- This article will show how to enable rudimentary CMYK support in The GIMP using the Separate plug-in.
- It will also cover more general topics on CMYK colors and DTP.
- 1 Before you read
- 2 About CMYK color model
- 3 ICC color profiles
- 4 CMYK color and The GIMP
- 5 Installing and using Separate plugin
- 6 Soft-proofing with Display Filters
- 7 Resources
Before you read
Before you install CMYK support for The GIMP, you need to know if you really need it.
There has been much debate about the merits of using The GIMP. Most of the heated discussions revolves around the fact that The GIMP does not support CMYK mode. However, you have to understand that the topic is more important to DTP professionals than other users (photographers, web artists, home users). CMYK color model (or CMYK mode) is used mostly by DTP professionals that need to output images intended for printing on a commercial press. For an average home user or even professional photographers, support for separating images using CMYK color is not necessary. Most ink-jet and color laser printers print color images using sRGB color, so you don't really need CMYK color for that either.
You will need root access in order to install the plugin.
Note on Adobe ICC profiles
Adobe Systems offer a nice set of standard color profiles for professional use. However, before you use the products, please read the end user license agreement supplied with the .zip file. The zip files (Windows version is a zip file, and it is the preferred way to get ICC profiles) are located at Adobe's support page.
About CMYK color model
If you are not interested in the theory, you may skip straight to the heading on CMYK color support in The GIMP.
First off, the proper name for CMYK mode, as it is commonly known, is CMYK color model. It is called a color model, because it represents a standard way of describing colors.
The color model is also called a subtractive color model, as opposed to additive (that is RGB) color model. Words additive and subtractive suggest that light, which is essential for perception of color, is either added or subtracted before it reaches the eye. The choice of color is based on belief that the combination of colors Red, Green, and Blue (for RGB) or Cyan, Magenta, Yellow (for CMYK) produce the most visible colors.
Ideally, subtraction of all light, that is when Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow are of full density, we should get black. However, this is usually not true in the real world. The use of additional Black ink in printing (K in CMYK stands for Key, or blacK) is due to this fact. It adds the necessary density to the image and makes black a black.
When printing an image on a commercial press, it needs to be printed one primary (plus Black) at a time. Therefore the original (usually a digital RGB image, or a printed photograph) needs to be separated into Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black components.
The lack of support for this kind of separation made The GIMP unattractive to DTP professionals.
ICC color profiles
Since reproduction of both RGB and CMYK colors are specific to the device (or inks) used to produce images, a concept of color-spaces was invented. Color-spaces describe that describes the relationship of physical color and the model that we use to describe them. Those relationships (functions) can be packaged as a file in the form of ICC profiles.
The ICC profiles are used to describe the way colors are reproduced in a system, be it a monitor, a scanner, or a printing press. When separating images for press, we use the source profile (the color-space of the image to be separated) and the target profile (the color-space of the printing press the image is intended for).
CMYK color and The GIMP
The GIMP still lacks full CMYK color model support. The ability to separate and then edit an image in CMYK mode is still a long way down the list of features to be added (if on the list at all). However, there is a plugin called Separate that offers a partial solution to the problem.
Separate plugin has following abilities:
- separate a RGB image
- color management (using ICC profiles and lcms)
- soft-proofing colors
- attach ICC profiles to separated image files
Installing and using Separate plugin
Once you have obtained the source tarball, you can unpack it using the usual tar command:
tar xvf separate-VERSION.tar.gz
where VERSION would be the version of Separate plugin (0.1 at the time of this writing).
Change directory to the extracted separate directory and copy a file called separate into The GIMP's plugin directory:
cp separate /usr/lib/gimp/GIMPVERSION/plug-ins/
where GIMPVERSION would be the major version number of The GIMP (2.0 at the time of this writing).
When you start The GIMP the Separate will be recognized and reachable through Image > Separate menu.
Install Adobe ICC profiles
Download the ICC profiles from Adobe's support page (read the agreement and click Accept at the bottom of the page).
Create a directory for the profiles:
mkdir -p /usr/share/color/icc
extract the downloaded zip file and copy the contents of CMYK and RGB directories into the created folder.
Separating a RGB image
Open an image in The GIMP. From the Image menu, open the Separate sub-menu and pick Separate (to Colour).
Choose a source (RGB) and destination (target, CMYK) profile and click OK.
This will open another window with the CMYK color version. You can see that there are 5 layers total.
Pick Save... from the Separate sub-menu and save the file in TIFF format with an attached (embedded) ICC profile.
Working on a separated image
If you want to work on a separated image you need to be intimately familiar with the way CMYK images work. If you look at The GIMP's Layers window after separating an image, you will witness the ingenious way in which the separation is done. However, editing the image is not as simple as with commercial software like Adobe's Photoshop.
Basically, you need to work with grayscale values of each primary color (plus Black). All the tools are available, but you only get apply them layer by layer and in grayscale.
Soft-proofing with Display Filters
The best way to arrive to a good CMYK image is to work in RGB mode, but enable soft-proofing. Soft-proofing is the method of adjusting the on-screen display of colors to match the final print. In the newer versions of The GIMP, soft-proofing is made possible via Display Filters.
Go to the View menu and pick Display Filters... option. From the list of available filters, pick Color Proof (at the bottom in The GIMP version 2.2.13). Click on the right arrow button between the two lists and the Color Proof filter will be placed into the list of active filters. Click on it (the one in the active filters list) and you will get a few options below.
The color proof (rendering) intent can be one of the following:
- relative colorimetric
- absolute colorimetric
Perceptual and relative colorimetric are most common.
Perceptual compresses or expands the full color range of source color-space into the full color range of target color-space.
Relative colorimetric intent adjusts the white (white point) of source space and then adjusts the rest of the source colors accordingly. Source colors outside the target space are mapped to closest reproducible colors. In some software, this is also called proof intent.
Saturation intent keeps the saturation of the source colors even if the colors get distorted in the target space. This intent is still considered experimental and you may get unexpected (if not undesirable) results.
Absolute colorimetric leaves overlap of source and target space intact and maps source colors outside the target space are mapped to closest reproducible colors.
For color proofing, we usually use the profile of the device that image is to be printed on. For testing purposes, you may use any of the Adobe profiles mentioned aobve.
Here are some links that you may find interesting: