution: System settings
  • Note: Times New Roman may appear to be a non-TTF font. If this is the case, read above about how to fix this.

I believe that the following are Dropline's Mozilla defaults (also recommended):

Proportional: Serif   Size (pixels): 14
Serif: Times New Roman
Sans-serif: Verdana
Cursive: Andale Mono
Fantasy: Andale Mono
Monospace: Courier New   Size (pixels): 11
Allow Documents to use other fonts: Enabled
Display resolution: System settings

Q. Why do my Apps show squares when there should be arrows and the like?

A. It may help to activate bitmap fonts. They are disabled by default.

cd /etc/fonts/conf.d
rm 10-bitmaps.conf
ln -s yes-bitmaps.conf 10-bitmaps.conf
cd -

If you think your fonts look ugly now then consider to remove the following packages.

pacman -Rs xorg-fonts-100dpi xorg-fonts-75dpi

Read here and here for some background info.

Q: I just upgraded via pacman -Syu and my fonts are all ugly

A: There are several possible conflicting issues here. See these threads:

1 - http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?t=866

2 - http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?t=4975