Difference between revisions of "GNOME (Česky)"

From ArchWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
(Celkový vzhled: Přeloženo)
(12 intermediate revisions by 5 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{i18n|GNOME 3|GNOME}}
 
 
[[Category:Desktop environments (Česky)]]
 
[[Category:Desktop environments (Česky)]]
[[Category:Česky]]
+
[[de:GNOME]]
 +
[[en:GNOME]]
 +
[[es:GNOME]]
 +
[[fr:GNOME]]
 +
[[it:GNOME]]
 +
[[nl:GNOME]]
 +
[[pl:GNOME]]
 +
[[pt:GNOME]]
 +
[[ru:GNOME]]
 +
[[sr:GNOME]]
 +
[[th:GNOME]]
 +
[[tr:Gnome_Masaüstü_Ortamı]]
 +
[[uk:GNOME]]
 +
[[zh-CN:GNOME]]
 +
[[zh-TW:GNOME]]
 
{{translateme}}
 
{{translateme}}
 
{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary text|GNOME 3 poskytuje zbrusu nové moderní prostředí využívající GTK3+ toolkit.}}
 
{{Article summary text|GNOME 3 poskytuje zbrusu nové moderní prostředí využívající GTK3+ toolkit.}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
{{Article summary text|{{Graphical user interface overview}}}}
+
{{Article summary text|{{:Category:X Server}}}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
 
{{Article summary heading|Related}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|GTK+}}
 
{{Article summary wiki|GTK+}}
Line 68: Line 81:
 
  # pacman -S gdm
 
  # pacman -S gdm
  
Pokud GNOME radši spouštíte ručně z konzole, přidejte následující '''jediný''' řádek začínající slovem {{Codeline|exec}} do souboru {{Filename|~/.xinitrc}}. Pro více informací viz [[xinitrc| článek o xinitrc]].
+
Pokud GNOME radši spouštíte ručně z konzole, přidejte následující '''jediný''' řádek začínající slovem {{ic|exec}} do souboru {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}. Pro více informací viz [[xinitrc| článek o xinitrc]].
{{file|~/.xinitrc|content=<nowiki>
+
{{hc|~/.xinitrc|<nowiki>
 
  #POUZE TENTO ŘÁDEK:
 
  #POUZE TENTO ŘÁDEK:
 
  exec ck-launch-session gnome-session
 
  exec ck-launch-session gnome-session
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
Jakmile soubor uložíte, můžete GNOME spouštět příkazem {{Codeline|startx}}.
+
Jakmile soubor uložíte, můžete GNOME spouštět příkazem {{ic|startx}}.
  
 
== Používání shellu ==
 
== Používání shellu ==
Line 84: Line 97:
 
=== Restartování shellu ===
 
=== Restartování shellu ===
  
Po úpravách vzhledu je často vyžadováno restartovat GNOME shell. Mohli bychom se odhlásit a přihlásit, nicméně mnohem jednodušší a rychlejší je stisknout  {{Keypress|Alt}} + {{Keypress|F2}}  a zadat  {{Keypress|r}}  následované klávesou  {{Keypress|Enter}}.
+
Po úpravách vzhledu je často vyžadováno restartovat GNOME shell. Mohli bychom se odhlásit a přihlásit, nicméně mnohem jednodušší a rychlejší je stisknout  {{ic|Alt}} + {{ic|F2}}  a zadat  {{ic|r}}  následované klávesou  {{ic|Enter}}.
  
 
== Přizpůsobení vzhledu GNOME ==
 
== Přizpůsobení vzhledu GNOME ==
Line 104: Line 117:
 
==== settings.ini a nastavení vzhledu GTK3 ====
 
==== settings.ini a nastavení vzhledu GTK3 ====
  
Podobně jako v '''{{Filename|~/.gtkrc-2.0}}''' u GTK2+, je i u GTK3 možné přizpůsobit vzhled v souboru '''{{Filename|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}'''.
+
Podobně jako v '''{{ic|~/.gtkrc-2.0}}''' u GTK2+, je i u GTK3 možné přizpůsobit vzhled v souboru '''{{ic|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}'''.
  
Proměnná {{Codeline|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME}} je obvykle nastavená na '''~/.config'''.
+
Proměnná {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME}} je obvykle nastavená na '''~/.config'''.
  
 
''Adwaita,'' výchozí motiv GNOME 3, je součástí '''gnome-themes-standard.''' Další GTK3 motivy najdete třeba na [http://browse.deviantart.com/customization/skins/linuxutil/desktopenv/gnome/gtk3/ stránkách Deviantart.] Příklad:
 
''Adwaita,'' výchozí motiv GNOME 3, je součástí '''gnome-themes-standard.''' Další GTK3 motivy najdete třeba na [http://browse.deviantart.com/customization/skins/linuxutil/desktopenv/gnome/gtk3/ stránkách Deviantart.] Příklad:
{{file|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|content=<nowiki>
+
{{hc|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|2=<nowiki>
 
   [Settings]
 
   [Settings]
 
   gtk-theme-name = Adwaita
 
   gtk-theme-name = Adwaita
Line 123: Line 136:
 
==== Motiv ikon ====
 
==== Motiv ikon ====
  
GNOME 3 je kompatibilní s motivy ikon GNOME 2, což znamená, že se nemusíme omezovat pouze na motiv výchozí. Pro instalaci nových ikon zkopírujte adresář s motivem do '''{{Filename|~/.icons}}''' například takto:
+
GNOME 3 je kompatibilní s motivy ikon GNOME 2, což znamená, že se nemusíme omezovat pouze na motiv výchozí. Pro instalaci nových ikon zkopírujte adresář s motivem do '''{{ic|~/.icons}}''' například takto:
  
 
  $ cp -R /home/user/Desktop/muj_motiv_ikon ~/.icons
 
  $ cp -R /home/user/Desktop/muj_motiv_ikon ~/.icons
Line 129: Line 142:
 
Nový motiv ''muj_motiv_ikon'' si můžete aktivovat v '''gnome-tweak-tool''' v sekci '''''Motiv'''''.
 
Nový motiv ''muj_motiv_ikon'' si můžete aktivovat v '''gnome-tweak-tool''' v sekci '''''Motiv'''''.
  
Jinak můžete motiv nastavit také ručně bez gnome-tweak-tool v '''{{Filename|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}'''.
+
Jinak můžete motiv nastavit také ručně bez gnome-tweak-tool v '''{{ic|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}'''.
  
: {{file|name=${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|content=<nowiki>... předchozí řádky ...
+
: {{hc|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|2=<nowiki>... předchozí řádky ...
  
 
gtk-icon-theme-name = muj_motiv_ikon</nowiki>}}
 
gtk-icon-theme-name = muj_motiv_ikon</nowiki>}}
Line 139: Line 152:
 
==== Vždy zobrazovat umístění jako text ====
 
==== Vždy zobrazovat umístění jako text ====
  
Nástrojová lišta Nautilu standardně používá k navigaci v podsložkách tlačítka. Pokud si přejete zobrazit cestu jako textové pole, stiskněte {{Keypress|Ctrl}} + {{Keypress|L}}
+
Nástrojová lišta Nautilu standardně používá k navigaci v podsložkách tlačítka. Pokud si přejete zobrazit cestu jako textové pole, stiskněte {{ic|Ctrl}} + {{ic|L}}
  
 
Pro trvalé nastavení použijte následující příkaz:
 
Pro trvalé nastavení použijte následující příkaz:
Line 149: Line 162:
 
==== Zobrazení data v horním panelu ====
 
==== Zobrazení data v horním panelu ====
  
Jako výchozí zobrazuje GNOME v horním panelu pouze den v týdnu a čas. To můžeme změnit následujícím příkazem. Změny se projeví ihned.  
+
Jako výchozí zobrazuje GNOME v horním panelu pouze den v týdnu a čas. Datum můžeme přidat následujícím příkazem. Změny se projeví ihned.  
  
 
  # gsettings set org.gnome.shell.clock show-date true
 
  # gsettings set org.gnome.shell.clock show-date true
Line 155: Line 168:
 
==== Skrytí ikonky zpřístupnění ====
 
==== Skrytí ikonky zpřístupnění ====
  
Nainstalujte {{Package AUR|gnome-shell-extension-noa11y-git}} z [[AUR]].
+
Nainstalujte {{AUR|gnome-shell-extension-noa11y-git}} z [[AUR]].
  
 
==== Skrytí ikonky bluetooth ====
 
==== Skrytí ikonky bluetooth ====
Line 161: Line 174:
 
Deactivate bluetooth as startup-service if that is your intent. Refer to section [[#Automatic_program_launch_upon_login|Automatic program launch upon login]]
 
Deactivate bluetooth as startup-service if that is your intent. Refer to section [[#Automatic_program_launch_upon_login|Automatic program launch upon login]]
  
Create a folder named '''{{Filename|nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui}}'''  in  '''{{Filename|~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions}}'''. Create two new files:
+
Create a folder named '''{{ic|nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui}}'''  in  '''{{ic|~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions}}'''. Create two new files:
  
: {{File|~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions/nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui/extension.js|content=<nowiki>const Panel = imports.ui.panel;
+
: {{hc|~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions/nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui/extension.js|2=<nowiki>const Panel = imports.ui.panel;
  
 
function main() {
 
function main() {
Line 169: Line 182:
 
}</nowiki>}}
 
}</nowiki>}}
  
: {{File|~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions/nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui/metadata.json|content=<nowiki>{
+
: {{hc|~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions/nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui/metadata.json|<nowiki>{
 
   "shell-version": ["3.0"],
 
   "shell-version": ["3.0"],
 
   "uuid": "nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui",
 
   "uuid": "nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui",
Line 176: Line 189:
 
}</nowiki>}}
 
}</nowiki>}}
  
[[#Restartování_shellu|Restart the GNOME shell.]] The icon should be hidden. If this extension ceases to work in the future, adjust the shell version number in '''{{Filename|metadata.json.}}'''
+
[[#Restartování_shellu|Restart the GNOME shell.]] The icon should be hidden. If this extension ceases to work in the future, adjust the shell version number in '''{{ic|metadata.json.}}'''
  
 
==== Zobrazení ikonky baterie ====
 
==== Zobrazení ikonky baterie ====
  
Pro zobrazení ikony baterie v oznamovací oblasti nainstalujte {{codeline|gnome-power-manager}}.
+
Pro zobrazení ikony baterie v oznamovací oblasti nainstalujte {{ic|gnome-power-manager}}.
  
 
  # pacman -S gnome-power-manager
 
  # pacman -S gnome-power-manager
Line 200: Line 213:
 
==== Zobrazení sledování systému ====
 
==== Zobrazení sledování systému ====
  
Nainstalujte rozšíření [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=49250 gnome-shell-system-monitor-applet-git] dostupné v [[AUR]].
+
Nainstalujte rozšíření [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=49250 gnome-shell-system-monitor-applet-git] dostupné v [[AUR]].
  
 
==== Zobrazení informací o počasí ====
 
==== Zobrazení informací o počasí ====
  
Nainstalujte {{Package AUR|gnome-shell-extension-weather-git}} z [[AUR]].
+
Nainstalujte {{AUR|gnome-shell-extension-weather-git}} z [[AUR]].
  
 
=== Zobrazení činností ===
 
=== Zobrazení činností ===
Line 210: Line 223:
 
==== Odstranění položek z přehledu aplikací ====
 
==== Odstranění položek z přehledu aplikací ====
  
Like other desktop environments, GNOME uses .desktop files to populate its Applications view. These text files are in '''{{filename|/usr/share/applications}}'''.  It is not possible to edit these files from a folder view ‒ Nautilus does not treat their icons as text files. Use a terminal to display or edit .desktop file entries.
+
Like other desktop environments, GNOME uses .desktop files to populate its Applications view. These text files are in '''{{ic|/usr/share/applications}}'''.  It is not possible to edit these files from a folder view ‒ Nautilus does not treat their icons as text files. Use a terminal to display or edit .desktop file entries.
  
 
  # ls /usr/share/applications
 
  # ls /usr/share/applications
 
  # nano /usr/share/applications/foo.desktop
 
  # nano /usr/share/applications/foo.desktop
  
For system wide changes, edit files in '''{{filename|/usr/share/applications}}'''.  For local changes, make a copy of ''foo.desktop''  in your home folder.
+
For system wide changes, edit files in '''{{ic|/usr/share/applications}}'''.  For local changes, make a copy of ''foo.desktop''  in your home folder.
  
 
  $ cp /usr/share/applications/foo.desktop ~/.local/share/applications/
 
  $ cp /usr/share/applications/foo.desktop ~/.local/share/applications/
Line 229: Line 242:
 
One awkward selection of the GNOME designers is their choice of large icons for Applications view. This view is painful when working with a small screen containing many large application icons. There is a way to reduce the icon size. It is done by editing the Gnome-Shell theme.
 
One awkward selection of the GNOME designers is their choice of large icons for Applications view. This view is painful when working with a small screen containing many large application icons. There is a way to reduce the icon size. It is done by editing the Gnome-Shell theme.
  
Edit system files directly (make a backup first) or copy theme files to your local folder and edit these files. For the default theme, edit  '''{{filename|/usr/share/gnome-shell/theme/gnome-shell.css}}'''
+
Edit system files directly (make a backup first) or copy theme files to your local folder and edit these files. For the default theme, edit  '''{{ic|/usr/share/gnome-shell/theme/gnome-shell.css}}'''
  
For user themes, edit '''{{filename|/usr/share/themes/<UserTheme>/gnome-shell/gnome-shell.css}}'''
+
For user themes, edit '''{{ic|/usr/share/themes/<UserTheme>/gnome-shell/gnome-shell.css}}'''
  
 
Edit ''gnome-shell.css''  and replace the following values. Afterward, [[#Restartování_shellu|restart the GNOME shell.]]
 
Edit ''gnome-shell.css''  and replace the following values. Afterward, [[#Restartování_shellu|restart the GNOME shell.]]
{{file|gnome-shell.css|content=<nowiki>
+
{{hc|gnome-shell.css|<nowiki>
 
  .icon-grid {
 
  .icon-grid {
 
     spacing: 18px;
 
     spacing: 18px;
Line 245: Line 258:
 
</nowiki>}}
 
</nowiki>}}
  
A cloned GNOME Shell theme with smaller icons is available [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=51586 on the AUR].
+
A cloned GNOME Shell theme with smaller icons is available [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=51586 on the AUR].
  
 
=== Záhlaví okna ===
 
=== Záhlaví okna ===
Line 263: Line 276:
 
At present this setting is changeable only through '''gconf-editor.'''
 
At present this setting is changeable only through '''gconf-editor.'''
  
For example, we move the close and minimize buttons to the left side of the titlebar. Open '''gconf-editor''' and locate the  '''''desktop.gnome.shell.windows.button_layout'''''  key. Change its value to '''{{Codeline|close,minimize:}}'''  (Colon symbol designates the spacer between left side and right side of the titlebar.) Use whichever buttons in whatever order you prefer. You cannot use a button more than once. Also, keep in mind that certain buttons are deprecated. [[#Restartování_shellu|Restart the shell]] to see your new button arrangement.
+
For example, we move the close and minimize buttons to the left side of the titlebar. Open '''gconf-editor''' and locate the  '''''desktop.gnome.shell.windows.button_layout'''''  key. Change its value to '''{{ic|close,minimize:}}'''  (Colon symbol designates the spacer between left side and right side of the titlebar.) Use whichever buttons in whatever order you prefer. You cannot use a button more than once. Also, keep in mind that certain buttons are deprecated. [[#Restartování_shellu|Restart the shell]] to see your new button arrangement.
  
 
==== Skrytí záhlaví při maximalizaci ====
 
==== Skrytí záhlaví při maximalizaci ====
Line 271: Line 284:
 
[[#Restartování_shellu|Restartujte GNOME shell.]] Po této úpravě možná budete mít problém zrušit maximalizaci okna, když ho nebude za co chytit.
 
[[#Restartování_shellu|Restartujte GNOME shell.]] Po této úpravě možná budete mít problém zrušit maximalizaci okna, když ho nebude za co chytit.
  
With suitable keybindings, you should be able to use {{Keypress|Alt}} + {{Keypress|F5}},  {{Keypress|Alt}} + {{Keypress|F10}}  or  {{Keypress|Alt}} + {{Keypress|Space}}  to remedy the situation.
+
With suitable keybindings, you should be able to use {{ic|Alt}} + {{ic|F5}},  {{ic|Alt}} + {{ic|F10}}  or  {{ic|Alt}} + {{ic|Space}}  to remedy the situation.
  
To prevent '''{{filename|metacity-theme-3.xml}}''' from being overwritten each time package "gnome-themes-standard" is upgraded, add its name to '''{{Filename|/etc/pacman.conf}}''' with {{Codeline|NoUpgrade}}.
+
To prevent '''{{ic|metacity-theme-3.xml}}''' from being overwritten each time package "gnome-themes-standard" is upgraded, add its name to '''{{ic|/etc/pacman.conf}}''' with {{ic|NoUpgrade}}.
  
: {{File|/etc/pacman.conf|content=<nowiki>... previous lines ...
+
: {{hc|/etc/pacman.conf|2=<nowiki>... previous lines ...
  
 
# Pacman won't upgrade packages listed in IgnorePkg and members of IgnoreGroup
 
# Pacman won't upgrade packages listed in IgnorePkg and members of IgnoreGroup
Line 305: Line 318:
  
 
  $ `dbus-launch | sed "s/^/export /"`
 
  $ `dbus-launch | sed "s/^/export /"`
 
  
 
Check to see if dconf-service is running and if not, start it like this
 
Check to see if dconf-service is running and if not, start it like this
Line 322: Line 334:
  
 
The following is the command-line approach to retrieve or set the file name used for GDM's wallpaper.
 
The following is the command-line approach to retrieve or set the file name used for GDM's wallpaper.
<pre style="overflow:auto;">
+
{{bc|<nowiki>
$  GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri
+
$  GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri
$  GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri 'file:///usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/SundownDunes.jpg'
+
$  GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri 'file:///usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/SundownDunes.jpg'
+
 
$  GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-options 'zoom'
+
$  GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-options 'zoom'
## Possible values: centered, none, scaled, spanned, stretched, wallpaper, zoom</pre>
+
## Possible values: centered, none, scaled, spanned, stretched, wallpaper, zoom</nowiki>}}
 
Note: You must specify a file which user "gdm" has permission to read. GDM cannot read files in your home directory.
 
Note: You must specify a file which user "gdm" has permission to read. GDM cannot read files in your home directory.
  
Line 367: Line 379:
 
==== Nastavení aplikací spouštěných při přihlášení ====
 
==== Nastavení aplikací spouštěných při přihlášení ====
  
Aplikace, které se automaticky spouští po přihlášení nastavíme pomocí {{codeline|gnome-session-properties}}. Tento nástroj je součástí balíčku {{codeline|gnome-session}}.
+
Aplikace, které se automaticky spouští po přihlášení nastavíme pomocí {{ic|gnome-session-properties}}. Tento nástroj je součástí balíčku {{ic|gnome-session}}.
  
 
  $ gnome-session-properties
 
  $ gnome-session-properties
Line 378: Line 390:
 
  $ gnome-session-properties
 
  $ gnome-session-properties
  
The above command opens the '''Startup Applications Preferences''' applet. Click '''''Add'''''  and enter the following:
+
Výše uvedený příkaz otevře nabídku '''Předvolby aplikací spouštěných při přihlášení'''. Zvolte '''''Přidat'''''  and vyplňte následovně:
  
 
{| border="0"
 
{| border="0"
| Name:      ||  ''Numlockx''
+
| Název:      ||  ''Numlockx''
 
|-
 
|-
| Command:  ||  ''/usr/bin/numlockx on''
+
| Příkaz:  ||  ''/usr/bin/numlockx on''
 
|-
 
|-
| Comment:  ||  ''Turns on numlock.''
+
| Komentář:  ||  ''Turns on numlock.''
 
|}
 
|}
  
This is not a system-wide appearance tweak. Repeat these steps for each user wishing to activate numlock upon login.
+
Toto nastavení bude platné pouze pro aktuálního uživatele. Pokud budete chtít toto nastavit i pro jiné uživatele, postupujte stejným způsobem.
  
 
=== Rozšíření GNOME shell ===
 
=== Rozšíření GNOME shell ===
Line 394: Line 406:
 
GNOME Shell can be customized with extensions written by others. These provide features such as a dock or a widget for changing the  theme. Details on available extensions are found at the [http://www.webupd8.org/2011/04/gnome-shell-extensions-additional.html WEBUPD8] site. The most recent articles can be found using this [http://www.webupd8.org/search/label/gnome%20shell%20extensions?max-results=20 WEBUPD8 search link.]
 
GNOME Shell can be customized with extensions written by others. These provide features such as a dock or a widget for changing the  theme. Details on available extensions are found at the [http://www.webupd8.org/2011/04/gnome-shell-extensions-additional.html WEBUPD8] site. The most recent articles can be found using this [http://www.webupd8.org/search/label/gnome%20shell%20extensions?max-results=20 WEBUPD8 search link.]
  
Repository '''[extras]''' has a dozen extensions which can be installed individually. (The latest version of a given extension may be installed using its code snapshot, if preferred.)  [http://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=gnome-shell-extension&maintainer=&last_update=&flagged=&limit=50 List here.]
+
Repository '''[extras]''' has a dozen extensions which can be installed individually. (The latest version of a given extension may be installed using its code snapshot, if preferred.)  [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=gnome-shell-extension&maintainer=&last_update=&flagged=&limit=50 List here.]
  
 
  $ pacman -Ss gnome-shell-extension
 
  $ pacman -Ss gnome-shell-extension
Line 407: Line 419:
 
|  ''[https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=48607 Alternative Status Menu]''    || Adds "Hibernate" and "Power Off" to the status menu.
 
|  ''[https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=48607 Alternative Status Menu]''    || Adds "Hibernate" and "Power Off" to the status menu.
 
|-
 
|-
|  ''[https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=51102 Theme selector]'' || Select a theme in the activities overview. To install a custom theme with Gnome Tweak Tool you need to install the ''[http://www.archlinux.org/packages/extra/any/gnome-shell-extension-user-theme User theme extension]''
+
|  ''[https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=51102 Theme selector]'' || Select a theme in the activities overview. To install a custom theme with Gnome Tweak Tool you need to install the ''[https://www.archlinux.org/packages/extra/any/gnome-shell-extension-user-theme User theme extension]''
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 414: Line 426:
 
=== Výchozí terminál ===
 
=== Výchozí terminál ===
  
{{codeline|gsettings}}, which replaces {{codeline|gconftool-2}} in GNOME 3, is used to set e. g. the default terminal manually. The setting is relevant for ''nautilus-open-terminal''.
+
{{ic|gsettings}}, which replaces {{ic|gconftool-2}} in GNOME 3, is used to set e. g. the default terminal manually. The setting is relevant for ''nautilus-open-terminal''.
 
The commands for [[rxvt-unicode|urxvt]] run as daemon:
 
The commands for [[rxvt-unicode|urxvt]] run as daemon:
  
Line 420: Line 432:
 
  gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.default-applications.terminal exec-arg "'-e'"
 
  gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.default-applications.terminal exec-arg "'-e'"
  
{{Note|For ''nautilus-open-terminal'', you may need a flag (e.g. {{Codeline|-e}}) to indicate that a command will follow: ''nautilus-open-terminal'' passes a {{Codeline|cd}} command in order to change directories to the appropriate location.}}
+
{{Note|For ''nautilus-open-terminal'', you may need a flag (e.g. {{ic|-e}}) to indicate that a command will follow: ''nautilus-open-terminal'' passes a {{ic|cd}} command in order to change directories to the appropriate location.}}
  
 
=== Prostřední tlačítko myši ===
 
=== Prostřední tlačítko myši ===
Line 434: Line 446:
 
Upgrading to GNOME 3 will likely break your xmonad setup. You can use xmonad again by [[#Enabling_fallback_mode|forcing fallback mode]] and creating two files:
 
Upgrading to GNOME 3 will likely break your xmonad setup. You can use xmonad again by [[#Enabling_fallback_mode|forcing fallback mode]] and creating two files:
  
: {{file|name=/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/xmonad.session|content=<nowiki>[GNOME Session]
+
: {{hc|/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/xmonad.session|2=<nowiki>[GNOME Session]
 
Name=Xmonad session
 
Name=Xmonad session
 
RequiredComponents=gnome-panel;gnome-settings-daemon;
 
RequiredComponents=gnome-panel;gnome-settings-daemon;
Line 441: Line 453:
 
DefaultProvider-notifications=notification-daemon</nowiki>}}
 
DefaultProvider-notifications=notification-daemon</nowiki>}}
  
: {{file|name=/usr/share/xsessions/xmonad-gnome-session.desktop|content=<nowiki>[Desktop Entry]
+
: {{hc|/usr/share/xsessions/xmonad-gnome-session.desktop|2=<nowiki>[Desktop Entry]
 
Name=Xmonad GNOME
 
Name=Xmonad GNOME
 
Comment=Tiling window manager
 
Comment=Tiling window manager
Line 456: Line 468:
 
You can use wmii with gnome by [[#Enabling_fallback_mode|forcing fallback mode]] and creating tree files:
 
You can use wmii with gnome by [[#Enabling_fallback_mode|forcing fallback mode]] and creating tree files:
  
 
+
: {{hc|/usr/share/applications/wmii.desktop|2=<nowiki>
: {{file|name=/usr/share/applications/wmii.desktop|content=<nowiki>
+
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
Version=1.0
 
Version=1.0
Line 465: Line 476:
 
Exec=wmii</nowiki>}}
 
Exec=wmii</nowiki>}}
  
: {{file|name=/usr/share/xsessions/gnome-wmii.desktop|content=<nowiki>
+
: {{hc|/usr/share/xsessions/gnome-wmii.desktop|2=<nowiki>
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
Name=Gnome-wmii
 
Name=Gnome-wmii
Line 473: Line 484:
 
Type=Application</nowiki>}}
 
Type=Application</nowiki>}}
  
: {{file|name=/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/wmii.session|content=<nowiki>
+
: {{hc|/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/wmii.session|2=<nowiki>
 
[GNOME Session]
 
[GNOME Session]
 
Name=wmii
 
Name=wmii
Line 499: Line 510:
 
== Hidden features ==
 
== Hidden features ==
  
GNOME 3 hides many useful options which you can customize with '''dconf-editor.''' GNOME 3 also supports '''gconf-editor''' for settings that have not yet migrated to dconf.
+
GNOME 3 ukrývá spoustu užitečných voleb, které lze upravit pomocí '''dconf-editor.''' GNOME 3 dále podporuje '''gconf-editor''' pro úpravu nastavení, která ještě nepřešla pod správu pomocí dconf.
  
 
=== Úprava klávesových zkratek ===
 
=== Úprava klávesových zkratek ===
  
Firstly, use '''dconf-editor''' to place a checkmark next to  {{Codeline|can-change-accels}}  in the key named ''org.gnome.desktop.interface.''
+
Firstly, use '''dconf-editor''' to place a checkmark next to  {{ic|can-change-accels}}  in the key named ''org.gnome.desktop.interface.''
  
 
We will replace the hotkey — a.k.a. keyboard shortcut, keyboard accelerator — used by Nautilus to move files to the trash folder.
 
We will replace the hotkey — a.k.a. keyboard shortcut, keyboard accelerator — used by Nautilus to move files to the trash folder.
  
The default assignment is a somewhat-awkward {{Keypress|Ctrl}} + {{Keypress|Delete}}.
+
The default assignment is a somewhat-awkward {{ic|Ctrl}} + {{ic|Delete}}.
  
 
* Open Nautilus, select any file, and click '''Edit''' on the menu bar.
 
* Open Nautilus, select any file, and click '''Edit''' on the menu bar.
 
* Hover over the ''Move to Trash''  menu item.
 
* Hover over the ''Move to Trash''  menu item.
* While hovering, press {{Keypress|Delete}}.  The current accelerator is now unset.
+
* While hovering, press {{ic|Delete}}.  The current accelerator is now unset.
 
* Press the key that you wish to become the new keyboard accelerator.
 
* Press the key that you wish to become the new keyboard accelerator.
* Press {{Keypress|Delete}} to make the new accelerator be the Delete key.
+
* Press {{ic|Delete}} to make the new accelerator be the Delete key.
  
Unless you select a file or folder, ''Move to Trash''  will be grayed-out. Finally, disable {{Codeline|can-change-accels}} to prevent accidental hotkey changes.
+
Unless you select a file or folder, ''Move to Trash''  will be grayed-out. Finally, disable {{ic|can-change-accels}} to prevent accidental hotkey changes.
  
 
=== Shutdown via the status menu ===
 
=== Shutdown via the status menu ===
Line 543: Line 554:
 
If you wish to enable fallback mode while still having '''gnome-shell''' installed, make the following system change:
 
If you wish to enable fallback mode while still having '''gnome-shell''' installed, make the following system change:
  
Open '''gnome-control-center.''' Click the ''System Info'' icon. Click Graphics. Change ''Forced Fallback Mode'' to {{Codeline|ON.}}
+
Open '''gnome-control-center.''' Click the ''System Info'' icon. Click Graphics. Change ''Forced Fallback Mode'' to {{ic|ON.}}
  
 
You can alternatively choose the type of session from a terminal with a ''gsettings'' command:
 
You can alternatively choose the type of session from a terminal with a ''gsettings'' command:
Line 567: Line 578:
 
When enabling shell extensions causes GNOME breakage, you should first remove the ''user-theme'' and ''auto-move-windows'' extensions from their installation directory.
 
When enabling shell extensions causes GNOME breakage, you should first remove the ''user-theme'' and ''auto-move-windows'' extensions from their installation directory.
  
The installation directory could be one of  '''{{Filename|~/.local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions,}}''' '''{{Filename|/usr/share/gnome‑shell/extensions,}}''' or '''{{Filename|/usr/local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions}}'''. Removing these two extension-containing folders may fix the breakage. Otherwise, isolate the problem extension with trial‑and‑error.
+
The installation directory could be one of  '''{{ic|~/.local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions,}}''' '''{{ic|/usr/share/gnome‑shell/extensions,}}''' or '''{{ic|/usr/local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions}}'''. Removing these two extension-containing folders may fix the breakage. Otherwise, isolate the problem extension with trial‑and‑error.
  
 
Removing or adding an extension-containing folder to the aforementioned directories removes or adds the corresponding extension to your system. Details on Gnome Shell extensions are available at the [https://live.gnome.org/GnomeShell/Extensions GNOME web site.]
 
Removing or adding an extension-containing folder to the aforementioned directories removes or adds the corresponding extension to your system. Details on Gnome Shell extensions are available at the [https://live.gnome.org/GnomeShell/Extensions GNOME web site.]
Line 573: Line 584:
 
=== Extensions do not work after GNOME 3 update ===
 
=== Extensions do not work after GNOME 3 update ===
  
Locate the folder where your extensions are installed. It might be '''{{Filename|~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions}}''' or '''{{Filename|/usr/share/gnome-shell/extensions}}'''.
+
Locate the folder where your extensions are installed. It might be '''{{ic|~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions}}''' or '''{{ic|/usr/share/gnome-shell/extensions}}'''.
  
Edit each occurrence of  '''{{Filename|metadata.json}}'''  which appears in each extension sub-folder.  
+
Edit each occurrence of  '''{{ic|metadata.json}}'''  which appears in each extension sub-folder.  
  
 
{| border="0"
 
{| border="0"
| Insert: || '''{{Codeline|"shell-version": ["3.0"]}}'''
+
| Insert: || '''{{ic|"shell-version": ["3.0"]}}'''
 
|-
 
|-
| Instead of (for example):  || '''{{Codeline|"shell-version": ["3.0.1"]}}'''
+
| Instead of (for example):  || '''{{ic|"shell-version": ["3.0.1"]}}'''
 
|-
 
|-
| You might instead use: || '''{{Codeline|"shell-version": ["3.0.0", "3.0.1", "3.0.2"]}}'''
+
| You might instead use: || '''{{ic|"shell-version": ["3.0.0", "3.0.1", "3.0.2"]}}'''
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 592: Line 603:
 
Screen lock only works when you suspend through GNOME's status menu. If you suspend or hibernate using the power button, your screen is not locked after resume. The problem is a configuration failure in dconf.
 
Screen lock only works when you suspend through GNOME's status menu. If you suspend or hibernate using the power button, your screen is not locked after resume. The problem is a configuration failure in dconf.
  
Open ''dconf-editor'' and uncheck  '''{{Codeline|lock-use-screensaver}}'''  in the key named  ''org.gnome.power-manager.''
+
Open ''dconf-editor'' and uncheck  '''{{ic|lock-use-screensaver}}'''  in the key named  ''org.gnome.power-manager.''
 
   
 
   
 
  # gsettings set org.gnome.power-manager lock-use-screensaver 'false'
 
  # gsettings set org.gnome.power-manager lock-use-screensaver 'false'
Line 602: Line 613:
 
That usually happens when '''oxygen-gtk''' is installed. This theme appears to conflict with GNOME 3 or GTK3 settings. When '''oxygen-gtk''' has been set as a GTK2 theme, GTK2 apps segfault with errors like these:
 
That usually happens when '''oxygen-gtk''' is installed. This theme appears to conflict with GNOME 3 or GTK3 settings. When '''oxygen-gtk''' has been set as a GTK2 theme, GTK2 apps segfault with errors like these:
  
<pre> (firefox-bin:14345): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: invalid (NULL) pointer instance
+
{{bc| (firefox-bin:14345): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: invalid (NULL) pointer instance
  
 
(firefox-bin:14345): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_signal_connect_data: assertion `G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE (instance)' failed
 
(firefox-bin:14345): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_signal_connect_data: assertion `G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE (instance)' failed
Line 612: Line 623:
 
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_window_new: assertion `GDK_IS_WINDOW (parent)' failed
 
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_window_new: assertion `GDK_IS_WINDOW (parent)' failed
 
Segmentation fault
 
Segmentation fault
</pre>
+
}}
  
 
The current workaround is to remove '''oxygen-gtk''' from the system and use a different theme for applications.
 
The current workaround is to remove '''oxygen-gtk''' from the system and use a different theme for applications.
Line 640: Line 651:
 
=== Editing hotkeys via can-change-accels fails ===
 
=== Editing hotkeys via can-change-accels fails ===
  
It is also possible to manually change the keys via an application's so-called accel map file. Where it is to be found is up to the application: For instance, Thunar's is at {{Filename|~/.config/Thunar/accels.scm}}, whereas Nautilus's is located at {{Filename|~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus}}. The file should contain a list of possible hotkeys, each unchanged line commented out with a leading ";" that has to be removed for a change to become active.
+
It is also possible to manually change the keys via an application's so-called accel map file. Where it is to be found is up to the application: For instance, Thunar's is at {{ic|~/.config/Thunar/accels.scm}}, whereas Nautilus's is located at {{ic|~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus}}. The file should contain a list of possible hotkeys, each unchanged line commented out with a leading ";" that has to be removed for a change to become active.
  
 
=== Panels do not respond to right-click in fallback mode ===
 
=== Panels do not respond to right-click in fallback mode ===
Line 654: Line 665:
 
=== Nautilus does not start ===
 
=== Nautilus does not start ===
  
# Press {{keypress|ALT}}+{{keypress|F2}}
+
# Press {{ic|ALT}}+{{ic|F2}}
# Enter {{codeline|gnome-tweak-tool}}
+
# Enter {{ic|gnome-tweak-tool}}
 
# Select the ''File Manager'' tab.
 
# Select the ''File Manager'' tab.
 
# Locate option ''Have file manager handle the desktop'' and assure it is toggled '''off'''.
 
# Locate option ''Have file manager handle the desktop'' and assure it is toggled '''off'''.
Line 672: Line 683:
  
 
Some laptops have a touchpad lock button that disables the touchpad so that users can type without worrying about touching the touchpad. It appears currently that although GNOME can lock the touchpad by pressing this button, it can't unlock it. If the touchpad gets locked you can do the following to unlock it.
 
Some laptops have a touchpad lock button that disables the touchpad so that users can type without worrying about touching the touchpad. It appears currently that although GNOME can lock the touchpad by pressing this button, it can't unlock it. If the touchpad gets locked you can do the following to unlock it.
# Start a terminal. You can do this by pressing {{keypress|ALT}}+{{keypress|F2}} , then typing {{codeline|gnome-terminal}} and then pressing {{keypress|ENTER}}
+
# Start a terminal. You can do this by pressing {{ic|ALT}}+{{ic|F2}} , then typing {{ic|gnome-terminal}} and then pressing {{ic|ENTER}}
 
# Type in the following command
 
# Type in the following command
 
  $ xinput set-prop "SynPS/2 Synaptics TouchPad" "Device Enabled" 1
 
  $ xinput set-prop "SynPS/2 Synaptics TouchPad" "Device Enabled" 1
Line 678: Line 689:
 
=== Ctrl+V pastes path instead of file in Nautilus ===
 
=== Ctrl+V pastes path instead of file in Nautilus ===
  
If you are affected by this issue, edit {{filename|~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus}} where you can find two lines for Ctrl+V :
+
If you are affected by this issue, edit {{ic|~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus}} where you can find two lines for Ctrl+V :
{{file|~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus|content=<nowiki>
+
{{hc|~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus|<nowiki>
 
(gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/DirViewActions/Paste" "<Control>v")
 
(gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/DirViewActions/Paste" "<Control>v")
 
...
 
...
Line 708: Line 719:
 
  $ echo "Inherits=Adwaita" >> index.theme
 
  $ echo "Inherits=Adwaita" >> index.theme
  
Alternatively, you can install {{Package AUR|gnome-cursors-fix}} from [[AUR]].
+
Alternatively, you can install {{AUR|gnome-cursors-fix}} from [[AUR]].
  
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==

Revision as of 16:04, 22 November 2013

Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.pngThis article or section needs to be translated.Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

Notes: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications. (Discuss in Talk:GNOME (Česky)#)
Template:Article summary start

Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary text Template:Article summary heading Template:Article summary wiki Template:Article summary end

Projekt GNOME začal od píky a vytvořil úplně nový desktop jménem GNOME 3. Nabízí:

  • Moderní vzhled a písmo
  • Přístup ke všem oknům a aplikacím pomocí "Činností"
  • Přívětivý systém notifikací a nenápadný horní panel
  • Integraci vylepšeného prohlížeče souborů Nautilus
  • Integrované služby pro komunikaci
  • Novou aplikaci pro nastavení systému
  • Vyhledávací funkci činností
  • Funkce jako automatické rozmisťování oken

Další informace najdete na oficiálních stránkách GNOME 3.

Contents

Úvod

GNOME 3 má dvě prostředí: GNOME Shell (nový standardní layout) a nouzový režim (fallback mode). Sezení GNOME automaticky rozpozná, kdy počítač není schopen spustit Gnome Shell a v případě nutnosti spustí nouzový režim.

Nouzový režim se podobá GNOME 2. (Používá gnome-panel/Metacity místo gnome-shell/Mutter.)

V nouzovém režimu můžete stále nahradit výchozí správce oken vámi preferovaným.

Upgrade z GNOME 2

Warning: Upgrade na GNOME 3 z aktivního GNOME 2 sezení může způsobit poškození systému.

Aktualizaci je doporučeno spouštět z konzole nebo z jiného pracovního prostředí / správce oken.

# pacman -Syu 

Touto aktualizací jsme nainstalovali pouze nouzový režim GNOME 3.x. Pro instaci nového GNOME shellu:

# pacman -S gnome-shell

V závislosti na vašem nastavení může být pro správnou funkčnost nezbytné odstranit starou konfiguraci:

$ mv .config .config.bak
$ mv .gconf .gconf.bak
$ mv .gnome2 .gnome2.bak

Instalace

GNOME 3 se nachází v repozitáři [extra]. Skupina gnome obsahuje základní pracovní prostředí a aplikace, gnome-extra obsahuje některé další volitelné součásti. Pokud si nejste jisti, jestli všechny balíčky využijete, pročtěte si před instalací jejich popisy (nebo je prostě odstraňte později).

Příklad:

# pacman -Syu gnome
# pacman -S gnome-extra

D-Bus démon

GNOME pro svůj běh vyžaduje D-Bus démon. V článku D-Bus najdete návod na jeho instalaci.

Spouštění GNOME

Pro nejlepší integraci prostředí je doporučen správce přihlášení GDM. Nic vám ale nebrání v tom nainstalovat si místo GDM třeba SLiM nebo cokoliv jiného. Pro další informace o spouštění pracovního prostředí navštivte článek o správcích displeje.

# pacman -S gdm

Pokud GNOME radši spouštíte ručně z konzole, přidejte následující jediný řádek začínající slovem exec do souboru ~/.xinitrc. Pro více informací viz článek o xinitrc.

~/.xinitrc
 #POUZE TENTO ŘÁDEK:
 exec ck-launch-session gnome-session

Jakmile soubor uložíte, můžete GNOME spouštět příkazem startx.

Používání shellu

GNOME cheat sheet

Na stránkách GNOME najdete užitečný GNOME Shell cheat sheet s informacemi o přepínání úloh, klávesových zkratkách, práci s okny, panelem apod.

Restartování shellu

Po úpravách vzhledu je často vyžadováno restartovat GNOME shell. Mohli bychom se odhlásit a přihlásit, nicméně mnohem jednodušší a rychlejší je stisknout Alt + F2 a zadat r následované klávesou Enter.

Přizpůsobení vzhledu GNOME

Celkový vzhled

GNOME 3 sice začalo "od píky", to s sebou ale nese i některé nepříjemnosti. Jednou z nich je zatím nepříliš obsáhlý konfigurační nástroj. Pokročilejší volby tady stále jsou, akorát nejsou uživateli tolik na očích. Nové Nastavení systému je sice přehledné, každopádně nejspíš zatoužíte po více možnostech přizpůsobení vzhledu.

Gsettings

Nový nástroj pro příkazový řádek gsettings uchovává nastavení v binárním formátu (na rozdíl od gconf a XML). Tutoriál Customizing the GNOME Shell odhaluje sílu gsettings.

GNOME tweak tool

Tento grafický nástroj umožňuje změnit písma, motivy, tlačítka oken a další nastavení.

# pacman -S gnome-tweak-tool

settings.ini a nastavení vzhledu GTK3

Podobně jako v ~/.gtkrc-2.0 u GTK2+, je i u GTK3 možné přizpůsobit vzhled v souboru ${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini.

Proměnná $XDG_CONFIG_HOME je obvykle nastavená na ~/.config.

Adwaita, výchozí motiv GNOME 3, je součástí gnome-themes-standard. Další GTK3 motivy najdete třeba na stránkách Deviantart. Příklad:

${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
  [Settings]
  gtk-theme-name = Adwaita
  gtk-fallback-icon-theme = gnome
  # následující volba funguje jen když ji motiv podporuje
  gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme = true
  # nastavení písma a jeho rozměrů
  gtk-font-name = Sans 10

Aby se změny projevily, je nezbytné restartovat GNOME shell. Další volby GTK najdete ve vývojářské dokumentaci GNOME.

Motiv ikon

GNOME 3 je kompatibilní s motivy ikon GNOME 2, což znamená, že se nemusíme omezovat pouze na motiv výchozí. Pro instalaci nových ikon zkopírujte adresář s motivem do ~/.icons například takto:

$ cp -R /home/user/Desktop/muj_motiv_ikon ~/.icons

Nový motiv muj_motiv_ikon si můžete aktivovat v gnome-tweak-tool v sekci Motiv.

Jinak můžete motiv nastavit také ručně bez gnome-tweak-tool v ${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini.

${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
... předchozí řádky ...

gtk-icon-theme-name = muj_motiv_ikon

Nautilus

Vždy zobrazovat umístění jako text

Nástrojová lišta Nautilu standardně používá k navigaci v podsložkách tlačítka. Pokud si přejete zobrazit cestu jako textové pole, stiskněte Ctrl + L

Pro trvalé nastavení použijte následující příkaz:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.nautilus.preferences always-use-location-entry true

GNOME panel

Zobrazení data v horním panelu

Jako výchozí zobrazuje GNOME v horním panelu pouze den v týdnu a čas. Datum můžeme přidat následujícím příkazem. Změny se projeví ihned.

# gsettings set org.gnome.shell.clock show-date true

Skrytí ikonky zpřístupnění

Nainstalujte gnome-shell-extension-noa11y-gitAUR z AUR.

Skrytí ikonky bluetooth

Deactivate bluetooth as startup-service if that is your intent. Refer to section Automatic program launch upon login

Create a folder named nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui in ~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions. Create two new files:

~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions/nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui/extension.js
const Panel = imports.ui.panel;

function main() {
  Panel.STANDARD_TRAY_ICON_SHELL_IMPLEMENTATION['bluetooth'] = '';
}
~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions/nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui/metadata.json
{
  "shell-version": ["3.0"],
  "uuid": "nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui",
  "name": "nbluetooth",
  "description": "Turn off the bluetooth icon in the panel"
}

Restart the GNOME shell. The icon should be hidden. If this extension ceases to work in the future, adjust the shell version number in metadata.json.

Zobrazení ikonky baterie

Pro zobrazení ikony baterie v oznamovací oblasti nainstalujte gnome-power-manager.

# pacman -S gnome-power-manager

Zakázání položky "Uspat" ve status menu

Nainstalujte Gnome Shell rozšíření alternative status menu.

# pacman -S gnome-shell-extension-alternative-status-menu

Eliminate delay when logging out

The following tweak removes the confirmation dialog and sixty second delay for logging out.

This dialog normally appears when you log out with the status menu. This tweak affects the Power Off dialog as well. This is not a system-wide change; it affects only the user who enters this command. The change takes effect immediately after entering the command.

$ gsettings set org.gnome.SessionManager logout-prompt 'false'

Zobrazení sledování systému

Nainstalujte rozšíření gnome-shell-system-monitor-applet-git dostupné v AUR.

Zobrazení informací o počasí

Nainstalujte gnome-shell-extension-weather-gitAUR z AUR.

Zobrazení činností

Odstranění položek z přehledu aplikací

Like other desktop environments, GNOME uses .desktop files to populate its Applications view. These text files are in /usr/share/applications. It is not possible to edit these files from a folder view ‒ Nautilus does not treat their icons as text files. Use a terminal to display or edit .desktop file entries.

# ls /usr/share/applications
# nano /usr/share/applications/foo.desktop

For system wide changes, edit files in /usr/share/applications. For local changes, make a copy of foo.desktop in your home folder.

$ cp /usr/share/applications/foo.desktop ~/.local/share/applications/

Edit .desktop files to fit your wishes. Note: removing a .desktop file does not uninstall an application, but instead removes its desktop integration: MIME types, shortcuts, and so forth.

The following command appends one line to a .desktop file and hides its associated icon from Applications view:

$ echo "NoDisplay=true" >> foo.desktop

Zmenšení velikosti ikon aplikací

One awkward selection of the GNOME designers is their choice of large icons for Applications view. This view is painful when working with a small screen containing many large application icons. There is a way to reduce the icon size. It is done by editing the Gnome-Shell theme.

Edit system files directly (make a backup first) or copy theme files to your local folder and edit these files. For the default theme, edit /usr/share/gnome-shell/theme/gnome-shell.css

For user themes, edit /usr/share/themes/<UserTheme>/gnome-shell/gnome-shell.css

Edit gnome-shell.css and replace the following values. Afterward, restart the GNOME shell.

gnome-shell.css
 .icon-grid {
     spacing: 18px;
     -shell-grid-item-size: 82px;
 }
 
 .icon-grid .overview-icon {
     icon-size: 48px;
 }

A cloned GNOME Shell theme with smaller icons is available on the AUR.

Záhlaví okna

Ztenčení záhlaví

# sed -i '/title_vertical_pad/s|value="[0-9]\{1,2\}"|value="0"|g' /usr/share/themes/Adwaita/metacity-1/metacity-theme-3.xml

Restartujte GNOME shell. Příkaz změní vertikální odsazení titulku ze 14 na 0 a dodá záhlaví uhlazenější vzhled.

Pro obnovení původních hodnot:

$ sudo pacman -S gnome-themes-standard

Úprava tlačítek záhlaví

At present this setting is changeable only through gconf-editor.

For example, we move the close and minimize buttons to the left side of the titlebar. Open gconf-editor and locate the desktop.gnome.shell.windows.button_layout key. Change its value to close,minimize: (Colon symbol designates the spacer between left side and right side of the titlebar.) Use whichever buttons in whatever order you prefer. You cannot use a button more than once. Also, keep in mind that certain buttons are deprecated. Restart the shell to see your new button arrangement.

Skrytí záhlaví při maximalizaci

# sed -i -r 's|(<frame_geometry name="max")|\1 has_title="false"|' /usr/share/themes/Adwaita/metacity-1/metacity-theme-3.xml

Restartujte GNOME shell. Po této úpravě možná budete mít problém zrušit maximalizaci okna, když ho nebude za co chytit.

With suitable keybindings, you should be able to use Alt + F5, Alt + F10 or Alt + Space to remedy the situation.

To prevent metacity-theme-3.xml from being overwritten each time package "gnome-themes-standard" is upgraded, add its name to /etc/pacman.conf with NoUpgrade.

/etc/pacman.conf
... previous lines ...

# Pacman won't upgrade packages listed in IgnorePkg and members of IgnoreGroup
# IgnorePkg   =
# IgnoreGroup =

NoUpgrade = usr/share/themes/Adwaita/metacity-1/metacity-theme-3.xml    # Do not add a leading slash to the path

... more lines ...

To restore original Adwaita theme values:

# pacman -S gnome-themes-standard

Přihlašovací obrazovka

To modify characteristics of the login screen (GDM, the GNOME display manager) the following lines can be executed. The first command allows all users, including "gdm", to access X settings (albeit temporarily). This command creates a temporary vulnerability, so be advised. The second command opens a bash session with the credentials of user "gdm". Note: for exposition, user gdm's terminal prompt is shown as $. In actuality, it shows something like -bash-4.2$.

# xhost +
# su - gdm -s /bin/bash
$ dbus-launch

The third command prints DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS and DBUS_SESSION_BUS_PID. We must export these variables. Either manually export the below two variables shown in the output of dbus-launch like this:

$ export DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS=unix:abstract=/tmp/dbus-Jb433gMQHS,guid=fc14d4bf3d000e38276a5a2200000d38
$ export DBUS_SESSION_BUS_PID=4283

Or use the follow command:

$ `dbus-launch | sed "s/^/export /"`

Check to see if dconf-service is running and if not, start it like this

$ /usr/lib/dconf/dconf-service &

Pozadí přihlašovací obrazovky

Once session variables have been exported as explained above, you may issue commands to retrieve or set items used by GDM.

The easiest way to changes all the settings is by launching the Configuration Editor gui with the command

$ dconf-editor

The location of each setting is the same as in the command line style of configuration shown below:

The following is the command-line approach to retrieve or set the file name used for GDM's wallpaper.

$  GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri
$  GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri 'file:///usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/SundownDunes.jpg'

$  GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-options 'zoom'
## Possible values: centered, none, scaled, spanned, stretched, wallpaper, zoom

Note: You must specify a file which user "gdm" has permission to read. GDM cannot read files in your home directory.

An alternative graphical interface to changing themes (gtk3, icons and cursor), the wallpaper and minor other settings of the GDM login screen, you can install gdm3setup from AUR.

Větší písmo pro přihlášení

This tweak enlarges the login font with a scaling factor. It is the same method employed by Accessibility Manager on the desktop.

You must export the GDM session variables before performing this tweak.

$ GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface text-scaling-factor '1.25'

Vypnutí zvuku

This tweak disables the audible feedback heard when the system volume is adjusted (via keyboard) on the login screen. You must first export the GDM session variables.

$ GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.sound event-sounds 'false'

If the above tweak does not work for you or you are unable to export the GDM session variables, there is always the easiest solution to the "ready sound" problem: mute or lower the sound while in GDM login screen using the media keys (if available) of your keyboard.

Make the power button interactive

The default installation sets the power button to suspend the system. Power off or Show dialog is a better choice. You must first export the GDM session variables as outlined previously.

 $ GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power button-power 'interactive'
 $ GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power button-hibernate 'interactive'
 $ gsettings list-recursively org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power

Rozložení klávesnice v GDM

GDM neví o vašem nastavení klávesnice v GNOME 3. Pro změnu nastavení klávesnice v GDM nastavte požadované rozložení v Xorg konfiguraci. Viz Beginner's Guide.

Další tipy

Viz GNOME Tips.

Miscellaneous settings

Nastavení aplikací spouštěných při přihlášení

Aplikace, které se automaticky spouští po přihlášení nastavíme pomocí gnome-session-properties. Tento nástroj je součástí balíčku gnome-session.

$ gnome-session-properties

Aktivování numlocku při spuštění

Nainstalujte numlockx z repozitáře [community]. Pak přidejte příkaz numlockx do aplikací spouštěných po přihlášení.

# pacman -S numlockx
$ gnome-session-properties

Výše uvedený příkaz otevře nabídku Předvolby aplikací spouštěných při přihlášení. Zvolte Přidat and vyplňte následovně:

Název: Numlockx
Příkaz: /usr/bin/numlockx on
Komentář: Turns on numlock.

Toto nastavení bude platné pouze pro aktuálního uživatele. Pokud budete chtít toto nastavit i pro jiné uživatele, postupujte stejným způsobem.

Rozšíření GNOME shell

GNOME Shell can be customized with extensions written by others. These provide features such as a dock or a widget for changing the theme. Details on available extensions are found at the WEBUPD8 site. The most recent articles can be found using this WEBUPD8 search link.

Repository [extras] has a dozen extensions which can be installed individually. (The latest version of a given extension may be installed using its code snapshot, if preferred.) List here.

$ pacman -Ss gnome-shell-extension

Other useful extensions provided in the AUR:

Presentation Mode Adds option to inhibit screensaver in the power menu (battery icon).
Weather Displays weather notifications.
Alternative Status Menu Adds "Hibernate" and "Power Off" to the status menu.
Theme selector Select a theme in the activities overview. To install a custom theme with Gnome Tweak Tool you need to install the User theme extension

Restart the GNOME Shell after installing an extension. See when an extension breaks GNOME for troubleshooting information.

Výchozí terminál

gsettings, which replaces gconftool-2 in GNOME 3, is used to set e. g. the default terminal manually. The setting is relevant for nautilus-open-terminal. The commands for urxvt run as daemon:

gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.default-applications.terminal exec urxvtc
gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.default-applications.terminal exec-arg "'-e'"
Note: For nautilus-open-terminal, you may need a flag (e.g. -e) to indicate that a command will follow: nautilus-open-terminal passes a cd command in order to change directories to the appropriate location.

Prostřední tlačítko myši

By default, GNOME 3 disables middle mouse button emulation regardless of Xorg settings (Emulate3Buttons). To enable middle mouse button emulation use:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.peripherals.mouse middle-button-enabled true

Xmonad

Xmonad is a tiling window manager.

Upgrading to GNOME 3 will likely break your xmonad setup. You can use xmonad again by forcing fallback mode and creating two files:

/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/xmonad.session
[GNOME Session]
Name=Xmonad session
RequiredComponents=gnome-panel;gnome-settings-daemon;
RequiredProviders=windowmanager;notifications;
DefaultProvider-windowmanager=xmonad
DefaultProvider-notifications=notification-daemon
/usr/share/xsessions/xmonad-gnome-session.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Xmonad GNOME
Comment=Tiling window manager
TryExec=/usr/bin/gnome-session
Exec=gnome-session --session=xmonad
Type=XSession

The next time you log in, you should have the ability to choose Xmonad GNOME as your session.

wmii

wmii is a tiling window manager.

You can use wmii with gnome by forcing fallback mode and creating tree files:

/usr/share/applications/wmii.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Version=1.0
Type=Application
Name=wmii
TryExec=wmii
Exec=wmii
/usr/share/xsessions/gnome-wmii.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Gnome-wmii
Comment=Gnome with wmii as window manager
TryExec=gnome-session
Exec=gnome-session --session=wmii
Type=Application
/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/wmii.session
[GNOME Session]
Name=wmii
RequiredComponents=gnome-panel;gnome-settings-daemon;
RequiredProviders=windowmanager;notifications;
DefaultProvider-windowmanager=wmii
DefaultProvider-notifications=notification-daemon

The next time you log in, you should have the ability to choose Gnome-wmii as your session.

The original info was taken from running-the-awesome-window-manager-within-gnome, go there for info on awesome-gnome.

Also it has info on how to:

- create a per session (wmii, gnome, gnome-wmii, etc) dconf database (useful if you ever plan on using regular gnome)

- Remove the bottom Gnome panel (with the task list)

- Move the top panel (with the menus) to the bottom

- Untick the expand option

- Set it to autohide

Hidden features

GNOME 3 ukrývá spoustu užitečných voleb, které lze upravit pomocí dconf-editor. GNOME 3 dále podporuje gconf-editor pro úpravu nastavení, která ještě nepřešla pod správu pomocí dconf.

Úprava klávesových zkratek

Firstly, use dconf-editor to place a checkmark next to can-change-accels in the key named org.gnome.desktop.interface.

We will replace the hotkey — a.k.a. keyboard shortcut, keyboard accelerator — used by Nautilus to move files to the trash folder.

The default assignment is a somewhat-awkward Ctrl + Delete.

  • Open Nautilus, select any file, and click Edit on the menu bar.
  • Hover over the Move to Trash menu item.
  • While hovering, press Delete. The current accelerator is now unset.
  • Press the key that you wish to become the new keyboard accelerator.
  • Press Delete to make the new accelerator be the Delete key.

Unless you select a file or folder, Move to Trash will be grayed-out. Finally, disable can-change-accels to prevent accidental hotkey changes.

Shutdown via the status menu

Presently, GNOME designers have hidden the Shutdown option inside the status menu. To shut down your system with the status menu, click the menu and hold down the Alt key so that the Suspend item changes to Power Off. The subsequent dialog allows you to shut down or restart your system.

If you disable the Suspend menu item system-wide as described elsewhere in this document you do not have to go through these motions.

Another option is to install the Alternative Status Menu extension. See the section on shell extensions. The alternative menu extension installs a new status menu with a non-hidden Power Off entry.

Integrated messaging (Empathy)

Empathy, the engine behind integrated messaging, and all system settings based on messaging accounts will not show up unless the telepathy group of packages or at least one of the backends (telepathy-gabble, or telepathy-haze, for example) is installed.

These packages are not included in default Arch GNOME installs. You can install the Telepathy and optionally any backends with:

# pacman -S telepathy

Without telepathy, Empathy will not open the account management dialog and can get stuck in this state. If this happens -- even after quitting Empathy cleanly -- the /usr/bin/empathy-accounts application can remain running and will need to be killed before you can add any new accounts.

View descriptions of telepathy components on the Freedesktop.org Telepathy Wiki.

Enabling fallback mode

Your session automatically starts in fallback mode when gnome-shell is not present, or when your hardware cannot handle graphics acceleration — such as running within a virtual machine or running on old hardware.

If you wish to enable fallback mode while still having gnome-shell installed, make the following system change:

Open gnome-control-center. Click the System Info icon. Click Graphics. Change Forced Fallback Mode to ON.

You can alternatively choose the type of session from a terminal with a gsettings command:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.session session-name 'gnome-fallback'

You may want to log out after making the change. You will see the chosen type of session upon your next login.

To disable forced-fallback mode (that is, launch the normal GNOME Shell) use a value of 'gnome' instead of 'gnome-fallback'.

Troubleshooting

GNOME login takes a very long time

See if you enabled PulseAudio Network settings in paprefs. When any network audio settings are enabled, GNOME hangs about a minute after login.

One solution is to create a new user account and login to that account. Another solution is to move your ~/.gconf, ~/.gconfd and ~/.conf/dconf folders to a holding area. Login again to see if the delay is gone.

If the excessive delay is gone, determine which setting causes the delay using trial-and-error.

When an extension breaks GNOME

When enabling shell extensions causes GNOME breakage, you should first remove the user-theme and auto-move-windows extensions from their installation directory.

The installation directory could be one of ~/.local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions, /usr/share/gnome‑shell/extensions, or /usr/local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions. Removing these two extension-containing folders may fix the breakage. Otherwise, isolate the problem extension with trial‑and‑error.

Removing or adding an extension-containing folder to the aforementioned directories removes or adds the corresponding extension to your system. Details on Gnome Shell extensions are available at the GNOME web site.

Extensions do not work after GNOME 3 update

Locate the folder where your extensions are installed. It might be ~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions or /usr/share/gnome-shell/extensions.

Edit each occurrence of metadata.json which appears in each extension sub-folder.

Insert: "shell-version": ["3.0"]
Instead of (for example): "shell-version": ["3.0.1"]
You might instead use: "shell-version": ["3.0.0", "3.0.1", "3.0.2"]


"3.0" is the best solution. It indicates the extension works with every 3.0.x GNOME Shell version.

Screen is not locked after resume

Screen lock only works when you suspend through GNOME's status menu. If you suspend or hibernate using the power button, your screen is not locked after resume. The problem is a configuration failure in dconf.

Open dconf-editor and uncheck lock-use-screensaver in the key named org.gnome.power-manager.

# gsettings set org.gnome.power-manager lock-use-screensaver 'false'

Your screen should now be locked after resume whether you used the status menu, the power button, or a key combination. Bug report: Screen gets no more locked after suspend #Comment 8

GTK2+ apps show segfaults and fail to launch

That usually happens when oxygen-gtk is installed. This theme appears to conflict with GNOME 3 or GTK3 settings. When oxygen-gtk has been set as a GTK2 theme, GTK2 apps segfault with errors like these:

 (firefox-bin:14345): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: invalid (NULL) pointer instance

(firefox-bin:14345): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_signal_connect_data: assertion `G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE (instance)' failed
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_screen_get_default_colormap: assertion `GDK_IS_SCREEN (screen)' failed
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_colormap_get_visual: assertion `GDK_IS_COLORMAP (colormap)' failed
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_screen_get_default_colormap: assertion `GDK_IS_SCREEN (screen)' failed
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_screen_get_root_window: assertion `GDK_IS_SCREEN (screen)' failed
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_screen_get_root_window: assertion `GDK_IS_SCREEN (screen)' failed
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_window_new: assertion `GDK_IS_WINDOW (parent)' failed
Segmentation fault

The current workaround is to remove oxygen-gtk from the system and use a different theme for applications.

ATI Catalyst driver creates glitches and artifacts

For the moment, Catalyst is not proposed to be used while running GNOME Shell. The opensource ATI driver, xf86-video-ati, however, seems to be working properly with the GNOME 3 composited desktop.

Note: Fix is promised with Catalyst 11.9. See http://ati.cchtml.com/show_bug.cgi?id=99

Multiple monitors and dock extension

If you have multiple monitors configured using Nvidia Twinview, the dock extension may get sandwiched in-between the monitors. You can edit the source of this extension to reposition the dock to a position of your choosing.

Edit /usr/share/gnome-shell/extensions/dock@gnome-shell-extensions.gnome.org/extension.js and locate this line in the source:

this.actor.set_position(primary.width-this._item_size-this._spacing-2, (primary.height-height)/2);

The first parameter is the X position of the dock display, by subtracting 15 pixels as opposed to 2 pixels from this it correctly positioned on my primary monitor, you can play around with any X,Y coordinate pair to position it correctly.

this.actor.set_position(primary.width-this._item_size-this._spacing-15, (primary.height-height)/2);

No event sounds for Empathy and other programs

If you're using OSS, you may want to install libcanberra-oss from AUR.

Editing hotkeys via can-change-accels fails

It is also possible to manually change the keys via an application's so-called accel map file. Where it is to be found is up to the application: For instance, Thunar's is at ~/.config/Thunar/accels.scm, whereas Nautilus's is located at ~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus. The file should contain a list of possible hotkeys, each unchanged line commented out with a leading ";" that has to be removed for a change to become active.

Panels do not respond to right-click in fallback mode

Check Configuration Editor: /apps/metacity/general/mouse_button_modifier. This modifier key (<Alt>, <Super>, etc) used for normal windows is also used by panels and their applets.

"Show Desktop" keyboard shortcut does not work

GNOME developers treated the corresponding binding as bug (see https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=643609) due to Minimization being deprecated. To show the desktop again assign ALT+STRG+D to the following setting:

System Settings --> Keyboard --> Shortcuts --> Windows --> Hide all normal windows

Nautilus does not start

  1. Press ALT+F2
  2. Enter gnome-tweak-tool
  3. Select the File Manager tab.
  4. Locate option Have file manager handle the desktop and assure it is toggled off.

Epiphany does not play flash videos

Epiphany now uses gtk3, but Adobe's Flash Player still relies on gtk2. See Epiphany#Flash for a workaround involving nspluginwrapper.

Unable to apply stored configuration for monitors

If you encounter this message try to disable the xrandr gnome-settings-daemon plugin :

$ dconf write /org/gnome/settings-daemon/plugins/xrandr/active false

Lock button fails to re-enable touchpad

Some laptops have a touchpad lock button that disables the touchpad so that users can type without worrying about touching the touchpad. It appears currently that although GNOME can lock the touchpad by pressing this button, it can't unlock it. If the touchpad gets locked you can do the following to unlock it.

  1. Start a terminal. You can do this by pressing ALT+F2 , then typing gnome-terminal and then pressing ENTER
  2. Type in the following command
$ xinput set-prop "SynPS/2 Synaptics TouchPad" "Device Enabled" 1

Ctrl+V pastes path instead of file in Nautilus

If you are affected by this issue, edit ~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus where you can find two lines for Ctrl+V :

~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus
(gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/DirViewActions/Paste" "<Control>v")
...
(gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/ClipboardActions/Paste" "<Control>v")

The issue appears to stem from the second entry. Deleting that line may fix the issue temporarily. You might have to reapply this fix after an update.

An alternative is to assign a different key combination to one of the actions.

Unable to connect to secured wi-fi network

You see the network connections listing, but choosing an encrypted network fails to show a dialog for key entry. You may need to install network-manager-applet. See GNOME NetworkManager setup.

"Any command has been defined 33"

When you press print screen key to take screenshot and you got "Any command has been defined 33", install metacity:

# pacman -S metacity

GDM and Gnome use X11 cursors

To fix this issue, you will have to copy paste these lines as root in a terminal:

$ mkdir /usr/share/icons/default
$ cd /usr/share/icons/default
$ echo "[Icon Theme]" >> index.theme
$ echo "Inherits=Adwaita" >> index.theme

Alternatively, you can install gnome-cursors-fixAUR from AUR.

External links