Difference between revisions of "Fonts (Italiano)"

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[[Category:Graphics and DTP (Italiano)]]
 
[[Category:Graphics and DTP (Italiano)]]
 
[[Category:HOWTOs (Italiano)]]
 
[[Category:HOWTOs (Italiano)]]
[[Category:Eye candy (Italiano)]]
 
{{i18n|Fonts}}
 
{{Bad translation}}
 
  
{{Article summary start}}
+
{{translateme}}
{{Article summary text|Documenta l'installazione e l'utilizzo dei Fonts su Arch Linux.}}
+
{{Nota|Questo articolo è in fase di traduzione. Seguite per ora le istruzioni della versione inglese.}}
{{Article summary heading|Legal}}
+
 
{{Article summary text|Certi pacchetti font possono imporre ''alcune'' limitazioni legali.}}
+
{{i18n|Fonts}}
{{Article summary heading|Articoli collegati}}
+
{{Article summary start|Sommario}}
{{Article summary wiki|MS Fonts}}
+
{{Article summary text|Documenta l'installazione e l'utilizzo dei Fonts su Arch Linux}}
{{Article summary wiki|Xorg Font Configuration}}
+
{{Article summary heading|Note legali}}
 +
{{Article summary text|Certi pacchetti font possono imporre ''alcune'' limitazioni legali}}
 +
{{Article summary heading|Articoli correlati}}
 +
{{Article summary wiki|Font Configuration (Italiano)}}: Configurazione dei carattere e abbellimento
 +
{{Article summary wiki|Java Fonts - Sun JRE}}: Caratteri specifici su sistemi Java (Sun)
 +
{{Article summary wiki|MS Fonts}}: Aggiunta dei caratteri Microsoft e configurazione ottimale
 
{{Article summary end}}
 
{{Article summary end}}
 +
== Font formats ==
  
= Introduzione =
+
La maggior parte dei font usati oggi dai computer sono sia in formato ''bitmap'' che ''outline''. I font Bitmap archiviano immagini fisse per ogni glifo, di ogni dimensione e tipo, per carattere e punto. Outline or ''vector'' fonts store characters as instructions for drawing each glyph's lines and curves. Outline fonts scale smoothly in size over a wide range.
Un'installazione standard di Arch Linux fornisce un eccellente supporto ai fonts, con gli ultimi rilasci stabili del server X.org, di freetype2 (con abilitato l'interprete bytecode) e fontconfig. Per ulteriori informazioni sulla configurazione dei font, fare riferimento a: '''[[Xorg Font Configuration | Font Configuration]]'''
+
== Tipi differenti di Fonts ==
+
Esistono differenti tipi di caratteri per Linux.
+
  
* caratteri bitmap (.pcf .bdf .pcf.gz .bdf.gz)
+
Le estensioni comuni nei nomi dei font comprendono:
  
* caratteri PostScript (.pfa .pfb) <br>''(pfa: formato ascii; pfb: formato binario)''
+
* {{Codeline|bdf}} and {{Codeline|bdf.gz}} – bitmap fonts, ''b''itmap ''d''istribution ''f''ormat and gzip compressed {{Codeline|bdf}}
 +
* {{Codeline|pcf}} and {{Codeline|pcf.gz}} – bitmaps, ''p''ortable ''c''ompiled ''f''ont and gzip compressed {{Codeline|pcf}}
 +
* {{Codeline|psf}}, {{Codeline|psfu}}, {{Codeline|psf.gz}} and {{Codeline|psfu.gz}} – bitmaps, ''P''C ''s''creen ''f''ont, ''P''C ''s''creen ''f''ont ''U''nicode and the gzipped versions (not compatible with Xorg)
 +
* {{Codeline|pfa}} and {{Codeline|pfb}} – outline fonts, ''P''ostScript ''f''ont ''A''SCII and ''P''ostScript ''f''ont ''b''inary. PostScript fonts carry built-in printer instructions.
 +
* {{Codeline|ttf}} – outline, ''T''rue''T''ype ''f''ont. Originally designed as a replacement for the PostScript fonts.
 +
* {{Codeline|otf}} – outline, ''O''pen''T''ype ''f''ont. TrueType with PostScript typographic instructions.
  
* caratteri TrueType/OpenType (.ttf) <br>''(fonts OpenType con degli outline quadratici hanno anch'essi il suffisso .ttf)''
+
Nella maggior parte dei casi, le differenze tecniche tra TrueType e OpenType possono essere ignorate, alcuni font con un'estensione {{codeline | ttf}} sono in realtà i font OpenType.
  
* caratteri PostScript flavored OpenType (.otf)
+
=== Altri formati ===
  
* caratteri TeX bitmap (.pk) <br>''(di solito generati automaticamente dalla sorgente METAFONT .mf)''
+
The typesetting application, ''TeX,'' and its companion font software, ''Metafont,'' render characters using their own methods. Some of the file extensions used for fonts by these two programs are {{Codeline|*pk}}, {{Codeline|*gf}}, {{Codeline|mf}} and {{Codeline|vf}}.
  
* caratteri TeX virtuali (.vf)
+
''FontForge,'' a font editing application, can store fonts in its native text-based format, {{Codeline|sfd}}, ''s''pline ''f''ont ''d''atabase.
  
== Installare i fonts ==
+
== Installazione ==
  
Aggiungere font ad un sistema moderno Linux è molto più semplice che nelle prime distribuzioni. Qui sono riportati alcuni consigli per rendere il funzionamento semplice per la maggior parte degli utenti.
+
Vari metodi di installazione dei font.
Solitamente, per aggiungere un set di font al sistema, basta copiare i files necessari nelle directory seguenti:
+
* /usr/share/fonts
+
* /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts
+
In questo modo ogni utente sulla macchina avrà a disposizione i font installati.
+
{{Note| copiare i font nelle directory sopra riportate richiede i privilegi da amministratore. Eseguite la copia da root o attraverso [[sudo]] se installato}}
+
  
Copiare i temi anche nella directory:
+
=== Pacman ===
* ~/.fonts
+
costituisce una buona idea.
+
  
Alcune collezioni di font sono già state preparate per gli utenti di Archlinux. Potete reperirle cercandole in pacman (o [[yaourt]] se installato):
+
Font specifici e collezioni di font possono essere installati dai nei repository abilitati utilizzando [[Pacman|pacman]]. I font disponibili possono essere trovati utilizzando:
<pre>pacman -Ss fonts</pre>
+
$ pacman -Ss font
Tra i pacchetti trovati potrete trovare (ad esempio):
+
O per ricercare solo i font {{Codeline|ttf}}:
<pre>extra/artwiz-fonts 1.3-4
+
$ pacman -Ss ttf
    This is set of (improved) artwiz fonts.
+
extra/ttf-ms-fonts 2.0-2
+
    Un-extracted TTF fonts from Microsoft
+
</pre>
+
Se volete installare questi due set di font, eseguite il seguente comando:
+
<pre>pacman -S artwiz-fonts ttf-ms-fonts</pre>
+
Quest'ordine installerà i due set di font nella directory {{Filename|/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts}}.
+
Gli utenti CJK (Cinesi/Giapponesi/Coreani) dovrebbero anche installare i font ''ttf-arphic-uming'', ''ttf-arphic-ukai'' e ''ttf-fireflysung'' per mostrare i caratteri asiatici in modo appropriato.
+
  
Un'altra valida opzione è quella di utilizzare l'Installatore di Font, situato nel Centro di Controllo di KDE. Questa opzione risolve egregiamente l'installazione dei font, a patto che abbiate, ovviamente, KDE installato.
+
Alcuni font come <i>terminus</i> sono installati in {{Filename|/usr/share/fonts/local}}, che non viene aggiunto al percorso dei font di default. Aggiungendo le seguenti righe a {{Filename|~/.xinitrc}}
 
+
<pre>
Terza e ultima opzione, sconsigliata, è quella di copiare direttamente i file font nelle cartelle sopra riportate. Ricordatevi di possedere i privilegi di amministratore : <pre>fc-cache -vf</pre>
+
xset +fp /usr/share/fonts/local
 
+
xset fp rehash
Queste tre opzioni funzionano nella maggior parte dei casi con gli ambienti desktop GNOME, KDE e XFCE4 per la maggior parte delle applicazioni. Allo stesso tempo, alcune applicazioni datate o costruite con GTK1 non supportano fontconfig. ''(Qualcuno dovrebbe effettivamente controllare questo problema e cercare di risolverlo.)'' Per aggirare questo inconveniente è necessario eseguire questi comandi nel terminale, assicurandosi di possedere i privilegi da amministratore:
+
  <pre>
+
  mkfontscale
+
  mkfontdir
+
  ln -s /usr/share/fonts/encodings/encodings.dir directoryDelFont/encodings.dir</pre>
+
Inoltre, se usate KDE:
+
  <pre>
+
  ln -s /usr/share/fonts/encodings/encodings.dir ~/.fonts/</pre>
+
A questo punto potete riavviare X.
+
 
+
Se volete condividere dei font (magari di vostra creazione), o volete evitare il ripetersi di questi comandi manuali, potete creare un pacchetto Arch. Salvate i font che volete pronti per l'installazione in un pacchetto .tar.bz2 e usate una variazione (secondo le vostre necessità) del PKGBUILD e del file .install qui sotto riportati:
+
<pre># PKGBUILD
+
  pkgname=fonts-extra
+
  pkgver=1.0
+
  pkgrel=1
+
  depends=('xfree86')
+
  pkgdesc=\"Fonts extra\"
+
  source=(fonts-extra.tar.bz2)
+
  install=fonts-extra.install
+
  build()        {
+
    mkdir -p $startdir/pkg/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/local
+
    mv $startdir/src/*.ttf $startdir/pkg/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/local
+
  }
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
<pre># fonts-extra.install:
+
i font possono essere usati in X11.
  # arg 1:  the new package version
+
  post_install() {
+
    echo -n \"updating font cache... \"
+
    /usr/bin/fc-cache
+
    cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/local
+
    /usr/X11R6/bin/mkfontscale
+
    /usr/X11R6/bin/mkfontdir
+
    ln -s /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/encodings/encodings.dir /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/local/encodings.dir
+
    echo \"done.\"
+
  }
+
  
  # arg 1:  the new package version
+
=== Creazione di un pacchetto ===
  # arg 2:  the old package version
+
  post_upgrade() {
+
    post_install $1
+
  }
+
  
  # arg 1: the old package version
+
Se si vuole dare la possibilità di gestire i font a pacman, è possibile creare un pacchetto per Arch. Questi possono anche essere condivisi con la comunità per mezzo di [[AUR]].  Ecco un esempio di come compilare un pacchetto di base. Per ulteriori informazioni sulla creazione di pacchetti, leggere [[PKGBUILD]].
  pre_remove() {
+
    /bin/true
+
  }
+
  
  op=$1
+
<pre>
  shift
+
pkgname=ttf-fontname
 +
pkgver=1.0
 +
pkgrel=1
 +
depends=('fontconfig' 'xorg-font-utils')
 +
pkgdesc="custom fonts"
 +
arch=('any')
 +
source=(http://someurl.org/$pkgname.tar.bz2)
 +
install=$pkgname.install
  
   $op $*
+
build()
 +
{
 +
   mkdir -p $pkgdir/usr/share/fonts/TTF
 +
  cp $srcdir/$pkgname/*.ttf $pkgdir/usr/share/fonts/TTF
 +
}
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
= Pacchetti di Font in Arch Linux =
+
This PKGBUILD assumes the fonts are TrueType. An install file ({{Filename|ttf-fontname.install}}) will also need to be created to update the font cache:
NB: Questa è una lista selettiva, ma riporta la maggior parte dei font reperibili in [[AUR]].
+
  
* Latin
+
<pre>
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/10296/ '''font-bh-ttf'''] - X.org Luxi fonts
+
post_install() {
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/3722 '''ttf-cheapskate'''] - Collezione di font da ''dustimo.com''
+
  echo -n "Updating font cache... "
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/9336 '''ttf-isabella'''] - Storico ''Isabella font''
+
  fc-cache -fs >/dev/null
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/9337 '''ttf-junicode'''] - Junius font, contenente la maggior parte dei font latino-medievali
+
  mkfontscale /usr/share/fonts/TTF /usr/share/fonts/Type1
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/961 '''ttf-ms-fonts'''] - Font non estratti da ''Microsoft''
+
  mkfontdir /usr/share/fonts/TTF /usr/share/fonts/Type1
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?do_Details=1&ID=5418 '''unsupported/ttf-ms-fonts-lic'''] - Alternativa al precedente
+
  echo "done"
 +
}
  
* Unicode (multiscript)
+
post_upgrade() {
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/11883/ '''ttf-dejavu'''] - DejaVu fonts, estensione di Bitstream Vera
+
  post_install
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/9340/ '''ttf-mph-2b-damase'''] - Copre praticamente tutto il 1° livello e moltissimi scripts
+
}
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=3856 '''unsupported/ttf-sil-fonts'''] - Gentium, Charis, Doulos, Andika and Abyssinica da SIL
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=6608 '''unsupported/ttf-linux-libertine'''] - Rimpiazzo per Times New Roman
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=3673 '''unsupported/ttf-freefont'''] - ''freefont'' (cloni di Times, Helvetica e Courier con un largo supporto Unicode ma di diversa qualità)
+
 
+
* Cyrillic
+
** Vedete la categoria 'Unicode' sopra
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=6265 '''unsupported/ttf-arhangai'''] - Cirillico Mongolo
+
 
+
* Cinese + Giapponese + Coreano
+
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/6831 '''ttf-arphic-ukai'''] -  ''Kaiti'' (colpo di pennello): Font Unicode (suggerita l'attivazione dell'anti-aliasing)
+
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/6832 '''ttf-arphic-uming'''] - ''Mingti'' (stampato) :  Font Unicode
+
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/10092 '''ttf-fireflysung'''] - ''New Sung'' Font
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=14795 '''community/wqy-zenhei'''] - ''wqy-zenhei'' Font cinese in stile A Hei Ti (sans-serif)
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=5303  '''community/wqy-bitmapfont'''] -"wqy-bitmapfont" Font cinese in stile Song Ti (serif)
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?do_Details=1&ID=6792 '''unsupported/acrofont-cht'''] - Set di Font tradizionali cinesi da Acrobat Reader 7.0.8
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=6794 '''unsupported/acrofont-cjk'''] - Pacchetto di font CJK (Cinese/Giapponese/Coreano) per Acrobat Reader 7.0.8
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=6398 '''unsupported/acroread7-chs'''] - Font di cinese semplificato per Adobe Acrobat Reader 7
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=6267 '''usupported/ttf-kochi-substitute'''] - Font TrueType ad Alta Qualità Giapponese
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=6268 '''usupported/ttf-sazanami'''] - Un altro set di Font giapponesi TrueType
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=6266 '''usupported/ttf-baekmuk'''] - Collezione di Font TrueType coreani
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=6264 '''unsupported/ttf-alee'''] - Set of free Hangul truetype fonts
+
 
+
* Arabic
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=4633 '''unsupported/ttf-sil-arabic'''] - Due eccellenti Font Unicode arabici da SIL
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=3680 '''unsupported/arabeyes-fonts'''] - Collezione di Font arabici liberi
+
 
+
* Hebrew
+
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/12690/ '''culmus'''] - Ottima collezione di Font ebrei
+
 
+
* Indic
+
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/6071 '''ttf-freebanglafont'''] - Font per Bangla
+
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/6742 '''ttf-indic-otf'''] - Collezione di font OpenType indi (contiene ttf-freebanglafont)
+
 
+
* Thai
+
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/9331  '''ttf-thai'''] -  Font necessario per i grafi thai
+
 
+
* Khmer
+
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/9338 '''ttf-khmer'''] -  Font necessario per i grafi della lingua Khmer
+
 
+
* Braille
+
** [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/9339 '''ttf-ubraille'''] - Font per simboli ''braille'' (unicode)
+
 
+
* Handwritten
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=2055 '''unsupported/aquafont'''] - Font TrueType ''a mano libera'' a larghezza fissa
+
 
+
* Math fonts
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=6349 '''unsupported/ttf-mathematica''']
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=7005 '''unsupported/ttf-mathematica4.1''']
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=7006 '''unsupported/ttf-mathtype''']
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=2100 '''unsupported/ttf-computer-modern-fonts''']
+
 
+
* “Programmer's fonts” (per programmazione e display di terminale)
+
** [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=4809 '''terminus-font''']
+
** Provate anche DejaVu Sans Mono (from package [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/11883/ '''ttf-dejavu''']), Lucida Typewriter (incluso nel pacchetto [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/11383/ '''jre''']) o il bellissimo [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=12559 '''Inconsolata'''].
+
 
+
= I migliori font per il terminale =
+
 
+
Il font migliore per il terminale dipende innanzitutto da quale emulatore di terminale usate, e quali ''feature'' (funzioni) supporta .  For example, it even depends on how your fonts.dir looks, as sometimes fonts get installed incorrectly.  It also depends on how you have configured your X Server, if you use freetype2 or freetype1, if you use the autohinter with the bytecode interpreter compiled into freetypeN, if you have compiled in the BI but doesn't use the autohinter, if you have not compiled in the BI and use the autohinter, if you have not compiled in the BI but uses the autohinter, etc.
+
 
+
A top favorite of some Arch Linux users is [http://www.is-vn.bg/hamster/jimmy-en.html Terminus] (in community as "terminus-font").
+
 
+
Some other fonts to try out:
+
 
+
*Lucida Typewriter
+
*Andale Mono
+
*Bitstream Vera Mono
+
*Courier
+
*Terminal
+
*Test
+
*Gamov
+
*default8x16
+
*monospace
+
*Liberation Mono
+
*[http://www.proggyfonts.com/index.php?menu=download Proggy Clean]
+
 
+
Example how to use Terminus:
+
<pre>
+
xterm -bg black -fg gray -fn -xos4-terminus-medium-r-normal--14-140-72-72-c-80-iso8859-1
+
xterm -bg black -fg gray -fn -xos4-terminus-bold-r-normal--14-140-72-72-c-80-iso8859-1
+
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
  
= Fonts in virtual console =
+
=== Manual installation ===
Default font in virtual console can display only ASCII characters. If you use other characters you can change the ''CONSOLEFONT'' and ''CONSOLEMAP'' settings in your ''/etc/rc.conf'' file. Different fonts can be found in ''/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts'' directory and key maps can be found in the subdirectories of ''/usr/share/kbd/keymaps''.
+
  
=== Examples ===
+
The recommended way of adding fonts to your system that are not in the repositories is described in [[#Creating a package]]. This gives pacman the ability to be able to remove or update them at a later time.  Fonts can alternately be installed manually as well.
For displaying characters like "č ć ž đ š" use lat2-16.psfu.gz font:
+
CONSOLEFONT="lat2-16.psfu.gz"
+
Also, don't forget to set the proper key map, in this case:
+
  CONSOLEMAP="8859-2"
+
  
To use the specified font in early userspace (early in the bootup process), add the 'keymap' hook to /etc/mkinitcpio.conf and rebuild the image. See [http://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Mkinitcpio the Mkinitcpio article] for more information.
+
To install fonts system-wide (available for all users), move the folder to the {{Filename|/usr/share/fonts/}} directory. To install fonts for only a single user, use {{Filename|~/.fonts/}} instead.
  
= Fonts with LCD filter enabled =
+
Also you may need to update {{Filename|/etc/X11/xorg.conf}} or {{Filename|/etc/xorg.conf}} with the new directory. Search for {{Codeline|FontPath}} to find the correct location within the file to add your new path. See [[#Fonts with Xorg]] for more detail.
  
== "LCD" packages ==
+
Then update the fontconfig font cache:
  
=== Install patched packages ===
+
$ fc-cache -vf
  
Remove the original packages:
+
==== Older applications ====
pacman -Rd libxft cairo
+
  
Install the patched packages from [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php AUR] unsupported (ex. using [[Post_Installation_Tips#Accessing_AUR_seamlessly | yaourt]]):
+
With older applications that do not support fontconfig (e.g. GTK1 applications, and {{Codeline|xfontsel}}) the index will need to be created in the font directory:
yaourt -S fontconfig-lcd
+
yaourt -S cairo-lcd
+
  
Install the patched packages from [community]:
+
$ mkfontscale
  pacman -S libxft-lcd
+
  $ mkfontdir
  
Reboot your system.
+
Or to include more than one folder with one command:
  
'''Note:''' if you want, you can simply revert to the original packages entering
+
  $ for dir in /font/dir1/ /font/dir2/; do xset +fp $dir; done && xset fp rehash
  pacman -Rd libxft-lcd cairo-lcd fontconfig-lcd
+
pacman -S libxft cairo
+
  
=== Change filter configuration ===
+
At times the X server may fail to load the fonts directory and you will need to rescan all the {{Filename|fonts.dir}} files:
  
The "fontconfig-lcd" package enables by default the "lcddefault" filter. You can edit the ''/etc/fonts/conf.avail/10-lcd-filter.conf'' file and replace it with another filter.
+
# xset +fp /usr/share/fonts/misc # Inform the X server of new directories
 +
# xset fp rehash                # Forces a new rescan
  
* New filter, fontconfig-lcd default
+
To check that the font(s) is included:
  <const>lcddefault</const>
+
  
* None
+
$ xlsfonts | grep fontname
  <const>lcdnone</const>
+
  
* Lighter filter, less aggressive
+
=== Pango Warnings ===
  <const>lcdlight</const>
+
When [http://www.pango.org/ Pango] is in use on your system it will read from [http://fontconfig.org/wiki/ fontconfig] to sort out where to source fonts.
  
* Legacy filter, cairo default
+
(process:5741): Pango-WARNING **: failed to choose a font, expect ugly output. engine-type='PangoRenderFc', script='common'
  <const>lcdlegacy</const>
+
(process:5741): Pango-WARNING **: failed to choose a font, expect ugly output. engine-type='PangoRenderFc', script='latin'
  
== Alternative with "ClearType" packages ==
+
If you are seeing errors similar to this and/or seeing blocks instead of characters in your application then you need to add fonts and update the font cache.  This example uses the {{Package Official|ttf-liberation}} fonts to illustrate the solution and runs as root to enable them system-wide.
  
There are more effects for fonts from Windows system, this method of beautifying fonts has been tested with GNOME/Xfce/KDE.
+
# pacman -S ttf-liberation
 +
  -- output abbreviated, assumes installation succeeded --
 +
 +
# fc-cache -vfs
 +
/usr/share/fonts: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 3 dirs
 +
/usr/share/fonts/TTF: caching, new cache contents: 16 fonts, 0 dirs
 +
/usr/share/fonts/encodings: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 1 dirs
 +
/usr/share/fonts/encodings/large: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
 +
/usr/share/fonts/util: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
 +
/var/cache/fontconfig: cleaning cache directory 
 +
fc-cache: succeeded
  
===Remove Packages:===
 
  
pacman -Rd cairo libxft freetype2
+
You can test for a default font being set like so:
  
===Install Packages===
+
# fc-match
 +
LiberationMono-Regular.ttf: "Liberation Mono" "Regular"
  
Install the package cairo-cleartype, libxft-cleartype, freetype2-cleartype from [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php AUR]
+
=== Fonts with Xorg ===
  
Search "cairo-cleartype", "libxft-cleartype", "freetype2-cleartype" in [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php AUR], download all these tarballs, extract them, and compile them with makepkg, install them with
+
In order for [[Xorg]] to find and use your newly installed fonts, you must add the font paths to {{Filename|/etc/xorg.conf}} (another Xorg configuration file may work too).
  
pacman -U *-cleartype*.pkg.tar.gz
+
Here is an example of the section that must be added to {{Filename|/etc/xorg.conf}}. Add or remove paths based on your particular font requirements.
 +
# Let Xorg know about the custom font directories
 +
Section "Files"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cantarell"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cyrillic"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/encodings"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/local"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/OTF"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
 +
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/util"
 +
EndSection
  
Restart X11 (ctrl+alt+backspace)
+
==Pacchetti di Font==
 +
Questa è una lista selettiva, ma riporta la maggior parte dei font reperibili su [[AUR]] oltre a quelli nei repository ufficiali. Fonts are tagged "Unicode" if they have wide Unicode support, see the project or Wikipedia pages for detail.
  
'''OR''' if you have yaourt installed:
+
===Braille===
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-ubraille}} - Font per simboli ''braille''
  
<pre>yaourt -S cairo-cleartype freetype2-cleartype libxft-cleartype</pre>
+
===International users===
  
= Configuration =
+
====Arabo====
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-sil-lateef}} - Font Unicode arabici da SIL ''(AUR)''
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-sil-scheherazade}} - Font Unicode arabici da SIL ''(AUR)''
 +
*{{Package AUR|arabeyes-fonts}} - Collezione di Font arabici liberi ''(AUR)''
  
== FreeType autohinter (optional) ==
+
====Cinese, Giapponese, Coreano, Vietnamita====
You can set the FreeType autohinter. As root :
+
ln -s /etc/fonts/conf.avail/10-autohint.conf /etc/fonts/conf.d/10-autohint.conf
+
  
== Disable Unattractive Bitmap Fonts (optional) ==
+
=====(Mainly) Chinese=====
Edit ~/.fonts.conf with the following content:
+
*{{Package AUR|wqy-microhei}} - A Sans-Serif style high quality CJK outline font. ''(AUR)''
 +
*{{Package Official|wqy-zenhei}} - Hei Ti Style (sans-serif) Chinese Outline font embedded with bitmapped Song Ti (also supporting Japanese (partial) and Korean characters).
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-arphic-ukai}} - ''Kaiti'' (colpo di pennello) Font Unicode (consigliato abilitare l'anti-aliasing)
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-arphic-uming}} - ''Mingti'' (stampato) Font Unicode
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-fireflysung}} - ''New Sung'' font
 +
*{{Package Official|wqy-bitmapfont}} - "wqy-bitmapfont" Font cinese in stile Song Ti (serif)
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-hannom}} - Chinese and Vietnamese TrueType font
  
    <!-- Reject bitmap fonts in favour of Truetype, Postscript, etc. -->
+
=====Giapponese=====
    <selectfont>
+
*{{Package Official|ttf-sazanami}} - Set di Font giapponesi TrueType da alternare con la famiglia di font ttf-kochi.
        <rejectfont>
+
*{{Package AUR|ttf-kochi-substitute}} - High quality Japanese TrueType fonts. It has bitmap hinting information, so it's beautiful and not jagged to display on the CRT.
            <pattern>
+
*{{Package AUR|otf-ipafont}} - Japanese Gothic (san-serif) and Mincho (serif) font set; one of the highest quality open source fonts. Default of openSUSE-ja. ''(AUR)''
                <patelt name="scalable">
+
*{{Package AUR|ttf-vlgothic}} - Japanese Gothic fonts. Default of Debian/Fedora/Vine Linux ''(AUR)''
                    <bool>false</bool>
+
*{{Package AUR|ttf-ipa-mona}}, {{Package AUR|ttf-monapo}} - Japanese fonts to show [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2channel_Shift_JIS_art 2channel Shift JIS art] properly. ''(AUR)''
                </patelt>
+
            </pattern>
+
        </rejectfont>
+
    </selectfont>
+
  
Restart X11 (ctrl+alt+backspace)
+
=====Coreano=====
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-baekmuk}} - Collection of Korean TrueType fonts
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-alee}} - Set of free Hangul TrueType fonts ''(AUR)''
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-unfonts-core}} - Un fonts (default Baekmuk fonts may be unsatisfactory) (''AUR'')
  
At this point if you think fonts look too bold, modify the fonts configuration file: edit (or create if it doesn't exist yet) the file ~/.fonts.conf with the following content:
+
====Cirillico====
 +
''Also see [[#Monospace]], [[#Sans]] and [[#Serif]]''
 +
*{{Package AUR|font-arhangai}} - Mongolian Cyrillic (''AUR'')
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-pingwi-typography}} - PingWi Typography (PWT) fonts (''AUR'')
  
<?xml version="1.0"?>
+
====Greco====
<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM "fonts.dtd">
+
Almost all Unicode fonts contain the Greek character set (polytonic included). Some additional font packages, which might not be contain the complete Unicode set but utilize high quality Greek (and Latin, of course) typefaces are:
<fontconfig>
+
*{{Package AUR|otf-gfs}} - Selection of OpenType fonts from the Greek Font Society ''(AUR)''
<!-- If the font is bold, turn off autohinting -->
+
*{{Package AUR|ttf-mgopen}} - Professional TrueType fonts from Magenta ''(AUR)''
<match target="font" >
+
<test compare="more" name="weight">
+
<const>medium</const>
+
</test>
+
<edit mode="assign" name="autohint">
+
<bool>false</bool>
+
</edit>
+
</match>
+
</fontconfig>
+
  
=FAQ=
+
====Ebraico====
 +
*{{Package Official|culmus}} - Ottima collezione di font in ebraico
  
'''Q. My fonts are too large or too small. The resolution seems wrong. My fonts are mis-shapen.'''
+
====Indiano====
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-freebanglafont}} - Font per Bangla
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-indic-otf}} - Collezione di font OpenType indi (contiene ttf-freebanglafont)
  
A(1). Read the ''Display Size/DPI'' section of [[Xorg]] for configuration sample settings and formula.
+
====Khmer====
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-khmer}} - Font necessario per i grafi della lingua Khmer
 +
*[http://code.google.com/webfonts/family?family=Hanuman&subset=khmer Hanuman] ({{Package AUR|ttf-google-webfonts}})
  
A(2). Get your proper resolution from a console, by typing:
+
====Sinhala====
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-lklug}} - Sinhala Unicode font (''AUR'')
  
xdpyinfo | grep resolution
+
====Tamil====
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-tamil}} - Tamil Unicode fonts (''AUR'')
  
Change the value to this in the Gnome font configurator. Restart X. Sometimes, the videocard gives bogus information to X. It may be better to settle on a value between 72-78 DPI for 1024x768 displays. 96 DPI is a good value for 1280x1024, but it depends on the exact resolution. I actually prefer 75 on my home machine, and the font sizes seem to be a bit more true to their proper sizes when this is set. In most cases, if the numbers don't match, you may use the following method.
+
====Thailandese====
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-thai}} - Font necessario per i grafi thai
  
You may also opt to force X to start with a forced resolution. This may produce good results in some display modes. For example, you may use:
+
===Math===
 +
*{{Package Official|font-mathematica}} - Mathematica fonts by Wolfram Research, Inc.
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-mathtype}} - MathType fonts ''(AUR)''
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-computer-modern-fonts}} - Flagged out of date as of 2009-11-14 ''(AUR)''
  
startx -- -dpi 75
+
===Microsoft fonts===
 +
Consultare [[MS Fonts]].
  
This will force X to start in 75x75 DPI mode. You may change your Gnome font settings (From the menu: Applications/Desktop Preferences/Font) to 75 DPI and you should get a good match.
+
===Monospaced===
 +
Here are some suggestions.  Every user has their own preference, experiment to find one that suits you.  
 +
If you won't like to try one by one, there's an opinion from Dan Benjamin on his blog: [http://hivelogic.com/articles/top-10-programming-fonts ''Top 10 Programming Fonts''].
  
If this worked well for you, you may edit your "startx" script to always force this option on startup. Edit the file "/usr/bin/startx" as root.
+
Here's a big list of fonts by Trevor Lowing: http://www.lowing.org/fonts/
  
Change the following line:
+
====TrueType====
  
defaultserverargs=""
+
*[[Wikipedia:Andalé Mono|Andalé Mono]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*Anka/Coder ({{Package AUR|ttf-anka-coder}})
 +
*Anonymous Pro ({{Package AUR|ttf-anonymous-pro}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Bitstream Vera|Bitstream Vera Mono]] ({{Package Official|ttf-bitstream-vera}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Consolas|Consolas]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Courier New|Courier New]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*Cousine ({{Package AUR|ttf-google-webfonts}}) - Chrome/Chromium OS replacement for Courier New (metric-compatible)
 +
*[[Wikipedia:DejaVu fonts|DejaVu Sans Mono]] ({{Package Official|ttf-dejavu}}) - Unicode
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Droid (font)|Droid Sans Mono]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-droid}}, included in {{Package AUR|ttf-google-webfonts}})
 +
*Envy Code R ({{Package AUR|ttf-envy-code-r}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:GNU FreeFont|FreeMono]] ({{Package Official|ttf-freefont}}) - Unicode
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Inconsolata|Inconsolata]] ({{Package Official|ttf-inconsolata}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Inconsolata|Inconsolata-g]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-inconsolata-g}}) - adds some programmer-friendly modifications
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Liberation fonts|Liberation Mono]] ({{Package Official|ttf-liberation}}) - Alternative to Courier New (metric-compatible)
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Lucida Console|Lucida Console]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Lucida Typewriter|Lucida Typewriter]] (included in package {{Package Official|jre}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Monaco (typeface)|Monaco]] ({{Package Official|monaco-linux-font}})
 +
*Monofur ({{Package AUR|ttf-monofur}})
  
to...
+
====Bitmap====
  
defaultserverargs="-dpi 75"
+
*Default 8x16
 +
*Dina ({{Package Official|dina-font}})
 +
*Lime ({{Package Official|artwiz-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:ProFont|ProFont]] ({{Package Official|profont}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Proggy Programming Fonts|Proggy Programming Fonts]] ({{Package AUR|proggyfonts}})
 +
*Proggy opti cyrillic ({{Package AUR|proggyopticyr-font}})
 +
*Tamsyn ({{Package AUR|tamsyn-font}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Terminus (typeface)|Terminus]] ({{Package Official|terminus-font}})
 +
*Unifont (glyphs like ಠ_ಠ (look of disapproval)) ({{Package Official|bdf-unifont}})
  
'''Q. How do I install fonts?'''
+
===Sans-serif===
  
A. An easy way to install fonts is to drop them into your "$HOME/.fonts" directory and running "fc-cache". You can also perform a system-wide font installation by copying the fonts to "/usr/share/fonts" or another font directory (as long as it is listed in your "/etc/fonts/fonts.conf" file), and then performing the "fc-cache" command as root. You may also need to run "ttmkfdir" or "mkfontdir" as well.
+
*[http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&id=andika Andika] ({{Package AUR|ttf-andika}}, included in {{Package AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Arial|Arial]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Arial Black|Arial Black]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*Arimo ({{Package AUR|ttf-google-webfonts}}) - Chrome/Chromium OS replacement for Arial (metric-compatible)
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Calibri|Calibri]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Candara|Candara]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Constantia (typeface)|Constantia]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Corbel (typeface)|Corbel]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:DejaVu fonts|DejaVu Sans]] ({{Package Official|ttf-dejavu}}) - Unicode
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Droid (font)|Droid Sans]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-droid}}, included in {{Package AUR|ttf-google-webfonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:GNU FreeFont|FreeSans]] ({{Package Official|ttf-freefont}}) - Unicode
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Impact (typeface)|Impact]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Liberation fonts|Liberation Sans]] ({{Package Official|ttf-liberation}}, improved/reworked Cyrillic: {{Package Official|ttf-liberastika}}) - Alternative to Arial  (metric-compatible)
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Liberation fonts|Liberation Sans Narrow]] ({{Package Official|ttf-liberation}}) - Alternative to Arial Narrow (metric-compatible)
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Linux Libertine|Linux Biolinum]] ({{Package Official|ttf-linux-libertine}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Lucida Sans|Lucida Sans]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Microsoft Sans Serif|Microsoft Sans Serif]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:PT Sans|PT Sans]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-google-webfonts}}) - 3 major variations: normal, narrow, and caption - Unicode: Latin, Cyrillic
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Tahoma (typeface)|Tahoma]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-tahoma}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Trebuchet MS|Trebuchet]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Ubuntu-Title|Ubuntu-Title]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ubuntu-title}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Ubuntu Font Family|Ubuntu Font Family]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ubuntu-font-family}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Verdana|Verdana]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
  
'''Q. The fonts in GNU Emacs are displayed as squares.'''
+
===Script===
  
A. You need to install the xorg-fonts-75dpi or xorg-fonts-100dpi package.
+
*[[Wikipedia:Comic Sans|Comic Sans]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
  
'''Q. The fonts in OpenOffice.org look very bad.'''
+
===Serif===
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Cambria (typeface)|Cambria]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-vista-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Charis SIL|Charis]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-charis}}, included in {{Package AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}}) - Unicode: Latin, Cyrillic
 +
*[[Wikipedia:DejaVu fonts|DejaVu Serif]] ({{Package Official|ttf-dejavu}}) - Unicode
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Doulos SIL|Doulos]] ({{Package AUR|doulos-sil}}, included in {{Package AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}}) - Unicode: Latin, Cyrillic
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Droid (font)|Droid Serif]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-droid}}, included in {{Package AUR|ttf-google-webfonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:GNU FreeFont|FreeSerif]] ({{Package Official|ttf-freefont}}) - Unicode
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Gentium|Gentium]] ({{Package Official|ttf-gentium}}, included in {{Package AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}}) - Unicode: Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Phonetic Alphabet
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Georgia (typeface)|Georgia]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Liberation fonts|Liberation Serif]] ({{Package Official|ttf-liberation}}) - Alternative to Times New Roman (metric-compatible)
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Linux Libertine|Linux Libertine]] ({{Package Official|ttf-linux-libertine}}) - Unicode: Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew
 +
*[[Wikipedia:Times New Roman|Times New Roman]] ({{Package AUR|ttf-ms-fonts}})
 +
*Tinos ({{Package AUR|ttf-google-webfonts}}) - Chrome/Chromium OS replacement for Times New Roman (metric-compatible)
  
A. If we have a bug/font-issue in the openoffice-base package, using the original rpm-packages from the office website will allways work. "Bad fonts are a thing of the past with the newest version (2.3.1)." (http://www.stchman.com/tweaks.html).  
+
===Unsorted===
 +
<!--This section should be absorbed into the Monospace/Serif/Sans-Serif structure-->
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-google-webfonts}} - a huge collection of free fonts (including ubuntu, inconsolata, droid, etc.)
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-mph-2b-damase}} - Covers full plane 1 and several scripts
 +
*{{Package AUR|ttf-sil-fonts}} - Gentium, Charis, Doulos, Andika and Abyssinica from SIL ''(AUR)''
 +
*{{Package Official|font-bh-ttf}} - Xorg Luxi fonts
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-cheapskate}} - Font collection from ''dustismo.com''
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-isabella}} - Calligraphic font based on the ''Isabella Breviary'' of 1497
 +
*{{Package Official|ttf-junicode}} - Junius font containing almost complete medieval latin script glyphs
 +
*arkpandorafonts {{Package AUR|ttf-arkpandora}} — Alternative to Arial and Times New Roman fonts
 +
*{{Package Official|xorg-fonts-type1}} — IBM Courier and Adobe Utopia sets of [[Wikipedia:PostScript fonts|PostScript fonts]]
  
Note that OpenOffice.org for Linux ships with an (inferior) copy of freetype2 that are built directly into the code. In the past you could force it to link to your system's, shared, freetype2 by setting the following before starting the suit.
+
==Console fonts==
  
export LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/xorg/modules/fonts/libfreetype.so
+
The console, meaning a terminal running with no ''X'' Window System, uses the ASCII character set as the default. This font and the keymap used are easily changed.
  
The (Jan 2008) above is reported to not work anymore but at qa.openoffice.org a patch to do this bypass is emering.
+
A console font is limited to either 256 or 512 characters. The fonts are found in {{Filename|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}}.
  
'''Q. The OpenOffice.org menu font looks really bad. It doesn't use antialiasing either.'''
+
''Keymaps, ''the connection between the key pressed and the character used by the computer, are found in the subdirectories of {{Filename|/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/}}.
  
A. This can be changed in the OpenOffice.org configurator. From the drop-down menu, select "Tools/Options/OpenOffice.org/Fonts". Check the box that says "Apply Replacement Table". Type "Andale Sans UI" in the font box (this may have to be input manually, if it doesn't appear in the drop-down menu) and choose your desired font for the "Replace With" option. Dropline users may prefer the system default, "Trebuchet MS". When selected, click the checkmark box. Then choose the "always" and "screen" options in the box below. Apply the changes, and your menu fonts should look great.
+
=== Previewing and testing ===
  
'''Q. OpenOffice.org doesn't detect my TrueType fonts!'''
+
Unfortunately, no organized library of images is available to preview console fonts. The user can, however, use {{Codeline|setfont}} to temporarily change the font and be able to consider its use as the default. The available ''glyphs ''or letters in the font can also be viewed as a table with the command {{Codeline|showconsolefont}}.
  
A. Make sure that you add the appropriate entry in your /etc/X11/xorg.conf file that points your programs to the /usr/share/fonts/ directory.
+
If the newly changed font is not suitable, a return to the default font is done by issuing the command {{Codeline|setfont}} without any arguments. If the console display is totally unreadable, this command will still work—the user just types in {{Codeline|setfont}} while "working blind."
  
For example, here's a sample of an xorg.conf file
+
Note that {{Codeline|setfont}} only works on the console currently being used. Any other consoles, active or inactive, remain unaffected.
  
Section "Files"
+
==== Examples ====
    RgbPath        "/usr/share/X11/rgb"
+
    ModulePath      "/usr/lib/xorg/modules"
+
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
+
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
+
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
+
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
+
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/Type1"
+
EndSection
+
  
Another solution is to run the openoffice administration tool
+
Change the font. This example is distinctive:
 +
$ setfont /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/gr737b-9x16-medieval.psfu.gz
  
  # /opt/openoffice/program/spadmin
+
Or change the font to one with 512 glyphs and set the keymap to ''ISO 8859-5'' using the {{Codeline|-m}} option:
 +
  $ setfont /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/LatArCyrHeb-16.psfu.gz -m 8859-5
  
from which you can add fonts.
+
Then issue commands that send text to the display, perhaps view a ''manpage'' and try ''vi'' or ''nano'', and view the table of glyphs with the command, {{Codeline|showconsolefont}}.
  
'''Q. Mozilla and other programs can no longer access TrueType fonts on my system, and are reverting to ugly fonts instead.'''
+
Return to the default font with:
 +
$ setfont
  
A. Make sure the "freetype" module is loaded in your /etc/X11/xorg.conf file and your /usr/share/fonts/TTF/fonts.dir lists all of the TrueType fonts you have installed.
+
=== Changing the default font ===
  
Try checking your "Files" section of your xorg.conf, and make sure that you have all (or most) of these directories listed.
+
To change the default font, the {{Codeline|CONSOLEFONT<nowiki>=</nowiki>}} and {{Codeline|CONSOLEMAP<nowiki>=</nowiki>}} settings in {{Filename|/etc/rc.conf}} must be altered. Again, the fonts can be found in {{Filename|/usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/}} directory and keymaps can be found in the subdirectories of {{Filename|/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/}}.
  
Section "Files"
+
==== Examples ====
    RgbPath        "/usr/share/X11/rgb"
+
For displaying characters such as ''Č, ž, đ, š'' or ''Ł, ę, ą, ś'' using the font {{Filename|lat2-16.psfu.gz}}:
    ModulePath      "/usr/lib/xorg/modules"
+
CONSOLEFONT="lat2-16"
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
+
It means that second part of ISO/IEC 8859 characters are used with size 16. You can change font size using other values like lat2-08...16. For the regions determined by 8859 specification, look at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO/IEC_8859#The_Parts_of_ISO.2FIEC_8859 Wikipedia]. You can use a Terminus font which is recommended if you work a lot in console without X server. ter-216b for example is latin-2 part, size 16, bold. ter-216n is the same but normal weight. Terminus fonts have sizes up to 32.
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
+
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
+
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
+
    FontPath        "/usr/share/fonts/Type1"
+
EndSection
+
  
Finally, go to the following font directories:
 
  
/usr/share/fonts/TTF
+
Now, set the proper keymap, for lat2-16 it will be:
/usr/share/fonts
+
  CONSOLEMAP="8859-2"
 
+
Try deleting the "fonts.dir" and "fonts.scale" files in these directories. You may want to make backups first though. Run these commands to replace them.
+
 
+
mkfontscale
+
mkfontdir
+
 
+
Make sure you restart X for the changes to come into effect.
+
 
+
'''Q. What are some suggested font settings for Mozilla/Firefox?'''
+
 
+
A. These are recommended for Firefox:
+
 
+
<pre>
+
Proportional: Serif  Size (pixels): 16
+
Serif: Times New Roman
+
Sans-serif: Arial
+
Monospace: Courier New  Size (pixels): 13
+
Display resolution: System settings
+
</pre>
+
 
+
*Note: Times New Roman may appear to be a non-TTF font. If this is the case, read above about how to fix this.
+
 
+
I believe that the following are Dropline's Mozilla defaults (also recommended):
+
<pre>
+
Proportional: Serif  Size (pixels): 14
+
Serif: Times New Roman
+
Sans-serif: Verdana
+
Cursive: Andale Mono
+
Fantasy: Andale Mono
+
Monospace: Courier New  Size (pixels): 11
+
Allow Documents to use other fonts: Enabled
+
Display resolution: System settings
+
</pre>
+
 
+
'''Q. Why do my Apps show squares when there should be arrows and the like?'''
+
 
+
A. It may help to activate bitmap fonts. They are disabled by default.
+
 
+
  cd /etc/fonts/conf.d
+
rm 10-bitmaps.conf
+
ln -s yes-bitmaps.conf 10-bitmaps.conf
+
cd -
+
 
+
If you think your fonts look ugly now then consider to remove the following packages.
+
 
+
pacman -Rs xorg-fonts-100dpi xorg-fonts-75dpi
+
 
+
Read [http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?t=21250 here] and [http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?t=18425 here] for some background info.
+
  
'''Q: I just upgraded via pacman -Syu and my fonts are all ugly'''
+
To use the specified font in early userspace, that is, early in the bootup process, add the {{Codeline|consolefont}} hook to {{Filename|/etc/mkinitcpio.conf}}:
 +
HOOKS="base udev autodetect pata scsi sata filesystems '''consolefont''' '''keymap'''"
  
<b>A: </b>There are several possible conflicting issues here. See these threads:
+
Then rebuild the image:
 +
# mkinitcpio -p linux
  
1 - http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?t=866
+
{{Note|The above steps must be repeated for each kernel if more than one kernel package is installed.}}
  
2 - http://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?t=4975
+
See [[Mkinitcpio#HOOKS]] for more information.

Revision as of 01:26, 8 September 2011


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Sommario help replacing me
Documenta l'installazione e l'utilizzo dei Fonts su Arch Linux
Note legali
Certi pacchetti font possono imporre alcune limitazioni legali
Articoli correlati
Font Configuration (Italiano): Configurazione dei carattere e abbellimento
Java Fonts - Sun JRE: Caratteri specifici su sistemi Java (Sun)
MS Fonts: Aggiunta dei caratteri Microsoft e configurazione ottimale

Font formats

La maggior parte dei font usati oggi dai computer sono sia in formato bitmap che outline. I font Bitmap archiviano immagini fisse per ogni glifo, di ogni dimensione e tipo, per carattere e punto. Outline or vector fonts store characters as instructions for drawing each glyph's lines and curves. Outline fonts scale smoothly in size over a wide range.

Le estensioni comuni nei nomi dei font comprendono:

Nella maggior parte dei casi, le differenze tecniche tra TrueType e OpenType possono essere ignorate, alcuni font con un'estensione Template:Codeline sono in realtà i font OpenType.

Altri formati

The typesetting application, TeX, and its companion font software, Metafont, render characters using their own methods. Some of the file extensions used for fonts by these two programs are Template:Codeline, Template:Codeline, Template:Codeline and Template:Codeline.

FontForge, a font editing application, can store fonts in its native text-based format, Template:Codeline, spline font database.

Installazione

Vari metodi di installazione dei font.

Pacman

Font specifici e collezioni di font possono essere installati dai nei repository abilitati utilizzando pacman. I font disponibili possono essere trovati utilizzando:

$ pacman -Ss font

O per ricercare solo i font Template:Codeline:

$ pacman -Ss ttf

Alcuni font come terminus sono installati in Template:Filename, che non viene aggiunto al percorso dei font di default. Aggiungendo le seguenti righe a Template:Filename

xset +fp /usr/share/fonts/local
xset fp rehash

i font possono essere usati in X11.

Creazione di un pacchetto

Se si vuole dare la possibilità di gestire i font a pacman, è possibile creare un pacchetto per Arch. Questi possono anche essere condivisi con la comunità per mezzo di AUR. Ecco un esempio di come compilare un pacchetto di base. Per ulteriori informazioni sulla creazione di pacchetti, leggere PKGBUILD.

pkgname=ttf-fontname
pkgver=1.0
pkgrel=1
depends=('fontconfig' 'xorg-font-utils')
pkgdesc="custom fonts"
arch=('any')
source=(http://someurl.org/$pkgname.tar.bz2)
install=$pkgname.install

build()
{
  mkdir -p $pkgdir/usr/share/fonts/TTF
  cp $srcdir/$pkgname/*.ttf $pkgdir/usr/share/fonts/TTF
}

This PKGBUILD assumes the fonts are TrueType. An install file (Template:Filename) will also need to be created to update the font cache:

post_install() {
  echo -n "Updating font cache... "
  fc-cache -fs >/dev/null
  mkfontscale /usr/share/fonts/TTF /usr/share/fonts/Type1
  mkfontdir /usr/share/fonts/TTF /usr/share/fonts/Type1
  echo "done"
}

post_upgrade() {
  post_install
}

Manual installation

The recommended way of adding fonts to your system that are not in the repositories is described in #Creating a package. This gives pacman the ability to be able to remove or update them at a later time. Fonts can alternately be installed manually as well.

To install fonts system-wide (available for all users), move the folder to the Template:Filename directory. To install fonts for only a single user, use Template:Filename instead.

Also you may need to update Template:Filename or Template:Filename with the new directory. Search for Template:Codeline to find the correct location within the file to add your new path. See #Fonts with Xorg for more detail.

Then update the fontconfig font cache:

$ fc-cache -vf

Older applications

With older applications that do not support fontconfig (e.g. GTK1 applications, and Template:Codeline) the index will need to be created in the font directory:

$ mkfontscale
$ mkfontdir

Or to include more than one folder with one command:

$ for dir in /font/dir1/ /font/dir2/; do xset +fp $dir; done && xset fp rehash

At times the X server may fail to load the fonts directory and you will need to rescan all the Template:Filename files:

# xset +fp /usr/share/fonts/misc # Inform the X server of new directories
# xset fp rehash                # Forces a new rescan

To check that the font(s) is included:

$ xlsfonts | grep fontname

Pango Warnings

When Pango is in use on your system it will read from fontconfig to sort out where to source fonts.

(process:5741): Pango-WARNING **: failed to choose a font, expect ugly output. engine-type='PangoRenderFc', script='common'
(process:5741): Pango-WARNING **: failed to choose a font, expect ugly output. engine-type='PangoRenderFc', script='latin'

If you are seeing errors similar to this and/or seeing blocks instead of characters in your application then you need to add fonts and update the font cache. This example uses the Template:Package Official fonts to illustrate the solution and runs as root to enable them system-wide.

# pacman -S ttf-liberation
  -- output abbreviated, assumes installation succeeded -- 

# fc-cache -vfs
/usr/share/fonts: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 3 dirs
/usr/share/fonts/TTF: caching, new cache contents: 16 fonts, 0 dirs
/usr/share/fonts/encodings: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 1 dirs
/usr/share/fonts/encodings/large: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
/usr/share/fonts/util: caching, new cache contents: 0 fonts, 0 dirs
/var/cache/fontconfig: cleaning cache directory   
fc-cache: succeeded


You can test for a default font being set like so:

# fc-match
LiberationMono-Regular.ttf: "Liberation Mono" "Regular"

Fonts with Xorg

In order for Xorg to find and use your newly installed fonts, you must add the font paths to Template:Filename (another Xorg configuration file may work too).

Here is an example of the section that must be added to Template:Filename. Add or remove paths based on your particular font requirements.

# Let Xorg know about the custom font directories
Section "Files"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/100dpi"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/75dpi"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cantarell"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/cyrillic"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/encodings"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/local"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/misc"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/OTF"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/TTF"
    FontPath    "/usr/share/fonts/util"
EndSection

Pacchetti di Font

Questa è una lista selettiva, ma riporta la maggior parte dei font reperibili su AUR oltre a quelli nei repository ufficiali. Fonts are tagged "Unicode" if they have wide Unicode support, see the project or Wikipedia pages for detail.

Braille

International users

Arabo

Cinese, Giapponese, Coreano, Vietnamita

(Mainly) Chinese
Giapponese
Coreano

Cirillico

Also see #Monospace, #Sans and #Serif

Greco

Almost all Unicode fonts contain the Greek character set (polytonic included). Some additional font packages, which might not be contain the complete Unicode set but utilize high quality Greek (and Latin, of course) typefaces are:

Ebraico

Indiano

Khmer

Sinhala

Tamil

Thailandese

Math

Microsoft fonts

Consultare MS Fonts.

Monospaced

Here are some suggestions. Every user has their own preference, experiment to find one that suits you. If you won't like to try one by one, there's an opinion from Dan Benjamin on his blog: Top 10 Programming Fonts.

Here's a big list of fonts by Trevor Lowing: http://www.lowing.org/fonts/

TrueType

Bitmap

Sans-serif

Script

Serif

Unsorted

Console fonts

The console, meaning a terminal running with no X Window System, uses the ASCII character set as the default. This font and the keymap used are easily changed.

A console font is limited to either 256 or 512 characters. The fonts are found in Template:Filename.

Keymaps, the connection between the key pressed and the character used by the computer, are found in the subdirectories of Template:Filename.

Previewing and testing

Unfortunately, no organized library of images is available to preview console fonts. The user can, however, use Template:Codeline to temporarily change the font and be able to consider its use as the default. The available glyphs or letters in the font can also be viewed as a table with the command Template:Codeline.

If the newly changed font is not suitable, a return to the default font is done by issuing the command Template:Codeline without any arguments. If the console display is totally unreadable, this command will still work—the user just types in Template:Codeline while "working blind."

Note that Template:Codeline only works on the console currently being used. Any other consoles, active or inactive, remain unaffected.

Examples

Change the font. This example is distinctive:

$ setfont /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/gr737b-9x16-medieval.psfu.gz

Or change the font to one with 512 glyphs and set the keymap to ISO 8859-5 using the Template:Codeline option:

$ setfont /usr/share/kbd/consolefonts/LatArCyrHeb-16.psfu.gz -m 8859-5

Then issue commands that send text to the display, perhaps view a manpage and try vi or nano, and view the table of glyphs with the command, Template:Codeline.

Return to the default font with:

$ setfont

Changing the default font

To change the default font, the Template:Codeline and Template:Codeline settings in Template:Filename must be altered. Again, the fonts can be found in Template:Filename directory and keymaps can be found in the subdirectories of Template:Filename.

Examples

For displaying characters such as Č, ž, đ, š or Ł, ę, ą, ś using the font Template:Filename:

CONSOLEFONT="lat2-16"

It means that second part of ISO/IEC 8859 characters are used with size 16. You can change font size using other values like lat2-08...16. For the regions determined by 8859 specification, look at the Wikipedia. You can use a Terminus font which is recommended if you work a lot in console without X server. ter-216b for example is latin-2 part, size 16, bold. ter-216n is the same but normal weight. Terminus fonts have sizes up to 32.


Now, set the proper keymap, for lat2-16 it will be:

CONSOLEMAP="8859-2"

To use the specified font in early userspace, that is, early in the bootup process, add the Template:Codeline hook to Template:Filename:

HOOKS="base udev autodetect pata scsi sata filesystems consolefont keymap"

Then rebuild the image:

# mkinitcpio -p linux
Note: The above steps must be repeated for each kernel if more than one kernel package is installed.

See Mkinitcpio#HOOKS for more information.