Difference between revisions of "GNOME (正體中文)"

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[[zh-CN:GNOME]]
 
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{{translateme}}
 
{{translateme}}
{{stub}}
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{{Bad translation|Outdated by several years}}
[[Category: Desktop environments (正體中文)]]
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[[Category: 正體中文]]
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== GNOME是什麼? ==
 
== GNOME是什麼? ==
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利用下列指令安裝GNOME桌面:  
 
利用下列指令安裝GNOME桌面:  
 
  # pacman -S gnome
 
  # pacman -S gnome
 
+
另外,如果需要更多GNOME應用程式,包含檔案管理器,硬碟管理器,文字編輯器和一些遊戲,記得這些程式是以{{Grp|gnome}}為基礎的:
 +
# pacman -S gnome-extra
 
這裡有一個套件組(metapackage),包含了一個群組的組件。你可以選擇安裝這個群組全部的套件或是部分的套件。全部的套件都可以被安全的安裝,此安裝是被高度建議的。但以下是一些可能不被需要的套件的列表
 
這裡有一個套件組(metapackage),包含了一個群組的組件。你可以選擇安裝這個群組全部的套件或是部分的套件。全部的套件都可以被安全的安裝,此安裝是被高度建議的。但以下是一些可能不被需要的套件的列表
  
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*'''gnome2-user-docs''' 和 '''yelp''' 是GNOME的幫助文件和幫助文件的讀取器。假如你不是個會讀取幫助文件,而是傾向於在Google上找尋幫助的話。那麼這個套件就可以不用安裝。
 
*'''gnome2-user-docs''' 和 '''yelp''' 是GNOME的幫助文件和幫助文件的讀取器。假如你不是個會讀取幫助文件,而是傾向於在Google上找尋幫助的話。那麼這個套件就可以不用安裝。
  
{{Article summary start}}
+
從GNOME 3開始,GNOME專案從新改寫以迎合現代使用者需求與當代科技。在GNOME中新增以下特色:
{{Article summary text|GNOME 3 provides a modern desktop, rewritten from scratch, using the GTK3+ toolkit.}}
+
*提供新的預設當代主題與字形
{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
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*活動視窗提供一個快速存取你的視窗與應用程式
{{Article summary text|{{Graphical user interface overview}}}}
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*內建(整合式)訊息桌面服務
{{Article summary end}}
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*更多穩定提示系統與更多分離式panel
 +
*可快速搜尋活動
 +
*新的系統管理程式
 +
*...更多特色請至[http://www.gnome3.org/ GNOME3]
 +
== GNOME Sessions ==
 +
GNOME有三個可用sessions,都使用GNOME Shell。
 +
*'''GNOME''' 是預設的、創新的排版。
 +
*'''GNOME Classic''' 是傳統的桌面排版類似GNOME 2的介面,使用預先載入, using pre-activated extensions and parameters.[http://worldofgnome.org/welcome-to-gnome-3-8-flintstones-mode/]因此它是個高度自訂性。
 +
*'''GNOME on Wayland''' 使用協定的GNOME Shell. 傳統的Xwindows應用程式也可透過Xwayland跑在這上面.
  
For GNOME 3, the GNOME Project has started from scratch and created a completely new, modern desktop designed for today's users and technologies. In GNOME 3:
+
== 啟動GNOME ==
* There is a new default modern visual theme and font
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* The Activities view which provides an easy way to access all your windows and applications
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* Built-in (integrated) messaging desktop services
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* A more subtle notifications system and a more discrete panel
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* A fast Activities search feature
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* A new System Settings application
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* ... and more features like: window tiling (Aero Snap like), an improved Nautilus etc.
+
  
[more details on the [http://www.gnome3.org/ GNOME3] website]
+
GNOME可以透過[[display manager]], 或手動從終端機開啟. 對於最佳的桌面環境整合, 使用推薦 [[GDM]] (the GNOME Display manager). 注意 [[啟動]] display manager (例如GDM) 代表 Xorg將以root權限啟動.
  
== Introduction ==
+
{{Note|桌面鎖定功能是由GDM提供的. 如果GNOME不是透過GDM開啟的, 你需要其他的程式來達到桌面鎖定功能 - 看 [[List of applications/Security#Screen lockers]].}}
  
GNOME3 comes with '''two''' interfaces, '''gnome-shell''' (the new, standard layout) and '''fallback''' mode. gnome-session will automatically detect if your computer is capable of running gnome-shell and will start fallback mode if not.
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=== 圖形化的(Graphically) ===
  
'''Fallback''' mode is very similar to the GNOME 2.x layout (while using gnome-panel and metacity, instead of gnome-shell and Mutter).
+
選擇session: ''GNOME'', ''GNOME Classic'' 或 ''GNOME on Wayland'' 從display manager's session選單.
  
If you are on fallback mode you can still change the window manager with your preferred one.
+
=== 手動開啟 ===
  
== Upgrade from GNOME 2.32 ==
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* 對於標準GNOME session, 新增以下到 {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} 檔案: {{ic|exec gnome-session}}.
 +
* 對於GNOME Classic session, 新增以下到 {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} 檔案: {{bc|<nowiki>export XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP=GNOME-Classic:GNOME
 +
export GNOME_SHELL_SESSION_MODE=classic
 +
exec gnome-session --session=gnome-classic</nowiki>}}
  
{{Warning|The session might crash during the update and it is recommended that you run the update command in a screen session, from another DE or WM, or from tty}}
+
修改完{{ic|~/.xinitrc}} 後, GNOME 可以透過 {{ic|startx}} 指令開啟 (see [[xinitrc]] for additional details, such as preserving the logind session).  設定完 {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} 後,它可被安排啟動X [[Start X at login]].
  
# pacman -Syu
+
{{Note|GNOME on Wayland 需要 {{Pkg|xorg-server-xwayland}} package, 而且 '''不能''' 使用 ''startx''與 {{ic|~/.xinitrc}}開啟. 請使用 {{ic|gnome-session --session&#61;gnome-wayland}}. 更多資訊, 請看 [[Wayland]].}}
  
'''Important''': You will end up with a system that has GNOME 3.x '''fallback''' mode. To install the new shell:
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=== 在Wayland啟動GNOME應用程式 ===
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# pacman -S gnome-shell
+
  
== Installing to a new system ==
+
{{Style|Note is too long (more content in the note than in the section itself).}}
  
GNOME 3 is in [extra]. You can install it by running the following command:
+
近期, 作為預設, GNOME 應用程式可透過 Xwayland跑於wayland上. 如要測試你的GNOME應用程式於wayland上相容性, 在terminal開啟應用程式並加上{{ic|env GDK_BACKEND&#61;'wayland,x11' <command>}}於command前.
  
  # pacman -Syu
+
{{Note|設定全域的Wayland環境, 藉由{{ic|env GDK_BACKEND&#61;wayland gnome-session --session&#61;gnome-wayland}}指令, 可能無用 - ''gnome-session'' 將立即跳出. 請使用{{ic|export GDK_BACKEND&#61;'wayland,x11'}} 在你的 bash 設定檔, 或使用 {{ic|env GDK_BACKEND&#61;'wayland,x11' gnome-session --session&#61;gnome-wayland}} 指令. 但總結來說, 這些設定非必要, 只要執行 {{ic|gnome-session}} 以 {{ic|--session&#61;gnome-wayland}} 就足夠了.  沒有 {{ic|GDK_BACKEND}} 環境變數, GNOME 應用程式必須 "Wayland aware" 以執行Wayland應用程式, 或者以Xwayland作為預設. 看更多 {{ic|GDK_BACKEND}} 於 GNOME [https://developer.gnome.org/gtk3/stable/gtk-running.html Environment variables].}}
  # pacman -S gnome
+
  
For additional applications
+
請看多資訊於此頁面 [https://wiki.gnome.org/Initiatives/Wayland/Applications/ GNOME Applications under Wayland].
  
# pacman -S gnome-extra
+
== 導覽解說 ==
  
===Daemons and modules needed by GNOME===
+
學習GNOME更多更有效率請看[https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/GnomeShell/CheatSheet GNOME Shell Cheat Sheet]; 其強調更多GNOME Shell 特色與快捷箭,包含任務選擇,鍵盤使用,視窗控制,面板,鳥瞰模式,與更多。 一些快捷鍵:
  
The GNOME desktop requires one daemon, '''DBUS''' for proper operation.  
+
* {{ic|Super}} + {{ic|m}}: 顯示訊息
 +
* {{ic|Super}} + {{ic|a}}: 顯示應用程式目錄
 +
* {{ic|Alt-}} + {{ic|Tab}}: 循環顯示當前活動中程式
 +
* {{ic|Alt-}} + {{ic|`}} (在 {{ic|Tab}} 上的那個鍵 (US keyboard) ): 循環顯示使用程式之子視窗
 +
* {{ic|Alt}} + {{ic|F2}}, 然後按{{ic|r}} 或 {{ic|restart}}: 從新啟動有問題的圖形化界面.  
  
[[Daemon#Performing daemon actions manually|Start the dbus daemon]] and add dbus to your [[Rc.conf#Daemons|DAEMONS array]] so it starts automatically on boot.
+
=== 常用的應用程式名 ===
  
'''GVFS''' allows the mounting of virtual file systems (e.g. file systems over FTP or SMB) to be used by other applications, including the GNOME file manager Nautilus. This is done with the use of '''FUSE''': a user space virtual file system layer kernel module.
+
{{Note|
 +
有些GNOME應用程式有換過名字於文件中,而且在對話窗中也換了,但執行期則否. 一些這類程式列在底下.}}
  
To load the FUSE kernel module:
+
{{Tip|搜尋一些程式的常用名稱在GNOME shell的搜尋欄中將會成功回傳結果. 例如, 搜尋 ''nautilus'' 將顯示 ''Files''.}}
# modprobe fuse
+
  
Or add the module to the '''MODULES''' array in {{ic|/etc/rc.conf}} so they will load at boot up, e.g.:
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! 現在名
 +
! 常用名
 +
|-
 +
| [[Files]]
 +
| Nautilus
 +
|-
 +
| [[GNOME Web|Web]]
 +
| Epiphany
 +
|-
 +
| Videos
 +
| Totem
 +
|-
 +
| Main Menu
 +
| Alacarte
 +
|-
 +
| Document Viewer
 +
| Evince
 +
|-
 +
| Disk Usage Analyser
 +
| Baobab
 +
|-
 +
| Image Viewer
 +
| EoG (Eye of GNOME)
 +
|-
 +
| [[GNOME Keyring|Passwords and Keys]]
 +
| Seahorse
 +
|}
  
MODULES=('''fuse''' usblp)
+
== 設定 ==
  
{{Note|FUSE is a kernel module, not a daemon.}}
+
GNOME 桌面以 configuration database backend (DConf) 來儲存系統與程式設定. 當軟體被安裝時,他的預設設定會載入資料庫. 基本設定會藉由GNOME系統設定面板 (''gnome-control-center'') 或每個應用程式的偏好設定來載入. 直接對DConf資料庫操作永遠可用 ''gsettings''指令工具. 尤其,它可那些無圖形化設定工具進行設定。
  
===Running GNOME===
+
GNOME設定以GNOME Settings Daemon來運行. 注意這個daemon可在GNOME session運行, 想執行GNOME 設定在非GNOME環境. 請執行 {{ic|nohup /usr/lib/gnome-settings-daemon/gnome-settings-daemon > /dev/null &}} .
  
For better desktop integration '''GDM''' is recommended (but other login managers, such as SLiM also work, see Policykit section).
+
設定通常只涵蓋單一使用者,對於剩下的使用者,本篇並不提供建立多使用者系統樣板之教學。
  
# pacman -S gdm
+
=== 系統設定 ===
  
Check out [[Display_Manager]] to learn how to start it correctly.
+
值得注意的控制面板設定
  
If you prefer to start it from the console, add the following line to your {{ic|~/.xinitrc}} file, making sure it's the last line and the only one that starts with ''exec'' (see [[xinitrc]]):
+
==== 顏色 ====
exec ck-launch-session gnome-session
+
  
Now GNOME will start when you enter the following command:
+
daemon {{ic|colord}} 讀取顯示器的 EDID並提取適合顏色. 大多數顏色設定以準確不須修改; 然而對於那些不準確的或舊型顯示器, color顏色設定會被放在{{ic|~/.local/share/icc/}} 並被執行.
  $ startx
+
  
== Using the shell ==
+
==== 日期 & 時間 ====
  
See https://live.gnome.org/GnomeShell/CheatSheet
+
如果系統有被設定 [[Network Time Protocol daemon]], 它會效果很好.如果需要同步時間可透過手動設定從目錄.  
  
== Customization ==
+
顯示日期於視窗最頂欄, 執行:
=== Using Gnome-tweak-tool ===
+
  
  # pacman -S gnome-tweak-tool
+
  $ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface clock-show-date true
  
This tool can customize fonts, themes, minimize & maximize buttons and some other useful settings like what action is taken when the lid is closed.
+
另外, 顯示週數在Shell Calender, 執行:
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell.calendar show-weekdate true
  
A good customization tutorial is http://blog.fpmurphy.com/2011/03/customizing-the-gnome-3-shell.html which explores the power of gsettings.
+
==== 預設應用程式 ====
  
Version 3.0.3 only works if gnome-shell is installed (OK if forced to fallback mode), bug: https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=647132
+
安裝完gnome完之後可能發現一些錯置的預設應用程式,例如:''totem''開源播放器取代常見的[[VLC]],這些設定可以透過:''System''>''Details''>''Default applications''來修改。
 +
其他的協定與方法可看[[Default appliactions]]來設定。
  
===GDM Customization===
+
==== Mouse and touchpad ====
  
# su - gdm -s /bin/bash
+
To help reduce touchpad interference you may wish to implement the settings below:
$ dbus-launch
+
  
This command will print DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS and DBUS_SESSION_BUS_PID. We need to export them
+
* Disable touchpad while typing
 +
* Disable scrolling
 +
* Disable tap-to-click
  
$ export DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS=unix:abstract=/tmp/dbus-Jb433gMQHS,guid=fc14d4bf3d000e38276a5a2200000d38
+
==== Network ====
$ export DBUS_SESSION_BUS_PID=4283
+
  
Check to see if dconf-service is running and if not, start it like this
+
[[NetworkManager]] is the native tool of the GNOME project to control network settings from the shell. It is installed by default as a dependency for {{Pkg|tracker}} package, which is a part of {{Grp|gnome}} group, and just needs to be [[NetworkManager#Enable NetworkManager|enabled]].
  
$ /usr/lib/dconf/dconf-service &
+
While any other [[List_of_applications/Internet#Network_managers|network manager]] can be used as well, NetworkManager provides the full integration via the shell network settings and a status indicator applet {{Pkg|network-manager-applet}} (not required for GNOME).
  
====Wallpaper====
+
==== Online accounts ====
$ GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings get org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri
+
$ GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri "file:///usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/SundownDunes.jpg"
+
  
You will need to point to a file where the gdm user has permission to read, not in your home directory.
+
Backends for the GNOME messaging application {{Pkg|empathy}} as well as the GNOME Online Accounts section of the System Settings panel are provided in a separate group: {{Grp|telepathy}}. See [[#Unable to add accounts in Empathy and GNOME Online Accounts]]. Some online accounts, such as [[ownCloud]], require {{Pkg|gvfs-goa}} to be installed for full functionality in GNOME applications such as [[GNOME Files]] and GNOME Documents [https://wiki.gnome.org/ThreePointSeven/Features/Owncloud].
  
====Turning off the sound====
+
==== Search ====
$ GSETTINGS_BACKEND=dconf gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.sound event-sounds false
+
  
====Change GDM's keyboard layout====
+
The GNOME shell has a search that can be quickly accessed by pressing the {{ic|Super}} key and starting to type. The {{Pkg|tracker}} package is installed by default as a part of {{Grp|gnome}} group and provides an indexing application and metadata database. It can be configured with the ''Search and Indexing'' menu item; monitor status with ''tracker-control''.  It is started automatically by ''gnome-session'' when the user logs in. Indexing can be started manually with {{ic|tracker-control -s}}.  Search settings can also be configured in the ''System Settings'' panel.
Since GDM 3 does not care about your gnome keyboard settings, you have to set your layout to Xorg config.
+
See here: [[Beginners'_Guide#Non-US_keyboard]]
+
  
=== Changing the GTK3 theme using settings.ini ===
+
The Tracker database can be queried using the ''tracker-sparql'' command. View its manual page {{ic|man tracker-sparql}} for more information.
  
Similar to {{ic|~/.gtkrc-2.0}} for GTK2+ it is possible to set the GTK3 (GNOME 3) theme via {{ic|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}. By default {{ic|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME} }} is interpreted as {{ic|~/.config}}.
+
=== Advanced settings ===
  
Only Adwaita theme exists in this moment for gtk3 and is available in {{Pkg|gnome-themes-standard}} package.
+
As noted above, many configuration options such as changing the [[GTK+]] theme or the [[window manager]] theme are not exposed in the GNOME System Settings panel (''gnome-control-center''). Those users that want to configure these settings may wish to use the GNOME Tweak Tool ({{Pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}}), a convenient graphical tool which exposes many of these settings.
  
Example:
+
GNOME settings (which are stored in the DConf database) can also be configured using the [https://developer.gnome.org/dconf/unstable/dconf-editor.html ''dconf-editor''] (a graphical DConf configuration tool) or the [https://developer.gnome.org/gio/stable/GSettings.html ''gsettings''] command line tool. The GNOME Tweak Tool does not do anything else in the background of the GUI; note though that you will not find all settings described in the following sections in it.
  
  [Settings]
+
==== Appearance ====
  gtk-theme-name = Adwaita
+
  gtk-fallback-icon-theme = gnome
+
  # next option is applicable only if selected theme supports it
+
  gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme = true
+
  # set font name and dimension
+
  gtk-font-name = Sans 10
+
  
It may be necessary to restart one's DE or WM for the settings to be applied.
+
===== GTK+ themes and icon themes =====
  
{{Note|More options can be find there: [http://developer.gnome.org/gtk3/3.0/GtkSettings.html#GtkSettings.properties GtkSettings documentation]}}
+
To install a new theme or icon set, add the relevant {{ic|~/.local/share/themes}} or {{ic|~/.local/share/icons}} respectively (add to {{ic|/usr/share/}} instead of {{ic|~/.local/share/}} for the themes to be available systemwide.)  They and other GUI settings can also be defined in {{ic|~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}:
  
=== Resizing the massive title bar ===
+
{{hc|~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|<nowiki>
# sed -i "/title_vertical_pad/s/value=\"[0-9]\{1,2\}\"/value=\"0\"/g" /usr/share/themes/Adwaita/metacity-1/metacity-theme-3.xml
+
[Settings]
 +
gtk-theme-name = Adwaita
 +
# next option is applicable only if selected theme supports it
 +
gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme = true
 +
# set font name and dimension
 +
gtk-font-name = Sans 10
 +
</nowiki>}}
  
Hit {{ic|Alt+F2}} and type {{ic|restart}} followed by {{ic|Enter}} 
+
Additional theme locations:
 +
* [http://www.deviantart.com/browse/all/customization/skins/linuxutil/desktopenv/gnome/gtk3/ DeviantArt].
 +
* [http://gnome-look.org/index.php?xcontentmode=167 gnome-look.org].
 +
* [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=gtk3&do_Search=Go GTK3 themes in the AUR].
 +
* [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=xcursor&do_Search=Go&PP=50&SB=v&SO=d Cursor themes in the AUR].
 +
* [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=icon-theme&do_Search=Go&PP=50&SB=v&SO=d Icon themes in the AUR].
  
This will change the title_vertical_pad from 14 to 0 giving a much sleeker look to windows.
+
Once installed, they can be selected using the GNOME Tweak Tool or GSettings - see below for GSettings commands:
  
To restore the original values:
+
For the GTK+ theme:
  sudo pacman -S gnome-themes-standard
+
  $ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface gtk-theme ''theme-name''
  
===Setting an icon theme===
+
For the icon theme
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface icon-theme ''theme-name''
  
{{Note | With gnome-tweak-tool version 3.0.3 and later, you can place icon theme you wish to use inside ~/.icons.}}
+
====== Global dark theme ======
  
Usefully, Gnome 3 is able to use Gnome 2 icon themes, which means you're not stuck with the default set. To do this, simply copy your desired icon theme's directory to ~/.icons. For example:
+
GNOME will use the Adwaita light theme by default however a dark variant of this theme (called the Global Dark Theme) also exists and can be selected using the Tweak Tool or by editing the GTK+ 3 settings file - see [[GTK+#Dark theme variant]]. Some applications such as Image Viewer (''eog'') use the dark theme by default. It should be noted that the Global Dark Theme only works with GTK+ 3 applications; some GTK+ 3 applications may only have partial support for the Global Dark theme. Qt and GTK+ 2 support for the Global Dark Theme may be added in the future.
  
  $ cp -R /home/user/Desktop/my_new_icon_theme ~/.icons
+
===== Window manager themes =====
 +
 
 +
The window manager theme (the style of the window titlebars) can be set using the GNOME Tweak Tool or the following GSettings command:
 +
  $ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.wm.preferences theme ''theme-name''
 +
 
 +
====== Titlebar height ======
 +
 
 +
{{Note|As of GNOME 3.16, Mutter no longer uses Metacity themes. Instead, the titlebar decorations are themed using GTK+.}}
 +
 
 +
To change the titlebar height, create the following file, adjusting the padding as desired:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css|
 +
.header-bar {
 +
padding-top: 3px;
 +
padding-bottom: 3px;
 +
font-size: 9px;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
.header-bar .button {
 +
padding-top: 5px;
 +
padding-bottom: 5px;
 +
}
  
The new icon theme 'my_new_icon_theme' will now be selectable using the gnome-tweak-tool (under 'Interface'), otherwise it can be set with no need of gnome-tweak-tool by adding the gtk-icon-theme-name entry inside ${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini.
 
{{hc|${XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|2=
 
.....
 
gtk-icon-theme-name = my_new_icon_theme
 
.....
 
 
}}
 
}}
  
=== Start program automatically after login to GNOME 3 ===
+
====== Titlebar button order ======
You can specify which programs to start automatically after login using the '''gnome-session-properties''' tool, which is a part of the '''gnome-session''' package.
+
$ gnome-session-properties
+
  
=== Removing folders from the "Computer" section in Nautilus's Places sidebar ===
+
To set the order for the GNOME window manager (Mutter, Metacity):
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.wm.preferences button-layout ':minimize,maximize,close'
  
The displayed folders are specified in {{ic|~/.config/user-dirs.dirs}} and can be altered with any editor. An execution of {{ic|xdg-user-dirs-update}} will change them again, thus it may be advisable to set the file permissions to read-only.
+
{{Tip|The colon indicates which side of the titlebar the window buttons will appear.}}
  
=== Setting the default terminal via console ===
+
====== Hide titlebar when maximized ======
  
{{ic|gsettings}}, which replaces {{ic|gconftool-2}} in Gnome 3, is used to set e. g. the default terminal manually. The setting is relevant for ''nautilus-open-terminal''.
+
*[[Install]] {{AUR|mutter-hide-legacy-decorations}}. It changes a default setting in the window manager, so as to automatically hide the titlebar on legacy (non-headerbar) apps when they are maximized or tiled to the side.
  
The commands for [[rxvt-unicode|urxvt]] run as daemon:
+
*[[Install]] {{AUR|maximus}}. To start the application, execute ''maximus'' from a terminal. When running, the daemon will automatically maximize windows. It will undecorate maximized windows and redecorate them when they are unmaximized. If you do not want all windows to start maximized, run {{ic|maximus -m}} instead. Note that this will only work with windows decorated by the window manager; applications that use client-side decoration such as [[GNOME Files]] will not be undecorated when maximized.
  
gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.default-applications.terminal exec urxvtc
+
===== GNOME Shell themes =====
gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.default-applications.terminal exec-arg "'-e'"
+
  
=== Setting Nautilus to use location bar entry ===
+
The theme of GNOME Shell itself is configurable. To use a Shell theme, firstly ensure that you have the {{Pkg|gnome-shell-extensions}} package installed. Then enable the ''User Themes'' extension, either through GNOME Tweak Tool or through the [https://extensions.gnome.org GNOME Shell Extensions] webpage. Shell themes can then be loaded and selected using the GNOME Tweak Tool.
  
If you want to enter path locations manually in Nautilus, you can press {{ic|Ctrl+l}}. To make this persistent you can use gsettings.
+
There are a number of GNOME Shell themes available [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=gnome-shell-theme&do_Search=Go&PP=50&SB=v&SO=d in the AUR].
  
gsettings set org.gnome.nautilus.preferences always-use-location-entry true
+
Shell themes can also be downloaded from [http://gnome-look.org/index.php?xcontentmode=191 gnome-look.org].
  
=== Disable accessibility icon in panel ===
+
==== Desktop ====
First deactivate it as startup-service: [[GNOME_3#Start_program_automatically_after_login_to_GNOME_3]]
+
  
After that create a folder named '''noa11y.icon@panel.ui''' in '''$HOME/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions'''. In this folder create two files. The first one is named '''extension.js''' and has this content:
+
Various Desktop settings can be applied.
  const Panel = imports.ui.panel;
+
 
   
+
===== Icons on the Desktop =====
  function main() {
+
 
Panel.STANDARD_TRAY_ICON_SHELL_IMPLEMENTATION['a11y'] = ''''''';
+
See [[GNOME Files#Desktop Icons]].
}
+
 
The second one is named '''metadata.json''' and has this content:
+
===== Lock screen and background =====
  {
+
 
"shell-version": ["3.0.1"],
+
When setting the Desktop or Lock screen background, it is important to note that the Pictures tab will only display pictures located in {{ic|/home/''username''/Pictures}} folder. If you wish to use a picture not located in this folder, use the commands indicated below.
"uuid": "noa11y.icon@panel.ui",
+
 
"name": "na11y",
+
For the desktop background:
"description": "Turn off the ally icon in the panel"
+
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri 'file:///path/to/my/picture.jpg'
}
+
 
Now restart the gnome-shell (press '''ALT+F2''', type '''r''' and press '''Enter''') and the icon is away. If this extensions stops working adjust the shell-version number in the metadata-file according to your version.
+
For the lock screen background
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.screensaver picture-uri 'file:///path/to/my/picture.jpg'
 +
 
 +
==== Extensions ====
 +
 
 +
{{Note|The GNOME Shell browser plugin which allows users to install extensions from [https://extensions.gnome.org extensions.gnome.org] is not compatible with Chrome/Chromium versions 35 and over. Users wishing to install extensions from the webpage will have to use a compatible browser such as [[Firefox]] or [[GNOME Web]].}}
 +
 
 +
GNOME Shell can be customized with extensions per user or system-wide.
 +
 
 +
The catalogue of extensions is available at [https://extensions.gnome.org extensions.gnome.org]. By a user they can be installed and activated in the browser by setting the switch in the top left of the screen to '''ON''' and clicking '''Install''' on the resulting dialog (if the extension in question is not installed). After installation it is shown in the [https://extensions.gnome.org/local/ extensions.gnome.org/local/] tab, which has to be visited as well to check for available updates. Installed extensions can also be enabled or disabled using {{Pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}}.
 +
 
 +
More information about GNOME shell extensions is available on the [https://extensions.gnome.org/about/ GNOME Shell Extensions about page].
 +
 
 +
[[Installing]] extensions via a package makes them available for all users of the system and automates the update process.
 +
 
 +
The {{Pkg|gnome-shell-extensions}} package provides a set of extensions maintained as part of the GNOME project (many of the included extensions are used by the GNOME Classic session).
 +
 
 +
Users who want a taskbar but do not wish to use the GNOME Classic session may want to enable the ''Window list'' extension (provided by the {{Pkg|gnome-shell-extensions}} package).
 +
 
 +
==== Input methods ====
 +
 
 +
GNOME has integrated support for input methods through [[IBus]], only {{Pkg|ibus}} and the wanted input method engine (e.g. {{Pkg|ibus-libpinyin}} for Intelligent Pinyin) needed to be installed, after installation the input method engine can be added as a keyboard layout in GNOME's Regional & Language Settings.
 +
 
 +
==== Fonts ====
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|If you set the ''Scaling factor'' to a value above 1.00, the Accessibility menu will be automatically enabled.}}
 +
 
 +
Fonts can be set for Window titles, Interface (applications), Documents and Monospace. See the Fonts tab in the Tweak Tool for the relevant options.
 +
 
 +
For hinting, RGBA will likely be desired as this fits most monitors types, and if fonts appear too blocked reduce hinting to ''Slight'' or ''None''.
 +
 
 +
==== Startup applications ====
 +
 
 +
To start certain applications on login, copy the relevant {{ic|.desktop}} file from {{ic|/usr/share/applications/}} to {{ic|~/.config/autostart/}}.
 +
 
 +
The same effect can be achieved using the Tweak Tool.
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|If the plus sign button in the Tweak Tool's Startup Applications section is unresponsive, try start the Tweak Tool from the terminal using the following command: {{ic|gnome-tweak-tool}}. See the following [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid&#61;1413631#p1413631 forum thread].}}
 +
 
 +
{{Note|The ''gnome-session-properties'' dialog was removed as of GNOME 3.12. It can be added back by [[install]]ing the {{AUR|gnome-session-properties}} package.}}
 +
 
 +
==== Power ====
 +
 
 +
The basic power settings that may want to be altered (these example settings assume the user is using a laptop - change them as desired):
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power button-power ''hibernate''
 +
  $ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-ac-timeout ''3600''
 +
  $ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-ac-type ''hibernate''
 +
  $ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-battery-timeout ''1800''
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-battery-type ''hibernate''
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.lockdown disable-lock-screen ''true''
 +
 
 +
To keep a monitor active on lid close:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.xrandr default-monitors-setup do-nothing
 +
 
 +
===== Configure behaviour on lid switch close  =====
 +
 
 +
The GNOME Tweak Tool, as of version 3.17.1, can optionally ''inhibit'' the ''systemd'' setting for the lid close ACPI event.[http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/GNOME/sources/gnome-tweak-tool/3.17/gnome-tweak-tool-3.17.1.news] To ''inhibit'' the setting, start the Tweak Tool and, under the power tab, check the ''Don't suspend on lid close'' option. This means that the system will do nothing on lid close instead of suspending - the default behaviour. Checking the setting creates {{ic|~/.config/autostart/ignore-lid-switch-tweak.desktop}} which will autostart the Tweak Tool's inhibitor.
 +
 
 +
If you do not want the system to suspend or do nothing on lid close, you will need to ensure that the setting described above is '''not''' checked and then configure ''systemd'' with {{ic|1=HandleLidSwitch=''preferred_behaviour''}} as described in [[Power management#ACPI events]].
 +
 
 +
===== Change critical battery level action =====
 +
 
 +
The System Settings panel only allows the user to choose between ''Suspend'' or ''Hibernate''. To choose another option such as ''Do Nothing'' open the {{ic|dconf-editor}} and navigate to {{ic|org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power}}. Edit the {{ic|"critical-battery-action"}} value to {{ic|"nothing"}}.
 +
 
 +
==== Sort applications into application (app) folders ====
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|The [https://github.com/prurigro/gnome-catgen gnome-catgen] ({{AUR|gnome-catgen-git}}) script allows you to manage folders through the creation of files in {{ic|~/.local/share/applications-categories}} named after each category and containing a list of the desktop files belonging to apps you would like to have inside. Optionally, you can have it cycle through each app without a folder and input the desired category until you ctrl-c or run out of apps.}}
 +
 
 +
In the '''dconf-editor''' navigate to {{ic|org.gnome.desktop.app-folders}} and set the value of {{ic|folder-children}} to an array of comma separated folder names:
 +
 
 +
  ['Utilities', 'Sundry']
 +
 
 +
Add applications using {{ic|gsettings}}:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folder:/org/gnome/desktop/app-folders/folders/Sundry/ apps "['alacarte.desktop', 'dconf-editor.desktop']"
 +
 
 +
This adds the applications {{ic|alacarte.desktop}} and {{ic|dconf-editor.desktop}} to the Sundry folder.  This will also create the folder {{ic|org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folders.Sundry}}.
 +
 
 +
To name the folder (if it has no name that appears at the top of the applications):
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folder:/org/gnome/desktop/app-folders/folders/Sundry/ name "Sundry"
 +
 
 +
Applications can also be sorted by their category (specified in their ''.desktop'' file):
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folder:/org/gnome/desktop/app-folders/folders/Sundry/ categories "['Office']"
 +
 
 +
If certain applications matching a category are not wanted in a certain folder, exclusions can be set:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folder:/org/gnome/desktop/app-folders/folders/Sundry/ excluded-apps "['libreoffice-draw.desktop']"
 +
 
 +
For further information, refer to the [https://git.gnome.org/browse/gsettings-desktop-schemas/tree/schemas/org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.gschema.xml.in.in app-folders schema].
 +
 
 +
== Tips and tricks ==
 +
 
 +
Other GNOME system settings and tips. 
 +
 
 +
=== Keyboard ===
 +
 
 +
==== Turn on NumLock on login ====
 +
 
 +
Run the following command:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.peripherals.keyboard numlock-state on
 +
 
 +
==== Hotkey alternatives ====
 +
 
 +
A lot of hotkeys can be changed via system settings menu. For example, to re-enable the show desktop keybinding: 
 +
 
 +
''System settings'' > ''Keyboard'' > ''Shortcuts'' > ''Navigation'' > ''Hide all normal windows''
 +
 
 +
However, certain hotkeys cannot be changed directly via system settings. In order to change these keys, use ''dconf-editor''. An example of particular note is the hotkey {{ic|Alt-}} + {{ic|`}} (the key above {{ic|Tab}} on US keyboard layouts). In GNOME Shell it is pre-configured to cycle through windows of an application, however it is also a hotkey often used in the [[Emacs]] editor. It can be changed by opening ''dconf-editor'' and modifying the ''switch-group'' key found in {{ic|org.gnome.desktop.wm.keybindings}}.
 +
 
 +
It is possible to manually change the keys via an application's so-called '''accel''' map file. Where it is to be found is up to the application: For instance, Thunar's is at {{ic|~/.config/Thunar/accels.scm}}, whereas Files's is located at {{ic|~/.config/nautilus/accels}} and {{ic|~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus}} on old release.
 +
 
 +
The file should contain a list of possible hotkeys, each unchanged line commented out with a leading ";" that has to be removed for a change to become active.
 +
For example to replace the hotkey used by Files to move files to the trash folder, change the line:
 +
 
 +
; (gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/DirViewActions/Trash" "<Primary>Delete")
 +
to this:
 +
 
 +
(gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/DirViewActions/Trash" "Delete")
 +
 
 +
The file is regenerated regularly so do not comment the file. The uncommented line will stay but every comment you add will be lost.
 +
 
 +
==== Keyboard switch with command ====
 +
 
 +
To have keyboard shortcut '''Alt''' + '''Shift''' switch keyboards:
 +
 
 +
Open Gnome-Tweak-Tool (or Keyboard Settings, in GNOME 3.16) and set  ''Typing'' > ''Modifiers-only input sources'' > ''select Alt-shift''. For more information see also the forum [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=152127 thread].
 +
 
 +
==== XkbOptions keyboard options ====
 +
 
 +
Using the '''dconf-editor''', navigate to the key named {{ic|org.gnome.desktop.input-sources.xkb-options}} and add desired XkbOptions (e.g. ''caps:swapescape'') to the list.
 +
 
 +
See {{ic|/usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/xorg}} for all XkbOptions and {{ic|/usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/*}} for the respective descriptions.
 +
 
 +
{{Note|To enable the {{ic|Ctrl+Alt+Backspace}} combination to terminate Xorg, use the {{Pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}}. Within the '''Tweak Tool''', navigate to ''Typing > Key sequence to kill the X server'' and select the option {{ic|Ctrl+Alt+Backspace}} from the dropdown menu.}}
 +
 
 +
==== De-bind Windows key ====
 +
 
 +
By default, the 'Windows key' will open the GNOME Shell overview mode. You can unbind this key by running the command below
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.mutter overlay-key 'Foo'
 +
 
 +
=== Disks ===
 +
 
 +
GNOME provides a disk utility to manipulate storage drive settings. These are some of its features:
 +
 
 +
* '''Enable write cache''' is a feature that most hard drives provide. Data is cached and allocated at chosen times to improve system performance. Not recommended unless the computer has a backup battery pack or is a laptop as data would be lost on power failure.
 +
: ''Settings'' > ''Drive Settings'' > ''Write Cache'' > '''On'''
 +
* '''Automatic Mount Options''' can mount drives and partitions that are GPT based - will use default, recommended options.
 +
: {{Warning|This setting erases related [[fstab]] entries}}
 +
: ''Partition Settings'' > ''Edit Mount Options'' > ''Automatic Mount Options'' > '''On'''
 +
 
 +
=== Hiding applications from the menu ===
 +
 
 +
{{Tip|Desktop entries can be hidden by editing the {{ic|.desktop}} files themselves. See [[Desktop entries#Hide desktop entries]].}}
 +
 
 +
Use the ''Main Menu'' application (provided by the {{Pkg|alacarte}} package) to hide any applications you do not wish to show in the menu.
 +
 
 +
=== Screencast recording ===
 +
 
 +
GNOME features built-in screencast recording with the '''Ctrl''' + '''Shift''' + '''Alt''' + '''R''' key combination.  A red circle is displayed in the bottom right corner of the screen when the recording is in progress. After the recording is finished, a file named {{ic|Screencast from %d%u-%c.webm}} is saved in the Videos directory.  In order to use the screencast feature the gst plugins need to be installed.
 +
 
 +
=== Screenshot ===
 +
 
 +
Default save directory:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.gnome-screenshot auto-save-directory file:///home/''USER''/Desktop
 +
 
 +
Check the ''gnome-screenshot'' manual page for more options.
 +
 
 +
=== Log out delay ===
 +
 
 +
To eliminate the default 60 second delay when logging out:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.SessionManager logout-prompt false
 +
 
 +
=== Disable animations ===
 +
 
 +
To disable Shell animations (such as "Show Applications" and the wave animation in the top left activities hot corner), run:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface enable-animations false
 +
 
 +
=== Retina (HiDPI) display support ===
  
If the above method doesn't work, you can try disabling the accessibility icon system wide. Edit the file '''/usr/share/gnome-shell/js/ui/panel.js''', find this line:
+
GNOME introduced HiDPI support in version 3.10. If your display does not provide the correct screen size through EDID, this can lead to incorrectly scaled UI elements. As a workaround you can open ''dconf-editor'' and find the key {{ic|scaling-factor}} in {{ic|org.gnome.desktop.interface}}. Set it to {{ic|1}} to get the standard scale.
'a11y': imports.ui.status.accessibility.ATIndicator,
+
and comment it out e.g.:
+
/* 'a11y': imports.ui.status.accessibility.ATIndicator, */
+
Afterwards restart the shell.
+
  
=== Disable bluetooth icon in panel ===
+
Also see [[HiDPI]].
First deactivate it as startup-service: [[GNOME_3#Start_program_automatically_after_login_to_GNOME_3]]
+
  
After that create a folder named '''nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui''' in '''$HOME/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions'''. In this folder create two files. The first one is named '''extension.js''' and has this content:
+
=== Passwords and keys (PGP Keys) ===
const Panel = imports.ui.panel;
+
 
   
 
   
function main() {
+
You can use the Passwords and Keys program (''seahorse'') to create a PGP key as it is a front end for [[GnuPG]] and installs it as dependency. This may be useful in the future (for instance if to encrypt a file). Create a key as shown below (the process may take about 10 minutes):
Panel.STANDARD_TRAY_ICON_SHELL_IMPLEMENTATION['bluetooth'] = ''''''';
+
}
+
The second one is named '''metadata.json''' and has this content:
+
{
+
"shell-version": ["3.0.1"],
+
"uuid": "nobluetooth.icon@panel.ui",
+
"name": "nbluetooth",
+
"description": "Turn off the bluetooth icon in the panel"
+
}
+
Now restart the gnome-shell (press '''ALT+F2''', type '''r''' and press '''Enter''') and the icon is away. If this extensions stops working adjust the shell-version number in the metadata-file according to your version.
+
  
=== Middle Mouse Button Emulation ===
+
''File'' > ''New'' > ''PGP Key'' > ''Name'' > ''Email'' > ''Defaults'' > ''Passphrase''.
  
By default, GNOME 3 disables middle mouse button emulation regardless of Xorg settings ('''Emulate3Buttons'''). To enable middle mouse button emulation use:
+
=== Terminal ===
  
gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.peripherals.mouse middle-button-enabled true
+
==== Change default terminal size ====
  
=== Battery icon ===
+
The default size of a new terminal can be adjusted in the menu ''Edit > Profile preferences ''.
To have battery tray icon, install gnome-power-manager package:
+
# pacman -S gnome-power-manager
+
  
=== Xmonad ===
+
==== New terminals adopt current directory ====
  
Upgrading to Gnome 3 will (most-likely) break your xmonad setup. You can use xmonad again by forcing fallback mode (see below) and creating the following two files:
+
By default new terminals open in the {{ic|$HOME}} directory. To have new terminals adopt the current working directory: {{ic|source /etc/profile.d/vte.sh}}. Add the command to the shell configuration to retain the behaviour. [http://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/93476/gnome-terminal-keep-track-of-directory-in-new-tab]
  
{{hc|/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/xmonad.session|2=
+
==== Pad the terminal ====
 +
 
 +
To pad the terminal (create a small, invisible border between the window edges and the terminal contents) create the file below:
 +
 
 +
{{hc|~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css|<nowiki>
 +
VteTerminal,
 +
TerminalScreen {
 +
    padding: 10px 10px 10px 10px;
 +
    -VteTerminal-inner-border: 10px 10px 10px 10px;
 +
}</nowiki>}}
 +
 
 +
==== Disable blinking cursor ====
 +
 
 +
Since GNOME 3.8 and the migration to GSettings and DConf the key required to modify in order to disable the blinking cursor in the Terminal differs slightly in contrast to the old GConf key. To disable the blinking cursor in GNOME 3.8 and above use:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface cursor-blink false
 +
 
 +
To disable the blinking cursor in Terminal only use (make sure profile uid is correct one):
 +
 
 +
$ dconf write /org/gnome/terminal/legacy/profiles:/:b1dcc9dd-5262-4d8d-a863-c897e6d979b9/cursor-blink-mode "'off'"
 +
 
 +
Note that {{ic|gnome-settings-daemon}}, from the package of the same name, must be running for this and other settings changes to take effect in GNOME applications - see [[#Configuration]].
 +
 
 +
==== Disable confirmation window when closing Terminal ====
 +
 
 +
The Terminal will always display a confirmation window when trying to close the window while one is logged in as root. To avoid this, execute the following:
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.Terminal.Legacy.Settings confirm-close false
 +
 
 +
=== Middle mouse button ===
 +
 
 +
By default, GNOME 3 disables middle mouse button emulation regardless of [[Xorg]] settings ('''Emulate3Buttons'''). To enable middle mouse button emulation use:
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.peripherals.mouse middle-button-enabled true
 +
 
 +
=== Enable button and menu icons ===
 +
 
 +
Since GTK+ 3.10, the GSettings key 'menus-have-icons' has been deprecated. Icons in buttons and menus can still be enabled by setting the following overrides:
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.xsettings overrides "{'Gtk/ButtonImages': <1>, 'Gtk/MenuImages': <1>}"
 +
 
 +
=== Use custom colours and gradients for desktop background ===
 +
 
 +
To use custom colours and gradients for your desktop background, you will first need to set either a transparent picture or else a non-existent picture as your desktop background. For instance, the command below will set a non-existent picture as the background.
 +
 
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri none
 +
 
 +
At this point, the desktop background should be a flat colour - the default colour setting is for a deep blue.
 +
 
 +
For a different flat colour you need only change the primary colour setting:
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background primary-color <my color>
 +
where <my color> is a hex value (such as ''ffffff'' for white).
 +
 
 +
For a colour gradient, you will also need to change secondary colour setting {{ic|org.gnome.desktop.background secondary-color}} and select a shading type. For instance, if you want a horizontal gradient, execute the following:
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background color-shading-type horizontal
 +
 
 +
If you are using a transparent picture as your background, you can set the opacity by executing the following:
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-opacity <value>
 +
where value is a number between 1 and 100 (100 for maximum opacity).
 +
 
 +
=== Transitioning backgrounds ===
 +
 
 +
GNOME can transition between different wallpapers at specific time intervals. This is done by creating an XML file specifying the pictures to be used and the time interval. For more information on creating such files, see the following [http://www.linuxjournal.com/content/create-custom-transitioning-background-your-gnome-228-desktop article].
 +
 
 +
Alternatively, a number of tools are available to automate the process:
 +
 
 +
* {{App|mkwlppr|This script creates XML files that can act as dynamic wallpapers for GNOME by referring to multiple wallpapers.|http://pastebin.com/019G2rCy|see [http://pastebin.com/019G2rCy mkwlppr]}}
 +
* {{App|[[Wallpapoz]]|Wallpapoz is a tool that provides dynamic wallpapers for GNOME and Xfce desktops.|https://vajrasky.wordpress.com/|{{AUR|wallpapoz}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|wallpapoz}}}}}}
 +
* {{App|CreBS|A Python/GTK application used to create and set desktop wallpaper slideshows for GNOME.|http://www.obfuscatepenguin.net/|{{AUR|crebs}}{{Broken package link|{{aur-mirror|crebs}}}}}}
 +
 
 +
For setting the XML file as the default background, see [[#Lock screen and background]].
 +
 
 +
=== Custom GNOME sessions ===
 +
 
 +
It is possible to create custom GNOME sessions which use the GNOME session manager but start different sets of components ([[Openbox]] with [[tint2]] instead of GNOME Shell for example).
 +
 
 +
Two files are required for a custom GNOME session: a session file in {{ic|/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/}} which defines the components to be started and a [[desktop entry]] in {{ic|/usr/share/xsessions}} which is read by the [[display manager]]. An example session file is provided below:
 +
{{hc|/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/gnome-openbox.session|<nowiki>
 
[GNOME Session]
 
[GNOME Session]
Name=Xmonad session
+
Name=GNOME Openbox
RequiredComponents=gnome-panel;gnome-settings-daemon;
+
RequiredComponents=openbox;tint2;gnome-settings-daemon;
RequiredProviders=windowmanager;notifications;
+
</nowiki>}}
DefaultProvider-windowmanager=xmonad
+
DefaultProvider-notifications=notification-daemon
+
}}
+
  
{{hc|/usr/share/xsessions/xmonad-gnome-session.desktop|2=
+
And an example desktop file:
 +
{{hc|/usr/share/xsessions/gnome-openbox.desktop|<nowiki>
 
[Desktop Entry]
 
[Desktop Entry]
Name=Xmonad GNOME
+
Name=GNOME Openbox
Comment=Tiling window manager
+
Exec=gnome-session --session=gnome-openbox
TryExec=/usr/bin/gnome-session
+
</nowiki>}}
Exec=gnome-session --session=xmonad
+
Type=XSession
+
}}
+
  
The next time you log in, you'll have the ability to choose ''Xmonad GNOME'' as your session.
+
{{Note|GNOME Session calls upon the {{ic|.desktop}} files of each of the components to be started. If a component you wish to start does not provide a {{ic|.desktop}} file, you must create a suitable desktop entry in a directory such as {{ic|/usr/local/share/applications}}.}}
  
== Enabling fallback mode==
+
== Troubleshooting ==
  
Your session will automatically start in fallback mode if gnome-shell is not present or if your desktop cannot handle graphics acceleration (such as running in a Virtual Machine or on old hardware). If you want to enable it while having gnome-shell installed, open gnome-control-center. Open System Info > Graphics. Change ''Forced Fallback Mode'' to ''ON''.
+
=== Shell freezes ===
  
== Enabling hidden features ==
+
In the event of a Shell freeze (which might be caused by certain appearance tweaks, malfunctioning extensions or perhaps a lack of available memory) restarting the Shell by pressing {{ic|Alt}} + {{ic|F2}} and then entering '''r''' may not be possible.
  
Gnome 3.0 hides a lot of useful options which you can customize with '''dconf-editor''' or '''gconf-editor''' for settings not yet migrated to dconf.
+
In this case, try switching to another TTY ('''Ctrl''' + '''Alt''' + '''F2''') and entering the following command: {{ic|pkill -HUP gnome-shell}}. It may take a few seconds before the Shell successfully restarts. Restarting the shell in this fashion should not log the user out but it is a good idea to try and ensure that all work is saved anyway.
  
=== Changing Hotkeys ===
+
If this fails, the [[Xorg]] server will need to be restarted either by: {{ic|pkill X}} for console logins or: {{ic|systemctl restart gdm}} for GDM logins. Bear in mind that restarting the Xorg server will log the user out so try to ensure that all work is saved before attempting this.
  
In '''dconf-editor''', enable org.gnome.desktop.interface "can-change-accels".
+
=== Incorrect application defaults ===
  
An example of changing the delete hotkey:
+
When installing applications for the first time you may find that GNOME has the wrong application associated to a certain protocols - for instance, ''easytag'' becomes the folder handler instead of [[GNOME Files]].
Open nautilus, select any file/directory, then click "Edit" from the menubar, and hover over the "Move to Trash" menuitem.
+
While hovering, push '''delete''', and default accel will be unset. Now push the key that you want to set as accel.
+
i.e. Pushing again '''delete''', will make the accel change to "del".
+
  
Make sure you have selected a file, else the "Move to Trash" menuitem will be greyed out.
+
For GNOME Files see the following page: [[GNOME Files#Files is no longer the default file manager]].
You should disable "can-change-accels" afterwards, to prevent accidental accel changes.
+
  
== How to shutdown through the Status menu ==
+
For Document Viewer, run the following command:
 +
$ xdg-mime default evince.desktop application/pdf
  
For now, the Shutdown option seems to be hidden if the user presses the Status menu on the upper right. If you want to shutdown your system through the Status menu, click on it and then press the '''Alt''' button. The "'''Suspend'''" option will instantly turn into "Power off...", as long as you are pressing the Alt button, which will allow you to properly shutdown your system.
+
For other applications, default handler settings are detailed on the following page: [[Default applications]].
  
You can also install the "Alternative Status Menu" extension (see the section on Enabling Extensions, below). This will put a permanent "Power Off" option in the Status menu below the usual suspend option.
+
Optionally, you can [[install]] {{AUR|gnome-defaults-list}}. It will place your configuration file at {{ic|/etc/gnome/defaults.list}}.
  
== Enabling integrated messaging ==
+
=== Tracker & Documents do not list any local files ===
  
Empathy, the engine behind the integrated messaging, and all of the system settings based on your messaging accounts will not show up unless the '''telepathy''' group of packages or at least one of the backends ('''telepathy-gabble''', or '''telepathy-haze''', for example) is installed. These are not included in the default Arch GNOME installs and the Empathy interface doesn't give a nice error message, it just fails to work silently. You can install them:
+
In order for Tracker (and, therefore, Documents) to detect your local files, they must be stored in an [http://standards.freedesktop.org/basedir-spec/basedir-spec-latest.html XDG compliant directory] (such as 'Documents' or 'Music'). For more information, see [[Xdg user directories]].
  
# pacman -S telepathy
+
You can also configure Tracker to recursively search inside specific directories such as your home directory. These settings can be made using {{ic|tracker-preferences}}.
  
== Enabling extensions ==
+
=== Unable to add accounts in Empathy and GNOME Online Accounts ===
  
Gnome Shell can be customised to an extent with extensions that have been written by others. These provide functionality like having a dock that is always present, and being able to change the shell theme. More details on the functionality of currently available extensions is given [http://www.webupd8.org/2011/04/gnome-shell-extensions-additional.html here] You can use the [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=47501 gnome-shell-extensions-git] package in the AUR to install them or [https://www.archlinux.org/packages/?sort=&q=gnome-shell-extension&maintainer=&last_update=&flagged=&limit=50 install them individually using the [extra] extensions' snapshots] . Restart Gnome to enable them.
+
Empathy, the engine behind integrated messaging, GNOME Online Accounts, and all other system settings based on messaging accounts will not function correctly unless the {{Grp|telepathy}} group of packages or at least one of the backends ({{Pkg|telepathy-gabble}}, or {{Pkg|telepathy-haze}}, for example) is [[install]]ed. View descriptions of ''telepathy'' components on the [http://telepathy.freedesktop.org/wiki/Components freedesktop.org telepathy wiki].
  
If installing the extensions causes Gnome to stop working then you must remove the user-theme extension and and the auto-move-windows extension from their installation directory (could be in ~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions or /usr/share/gnome-shell/extensions or /usr/local/share/gnome-shell/extensions). Removing or adding extensions to these directories will remove or install them form the system. More details on Gnome Shell extensions are available [https://live.gnome.org/GnomeShell/Extensions here].
+
{{Note|[[Avahi]] daemon is required for connecting with the People Nearby account, and also in order for some desktop extensions to work correctly like [https://extensions.gnome.org/extension/746/chat-status/ Chat Status]}}
  
== Troubleshooting ==
+
=== Cannot change settings in dconf-editor ===
  
=== My screen isn't locked after resume from suspend/hibernate ===
+
When one cannot set settings in {{pkg|dconf}}, it is possible their dconf user settings are corrupt. In this case it is best to delete the user dconf files in {{ic|~/.config/dconf/user*}} and set the settings in dconf-editor after.
  
Screen lock does only work when you suspend through gnome status menu. If you suspend or hibernate with powerbutton/etc. you screen is not locked after resume. This problem occours because of an config failure in dconf, so just open dconf-editor and change lock-use screensaver to false (unchecked) in org/gnome/power-manager. Your screen will no be locked after resume, regardless whether you used gnome status menu or power button or key combination.
+
=== When an extension breaks the shell ===
For more information see bugreport: [https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=698135#c8 Screen gets no more locked after suspend#Comment 8]
+
  
=== My GTK2+ apps show segfaults and won't start ===
+
When enabling shell extensions causes GNOME breakage, you should first remove the ''user-theme'' and ''auto-move-windows'' extensions from their installation directory.
  
That usually happens when '''oxygen-gtk''' is installed. That theme conflicts somehow with GNOME 3's or/and GTK3 settings and when it has been set as a GTK2 theme, the GTK2 apps segfault with errors like:
+
The installation directory could be one of  {{ic|~/.local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions}}, {{ic|/usr/share/gnome‑shell/extensions}} or {{ic|/usr/local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions}}. Removing these two extension-containing folders may fix the breakage. Otherwise, isolate the problem extension with trial‑and‑error.
  
{{bc| (firefox-bin:14345): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: invalid (NULL) pointer instance
+
Removing or adding an extension-containing folder to the aforementioned directories removes or adds the corresponding extension to your system. Details on GNOME Shell extensions are available at the [https://live.gnome.org/GnomeShell/Extensions GNOME web site.]
  
(firefox-bin:14345): GLib-GObject-CRITICAL **: g_signal_connect_data: assertion `G_TYPE_CHECK_INSTANCE (instance)' failed
+
If you have trouble with uninstalling an extension via [https://extensions.gnome.org/local/ extensions.gnome.org/local], then probably they have been installed as system-wide extensions with the {{Pkg|gnome-shell-extensions}} package. Removing the package again obviously affects all user accounts.
  
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_screen_get_default_colormap: assertion `GDK_IS_SCREEN (screen)' failed
+
=== Extensions do not work after GNOME 3 update ===
  
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_colormap_get_visual: assertion `GDK_IS_COLORMAP (colormap)' failed
+
{{Note|Please bear in mind that whilst the methods below will allow you to '''try''' and activate an extension with an unsupported version of GNOME Shell, it is by no means a guarantee that the extension will work successfully. The most likely outcome of trying to activate such an extension is that GNOME Shell will crash and then restart.}}
  
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_screen_get_default_colormap: assertion `GDK_IS_SCREEN (screen)' failed
+
Before trying the workarounds below, check if an update is available for the extension by visiting [https://extensions.gnome.org/local extensions.gnome.org/local].
  
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_screen_get_root_window: assertion `GDK_IS_SCREEN (screen)' failed
+
If there is no update for your current GNOME version yet, use the following command to disable version validation for extensions:
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell disable-extension-version-validation true
  
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_screen_get_root_window: assertion `GDK_IS_SCREEN (screen)' failed
+
Alternatively, you could modify the extension itself, changing the supported shell version to satisfy the version validation. See the method below.
  
(firefox-bin:14345): Gdk-CRITICAL **: IA__gdk_window_new: assertion `GDK_IS_WINDOW (parent)' failed
+
Locate the folder where your extensions are installed. It might be {{ic|~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions}} or {{ic|/usr/share/gnome-shell/extensions}}.
Segmentation fault
+
 
}}
+
Edit each occurrence of {{ic|metadata.json}} which appears in each extension sub-folder.
 +
 
 +
{| border="0"
 +
| Insert: || {{ic|"shell-version": ["3.x"]}}
 +
|-
 +
| Instead of (for example): || {{ic|"shell-version": ["3.4"]}}
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
{{ic|"3.x"}} indicates the extension works with every shell version. If it breaks, you will know to change it back.
 +
 
 +
=== Keyboard shortcut do not work with only conky running ===
 +
 
 +
The GNOME shell keyboard shortcuts like {{ic|Alt+F2}}, {{ic|Alt+F1}}, and the media key shortcuts do not work if conky is the only program running. However, if another application like ''gedit'' is running, then the keyboard shortcuts work.
 +
 
 +
Solution: edit {{ic|.conkyrc}}
 +
 
 +
own_window yes
 +
own_window_transparent yes
 +
own_window_argb_visual yes
 +
own_window_type dock
 +
own_window_class Conky
 +
own_window_hints undecorated,below,sticky,skip_taskbar,skip_pager
 +
 
 +
=== Unable to apply stored configuration for monitors ===
 +
 
 +
If you encounter this message try to disable the ''xrandr'' {{ic|gnome-settings-daemon plugin}}:
 +
 
 +
$ dconf write /org/gnome/settings-daemon/plugins/xrandr/active false
 +
 
 +
=== Consistent cursor theme ===
 +
 
 +
See [[Cursor themes#Desktop environments]].
 +
 
 +
=== Windows cannot be modified with Alt-Key + mouse-button ===
 +
 
 +
In GNOME 3.6 and above, the mouse button modifier (the key that allows you to drag a window from a location other than the titlebar) is the {{ic|Super}} key instead of the {{ic|Alt}} key which was used in the past. The change was made in response to the following [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=607797 bug report].
 +
 
 +
To change the mouse button modifier back to the {{ic|Alt}} key, execute the following:
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.wm.preferences mouse-button-modifier '<Alt>'
 +
 
 +
{{Note|It is not possible to change this with ''System settings'' > ''Keyboard'' > ''Shortcuts''}}
 +
 
 +
=== Slow loading of system icons/slow GDM login ===
 +
 
 +
Problems with the loading of system icons, such the ones in the title bar of Files, might be solved by executing the following command:
 +
# gdk-pixbuf-query-loaders --update-cache
 +
 
 +
Running the aforementioned command may also fix repeated occurrences of the  "Oh no! Something has gone wrong!" error screen and/or very slow loading and login with GDM as described in the following [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=1414157 forum thread].
 +
 
 +
=== Artifacts when maximizing windows ===
 +
 
 +
Maximizing windows may cause artifacts as of GNOME 3.12.0 - see the following [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=183617 forum thread]  and [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=728385 bug report]. A solution is detailed in the following section: [[#Tear-free video with Intel HD Graphics]].
 +
 
 +
=== Tear-free video with Intel HD Graphics ===
 +
 
 +
;DRI3
 +
According to [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=711028#c2 this bug report], DRI3 includes the {{ic|buffer_age}} extension that allows GNOME Shell's Mutter compositor to sync windows to vblank in an efficient way. [[Intel _Graphics#Direct_Rendering_Infrastructure_3_.28DRI3.29|Enable]] it in the Xorg driver. You can change {{ic|AccelMethod}} to your preference in the configuration file created, but the line must be included when the file is created; otherwise, {{ic|gnome-session}} will crash upon login in a non-Wayland session.
 +
 
 +
;Intel TearFree
 +
Enabling the [[Intel _Graphics#Tear-free_video|Xorg Intel TearFree option]] is a known workaround for tearing problems on Intel adapters. However, the way this option acts makes it redundant with the use of a compositor (it increases memory consumption and lowers performance, see [https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=37686#c123 the original bug report's final comment]).
 +
 
 +
;Mutter tweaks
 +
{{Note|1=This workaround has been [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=711028#c0 reported] to have side effects and may not fix tearing in all cases.}}
 +
GNOME Shell's Mutter compositor has a tweak known to address tearing problems (see [https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=657071#c1 the original suggestion for this fix] and its mention in [https://bugs.freedesktop.org/show_bug.cgi?id=37686#c59 the Freedesktop bug report]). To enable this tweak, append the following line to {{ic|/etc/environment}}: {{ic|1=CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling}}. Then restart the Xorg server.
 +
 
 +
=== Window opens behind other windows when using multiple monitors ===
 +
 
 +
This is possibly a bug in GNOME Shell which causes new windows to open behind others. To fix this issue, one can run the following command:
 +
$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell.overrides workspaces-only-on-primary false
 +
 
 +
=== Lock button fails to re-enable touchpad ===
 +
 
 +
Some laptops have a touchpad lock button that disables the touchpad so that users can type without worrying about touching the touchpad. Currently, it appears that although GNOME can lock the touchpad by pressing this button, it cannot unlock it. If the touchpad gets locked you can run the following to unlock it:
 +
 
 +
$ xinput set-prop "SynPS/2 Synaptics TouchPad" "Device Enabled" 1
  
The current "workaround" is to '''remove''' '''oxygen-gtk''' from the system completely and set another theme for your apps.
+
=== GNOME Shell keyboard sources menu not visible ===
  
=== I use the ATI Catalyst driver and I encounter glitches and artifacts while using GNOME Shell ===
+
A menu showing the keyboard input sources (for example 'en' for an English keyboard layout) should be visible next to the status area containing icons for network, volume and power sources. If the keyboard sources menu is not visible, this is probably because you have configured your [[Xorg]] keyboard layout in a way which GNOME does not recognise.
  
For the moment, Catalyst is not proposed to be used while running GNOME Shell. The opensource ATI driver, xf86-video-ati, however, seems to be working properly with the GNOME 3 composited desktop.
+
To ensure that the menu is visible, remove any Xorg keyboard configuration you might have created and set the keyboard locale using [[Keyboard_configuration_in_Xorg#Using_localectl|localectl]].
  
=== I have multiple monitors and the Dock extension appears stuck between them ===
+
Upon running the command and then logging out, you should find that the keyboard input sources menu is visible in GDM and in the GNOME Shell desktop. See [http://blogs.gnome.org/mclasen/2012/09/21/input-sources-in-gnome/ Input sources in GNOME] for more information.
  
If you have multiple monitors configured using Nvidia Twinview, the dock extension may get sandwiched in-between the monitors. You can edit the source of this extension to reposition the dock to a position of your choosing.
+
=== Mouse cursor missing ===
  
Edit '''/usr/share/gnome-shell/extensions/dock@gnome-shell-extensions.gnome.org/extension.js''' and locate this line in the source:
+
When using a separate [[window manager]] with ''gnome-settings-daemon'', the mouse cursor may vanish. Run:
  
  this.actor.set_position(primary.width-this._item_size-this._spacing-2, (primary.height-height)/2);
+
  $ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.cursor active false
  
The first parameter is the X position of the dock display, by subtracting 15 pixels as opposed to 2 pixels from this it correctly positioned on my primary monitor, you can play around with any X,Y coordinate pair to position it correctly.
+
=== No restart button in session menu when screen is locked ===
  
this.actor.set_position(primary.width-this._item_size-this._spacing-15, (primary.height-height)/2);
+
If [[XScreenSaver]] is installed, ensure that it is not running at startup, see [[#Startup applications]].
  
=== There are no event sounds for Empathy and other programs ===
+
=== PulseAudio system-wide causes delay in GNOME and GDM ===
The '''sound-theme-freedesktop''' package must be installed for the default event sounds:
+
  # pacman -S sound-theme-freedesktop
+
If you're using [[OSS]], you may want to install '''libcanberra-oss''' [https://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=31163 from AUR].
+
  
=== Editing hotkeys via can-change-accels fails ===
+
If you are running [[PulseAudio]] in system-wide mode, the PulseAudio 7.0 upgrade breaks [[GDM]] and GNOME.
It is also possible to manually change the keys via an application's so-called accel map file. Where it is to be found is up to the application: For instance, Thunar's is at {{ic|~/.config/Thunar/accels.scm}}, whereas Nautilus's is located at {{ic|~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus}}. The file should contain a list of possible hotkeys, each unchanged line commented out with a leading ";" that has to be removed for a change to become active.
+
See [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=203051 this forum post] for more information.
  
=== "Failed to load session 'gnome-fallback'" message ===
+
=== GNOME crashes when trying to reorder applications in the GNOME Shell Dash ===
Check if '''notification-daemon''' is installed.
+
The dash is the "toolbar" that appears, by default, [[wikipedia:GNOME_Shell#Design_components|on the left]] when you click Activities. Applications can be reordered in the dash by dragging and dropping. If this fails, and/or causes GNOME to crash, try [https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?id=171689 changing your icon theme].
  # pacman -S notification-daemon
+
  
=== [fallback mode] Panels and applets don't respond to right click to remove, etc, as in GNOME 2 ===
+
== See also ==
Check Configuration Editor: /apps/metacity/general/mouse_button_modifier.  This modifier key (<Alt>, <Super>, etc) used for normal windows is also used by panels and their applets.
+
  
=== Show Desktop: ALT+STRG+D does not Work ===
+
* [http://www.gnome.org/ The Official Website of GNOME]
The GNOME developers treated the corresponding binding as bug (see https://bugzilla.gnome.org/show_bug.cgi?id=643609) due to Minimization being deprecated. To show the desktop again assign ALT+STRG+D to the following setting:
+
* [https://extensions.gnome.org/ Extensions for GNOME-shell]
System Settings --> Keyboard --> Shortcuts --> Windows --> Hide all normal windows
+
* [https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/GnomeShell/CheatSheet GNOME Shell Cheat Sheet], commands, keyboard shortcuts and other tips for using GNOME Shell.
 +
* Themes, icons, and backgrounds:
 +
** [http://art.gnome.org/ GNOME Art]
 +
** [http://www.gnome-look.org/ GNOME Look]
 +
* GTK/GNOME programs:
 +
** [http://www.gnomefiles.org/ GNOME Files]
 +
** [http://www.gnome.org/projects/ GNOME Project Listing]
 +
* [http://blog.fpmurphy.com/2011/03/customizing-the-gnome-3-shell.html Customizing the GNOME Shell]

Latest revision as of 08:27, 28 March 2016

Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.pngThis article or section needs to be translated.Tango-preferences-desktop-locale.png

Notes: please use the first argument of the template to provide more detailed indications. (Discuss in Talk:GNOME (正體中文)#)

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Reason: Outdated by several years (Discuss in Talk:GNOME (正體中文)#)

Contents

GNOME是什麼?

GNOME專案提供了兩樣東西: GNOME桌面環境,一個設計給終使用者的直覺、引人注目的桌面環境。和GNOME開發平台, 一個用來開發可整合進桌面環境的極具擴展性的框架。

如何安裝GNOME桌面

在安裝GNOME之前,請先利用以下指令更新你的pacman:

# pacman -Syu 
# pacman -Syy

這會幫你略過當安裝gnome-media套件時,所需的依賴gstreamer0.10-gconf不存在未更新的系統中的問題。安裝gnome前更新的你系統是必需的。

利用下列指令安裝GNOME桌面:

# pacman -S gnome

另外,如果需要更多GNOME應用程式,包含檔案管理器,硬碟管理器,文字編輯器和一些遊戲,記得這些程式是以gnome為基礎的:

# pacman -S gnome-extra

這裡有一個套件組(metapackage),包含了一個群組的組件。你可以選擇安裝這個群組全部的套件或是部分的套件。全部的套件都可以被安全的安裝,此安裝是被高度建議的。但以下是一些可能不被需要的套件的列表

  • Epiphany GNOME的網頁瀏覽器。假設你預定要使用其它的網頁瀏覽器,如Firefox。那這個套件就是不必要的。但是仍建議你使用這個被Firefox遮住光環但還是非常棒的瀏覽器。
  • Evolution 一個GNOME中用來管理個人資訊的套件(e-mail,行程,聯絡人資訊...等)。假如你想要使用其它的個人資訊管理套件,如Thunderbird,或是網頁版的個人資訊管理套件,如google或yahoo。那麼這個套件就不是必需的。
  • gnome-backgrounds 是由GNOME社群為你挑選的桌面布景集合。假設你有自己的桌面背景圖案。那麼這個套件就可以不用安裝。
  • gnome-screensaver GNOME桌面的螢幕保護程式集合。假如你不使用螢幕保護程式,那麼這個套件就可以不用安裝。
  • gnome-themes GNOME布景主題的集合。假如你要使用自己的布景主題。那麼這個套件就可以不用安裝。
  • gnome2-user-docsyelp 是GNOME的幫助文件和幫助文件的讀取器。假如你不是個會讀取幫助文件,而是傾向於在Google上找尋幫助的話。那麼這個套件就可以不用安裝。

從GNOME 3開始,GNOME專案從新改寫以迎合現代使用者需求與當代科技。在GNOME中新增以下特色:

  • 提供新的預設當代主題與字形
  • 活動視窗提供一個快速存取你的視窗與應用程式
  • 內建(整合式)訊息桌面服務
  • 更多穩定提示系統與更多分離式panel
  • 可快速搜尋活動
  • 新的系統管理程式
  • ...更多特色請至GNOME3

GNOME Sessions

GNOME有三個可用sessions,都使用GNOME Shell。

  • GNOME 是預設的、創新的排版。
  • GNOME Classic 是傳統的桌面排版類似GNOME 2的介面,使用預先載入, using pre-activated extensions and parameters.[1]因此它是個高度自訂性。
  • GNOME on Wayland 使用協定的GNOME Shell. 傳統的Xwindows應用程式也可透過Xwayland跑在這上面.

啟動GNOME

GNOME可以透過display manager, 或手動從終端機開啟. 對於最佳的桌面環境整合, 使用推薦 GDM (the GNOME Display manager). 注意 啟動 display manager (例如GDM) 代表 Xorg將以root權限啟動.

Note: 桌面鎖定功能是由GDM提供的. 如果GNOME不是透過GDM開啟的, 你需要其他的程式來達到桌面鎖定功能 - 看 List of applications/Security#Screen lockers.

圖形化的(Graphically)

選擇session: GNOME, GNOME ClassicGNOME on Wayland 從display manager's session選單.

手動開啟

  • 對於標準GNOME session, 新增以下到 ~/.xinitrc 檔案: exec gnome-session.
  • 對於GNOME Classic session, 新增以下到 ~/.xinitrc 檔案:
    export XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP=GNOME-Classic:GNOME
    export GNOME_SHELL_SESSION_MODE=classic
    exec gnome-session --session=gnome-classic

修改完~/.xinitrc 後, GNOME 可以透過 startx 指令開啟 (see xinitrc for additional details, such as preserving the logind session). 設定完 ~/.xinitrc 後,它可被安排啟動X Start X at login.

Note: GNOME on Wayland 需要 xorg-server-xwayland package, 而且 不能 使用 startx~/.xinitrc開啟. 請使用 gnome-session --session=gnome-wayland. 更多資訊, 請看 Wayland.

在Wayland啟動GNOME應用程式

Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements.Tango-edit-clear.png

Reason: Note is too long (more content in the note than in the section itself). (Discuss in Talk:GNOME (正體中文)#)

近期, 作為預設, GNOME 應用程式可透過 Xwayland跑於wayland上. 如要測試你的GNOME應用程式於wayland上相容性, 在terminal開啟應用程式並加上env GDK_BACKEND='wayland,x11' <command>於command前.

Note: 設定全域的Wayland環境, 藉由env GDK_BACKEND=wayland gnome-session --session=gnome-wayland指令, 可能無用 - gnome-session 將立即跳出. 請使用export GDK_BACKEND='wayland,x11' 在你的 bash 設定檔, 或使用 env GDK_BACKEND='wayland,x11' gnome-session --session=gnome-wayland 指令. 但總結來說, 這些設定非必要, 只要執行 gnome-session--session=gnome-wayland 就足夠了. 沒有 GDK_BACKEND 環境變數, GNOME 應用程式必須 "Wayland aware" 以執行Wayland應用程式, 或者以Xwayland作為預設. 看更多 GDK_BACKEND 於 GNOME Environment variables.

請看多資訊於此頁面 GNOME Applications under Wayland.

導覽解說

學習GNOME更多更有效率請看GNOME Shell Cheat Sheet; 其強調更多GNOME Shell 特色與快捷箭,包含任務選擇,鍵盤使用,視窗控制,面板,鳥瞰模式,與更多。 一些快捷鍵:

  • Super + m: 顯示訊息
  • Super + a: 顯示應用程式目錄
  • Alt- + Tab: 循環顯示當前活動中程式
  • Alt- + ` (在 Tab 上的那個鍵 (US keyboard) ): 循環顯示使用程式之子視窗
  • Alt + F2, 然後按rrestart: 從新啟動有問題的圖形化界面.

常用的應用程式名

Note: 有些GNOME應用程式有換過名字於文件中,而且在對話窗中也換了,但執行期則否. 一些這類程式列在底下.
Tip: 搜尋一些程式的常用名稱在GNOME shell的搜尋欄中將會成功回傳結果. 例如, 搜尋 nautilus 將顯示 Files.
現在名 常用名
Files Nautilus
Web Epiphany
Videos Totem
Main Menu Alacarte
Document Viewer Evince
Disk Usage Analyser Baobab
Image Viewer EoG (Eye of GNOME)
Passwords and Keys Seahorse

設定

GNOME 桌面以 configuration database backend (DConf) 來儲存系統與程式設定. 當軟體被安裝時,他的預設設定會載入資料庫. 基本設定會藉由GNOME系統設定面板 (gnome-control-center) 或每個應用程式的偏好設定來載入. 直接對DConf資料庫操作永遠可用 gsettings指令工具. 尤其,它可那些無圖形化設定工具進行設定。

GNOME設定以GNOME Settings Daemon來運行. 注意這個daemon可在GNOME session運行, 想執行GNOME 設定在非GNOME環境. 請執行 nohup /usr/lib/gnome-settings-daemon/gnome-settings-daemon > /dev/null & .

設定通常只涵蓋單一使用者,對於剩下的使用者,本篇並不提供建立多使用者系統樣板之教學。

系統設定

值得注意的控制面板設定

顏色

daemon colord 讀取顯示器的 EDID並提取適合顏色. 大多數顏色設定以準確不須修改; 然而對於那些不準確的或舊型顯示器, color顏色設定會被放在~/.local/share/icc/ 並被執行.

日期 & 時間

如果系統有被設定 Network Time Protocol daemon, 它會效果很好.如果需要同步時間可透過手動設定從目錄.

顯示日期於視窗最頂欄, 執行:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface clock-show-date true

另外, 顯示週數在Shell Calender, 執行:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell.calendar show-weekdate true

預設應用程式

安裝完gnome完之後可能發現一些錯置的預設應用程式,例如:totem開源播放器取代常見的VLC,這些設定可以透過:System>Details>Default applications來修改。 其他的協定與方法可看Default appliactions來設定。

Mouse and touchpad

To help reduce touchpad interference you may wish to implement the settings below:

  • Disable touchpad while typing
  • Disable scrolling
  • Disable tap-to-click

Network

NetworkManager is the native tool of the GNOME project to control network settings from the shell. It is installed by default as a dependency for tracker package, which is a part of gnome group, and just needs to be enabled.

While any other network manager can be used as well, NetworkManager provides the full integration via the shell network settings and a status indicator applet network-manager-applet (not required for GNOME).

Online accounts

Backends for the GNOME messaging application empathy as well as the GNOME Online Accounts section of the System Settings panel are provided in a separate group: telepathy. See #Unable to add accounts in Empathy and GNOME Online Accounts. Some online accounts, such as ownCloud, require gvfs-goa to be installed for full functionality in GNOME applications such as GNOME Files and GNOME Documents [2].

Search

The GNOME shell has a search that can be quickly accessed by pressing the Super key and starting to type. The tracker package is installed by default as a part of gnome group and provides an indexing application and metadata database. It can be configured with the Search and Indexing menu item; monitor status with tracker-control. It is started automatically by gnome-session when the user logs in. Indexing can be started manually with tracker-control -s. Search settings can also be configured in the System Settings panel.

The Tracker database can be queried using the tracker-sparql command. View its manual page man tracker-sparql for more information.

Advanced settings

As noted above, many configuration options such as changing the GTK+ theme or the window manager theme are not exposed in the GNOME System Settings panel (gnome-control-center). Those users that want to configure these settings may wish to use the GNOME Tweak Tool (gnome-tweak-tool), a convenient graphical tool which exposes many of these settings.

GNOME settings (which are stored in the DConf database) can also be configured using the dconf-editor (a graphical DConf configuration tool) or the gsettings command line tool. The GNOME Tweak Tool does not do anything else in the background of the GUI; note though that you will not find all settings described in the following sections in it.

Appearance

GTK+ themes and icon themes

To install a new theme or icon set, add the relevant ~/.local/share/themes or ~/.local/share/icons respectively (add to /usr/share/ instead of ~/.local/share/ for the themes to be available systemwide.) They and other GUI settings can also be defined in ~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-theme-name = Adwaita
# next option is applicable only if selected theme supports it
gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme = true
# set font name and dimension
gtk-font-name = Sans 10

Additional theme locations:

Once installed, they can be selected using the GNOME Tweak Tool or GSettings - see below for GSettings commands:

For the GTK+ theme:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface gtk-theme theme-name

For the icon theme

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface icon-theme theme-name
Global dark theme

GNOME will use the Adwaita light theme by default however a dark variant of this theme (called the Global Dark Theme) also exists and can be selected using the Tweak Tool or by editing the GTK+ 3 settings file - see GTK+#Dark theme variant. Some applications such as Image Viewer (eog) use the dark theme by default. It should be noted that the Global Dark Theme only works with GTK+ 3 applications; some GTK+ 3 applications may only have partial support for the Global Dark theme. Qt and GTK+ 2 support for the Global Dark Theme may be added in the future.

Window manager themes

The window manager theme (the style of the window titlebars) can be set using the GNOME Tweak Tool or the following GSettings command:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.wm.preferences theme theme-name
Titlebar height
Note: As of GNOME 3.16, Mutter no longer uses Metacity themes. Instead, the titlebar decorations are themed using GTK+.

To change the titlebar height, create the following file, adjusting the padding as desired:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css
.header-bar {
	padding-top: 3px;
	padding-bottom: 3px;
	font-size: 9px;
}

.header-bar .button {
	padding-top: 5px;
	padding-bottom: 5px;
}

Titlebar button order

To set the order for the GNOME window manager (Mutter, Metacity):

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.wm.preferences button-layout ':minimize,maximize,close'
Tip: The colon indicates which side of the titlebar the window buttons will appear.
Hide titlebar when maximized
  • Install mutter-hide-legacy-decorationsAUR. It changes a default setting in the window manager, so as to automatically hide the titlebar on legacy (non-headerbar) apps when they are maximized or tiled to the side.
  • Install maximusAUR. To start the application, execute maximus from a terminal. When running, the daemon will automatically maximize windows. It will undecorate maximized windows and redecorate them when they are unmaximized. If you do not want all windows to start maximized, run maximus -m instead. Note that this will only work with windows decorated by the window manager; applications that use client-side decoration such as GNOME Files will not be undecorated when maximized.
GNOME Shell themes

The theme of GNOME Shell itself is configurable. To use a Shell theme, firstly ensure that you have the gnome-shell-extensions package installed. Then enable the User Themes extension, either through GNOME Tweak Tool or through the GNOME Shell Extensions webpage. Shell themes can then be loaded and selected using the GNOME Tweak Tool.

There are a number of GNOME Shell themes available in the AUR.

Shell themes can also be downloaded from gnome-look.org.

Desktop

Various Desktop settings can be applied.

Icons on the Desktop

See GNOME Files#Desktop Icons.

Lock screen and background

When setting the Desktop or Lock screen background, it is important to note that the Pictures tab will only display pictures located in /home/username/Pictures folder. If you wish to use a picture not located in this folder, use the commands indicated below.

For the desktop background:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri 'file:///path/to/my/picture.jpg'

For the lock screen background

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.screensaver picture-uri 'file:///path/to/my/picture.jpg'

Extensions

Note: The GNOME Shell browser plugin which allows users to install extensions from extensions.gnome.org is not compatible with Chrome/Chromium versions 35 and over. Users wishing to install extensions from the webpage will have to use a compatible browser such as Firefox or GNOME Web.

GNOME Shell can be customized with extensions per user or system-wide.

The catalogue of extensions is available at extensions.gnome.org. By a user they can be installed and activated in the browser by setting the switch in the top left of the screen to ON and clicking Install on the resulting dialog (if the extension in question is not installed). After installation it is shown in the extensions.gnome.org/local/ tab, which has to be visited as well to check for available updates. Installed extensions can also be enabled or disabled using gnome-tweak-tool.

More information about GNOME shell extensions is available on the GNOME Shell Extensions about page.

Installing extensions via a package makes them available for all users of the system and automates the update process.

The gnome-shell-extensions package provides a set of extensions maintained as part of the GNOME project (many of the included extensions are used by the GNOME Classic session).

Users who want a taskbar but do not wish to use the GNOME Classic session may want to enable the Window list extension (provided by the gnome-shell-extensions package).

Input methods

GNOME has integrated support for input methods through IBus, only ibus and the wanted input method engine (e.g. ibus-libpinyin for Intelligent Pinyin) needed to be installed, after installation the input method engine can be added as a keyboard layout in GNOME's Regional & Language Settings.

Fonts

Tip: If you set the Scaling factor to a value above 1.00, the Accessibility menu will be automatically enabled.

Fonts can be set for Window titles, Interface (applications), Documents and Monospace. See the Fonts tab in the Tweak Tool for the relevant options.

For hinting, RGBA will likely be desired as this fits most monitors types, and if fonts appear too blocked reduce hinting to Slight or None.

Startup applications

To start certain applications on login, copy the relevant .desktop file from /usr/share/applications/ to ~/.config/autostart/.

The same effect can be achieved using the Tweak Tool.

Tip: If the plus sign button in the Tweak Tool's Startup Applications section is unresponsive, try start the Tweak Tool from the terminal using the following command: gnome-tweak-tool. See the following forum thread.
Note: The gnome-session-properties dialog was removed as of GNOME 3.12. It can be added back by installing the gnome-session-propertiesAUR package.

Power

The basic power settings that may want to be altered (these example settings assume the user is using a laptop - change them as desired):

$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power button-power hibernate
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-ac-timeout 3600
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-ac-type hibernate
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-battery-timeout 1800
$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power sleep-inactive-battery-type hibernate
$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.lockdown disable-lock-screen true

To keep a monitor active on lid close:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.xrandr default-monitors-setup do-nothing
Configure behaviour on lid switch close

The GNOME Tweak Tool, as of version 3.17.1, can optionally inhibit the systemd setting for the lid close ACPI event.[3] To inhibit the setting, start the Tweak Tool and, under the power tab, check the Don't suspend on lid close option. This means that the system will do nothing on lid close instead of suspending - the default behaviour. Checking the setting creates ~/.config/autostart/ignore-lid-switch-tweak.desktop which will autostart the Tweak Tool's inhibitor.

If you do not want the system to suspend or do nothing on lid close, you will need to ensure that the setting described above is not checked and then configure systemd with HandleLidSwitch=preferred_behaviour as described in Power management#ACPI events.

Change critical battery level action

The System Settings panel only allows the user to choose between Suspend or Hibernate. To choose another option such as Do Nothing open the dconf-editor and navigate to org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.power. Edit the "critical-battery-action" value to "nothing".

Sort applications into application (app) folders

Tip: The gnome-catgen (gnome-catgen-gitAUR) script allows you to manage folders through the creation of files in ~/.local/share/applications-categories named after each category and containing a list of the desktop files belonging to apps you would like to have inside. Optionally, you can have it cycle through each app without a folder and input the desired category until you ctrl-c or run out of apps.

In the dconf-editor navigate to org.gnome.desktop.app-folders and set the value of folder-children to an array of comma separated folder names:

['Utilities', 'Sundry']

Add applications using gsettings:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folder:/org/gnome/desktop/app-folders/folders/Sundry/ apps "['alacarte.desktop', 'dconf-editor.desktop']"

This adds the applications alacarte.desktop and dconf-editor.desktop to the Sundry folder. This will also create the folder org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folders.Sundry.

To name the folder (if it has no name that appears at the top of the applications):

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folder:/org/gnome/desktop/app-folders/folders/Sundry/ name "Sundry"

Applications can also be sorted by their category (specified in their .desktop file):

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folder:/org/gnome/desktop/app-folders/folders/Sundry/ categories "['Office']"

If certain applications matching a category are not wanted in a certain folder, exclusions can be set:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.app-folders.folder:/org/gnome/desktop/app-folders/folders/Sundry/ excluded-apps "['libreoffice-draw.desktop']"

For further information, refer to the app-folders schema.

Tips and tricks

Other GNOME system settings and tips.

Keyboard

Turn on NumLock on login

Run the following command:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.peripherals.keyboard numlock-state on

Hotkey alternatives

A lot of hotkeys can be changed via system settings menu. For example, to re-enable the show desktop keybinding:

System settings > Keyboard > Shortcuts > Navigation > Hide all normal windows

However, certain hotkeys cannot be changed directly via system settings. In order to change these keys, use dconf-editor. An example of particular note is the hotkey Alt- + ` (the key above Tab on US keyboard layouts). In GNOME Shell it is pre-configured to cycle through windows of an application, however it is also a hotkey often used in the Emacs editor. It can be changed by opening dconf-editor and modifying the switch-group key found in org.gnome.desktop.wm.keybindings.

It is possible to manually change the keys via an application's so-called accel map file. Where it is to be found is up to the application: For instance, Thunar's is at ~/.config/Thunar/accels.scm, whereas Files's is located at ~/.config/nautilus/accels and ~/.gnome2/accels/nautilus on old release.

The file should contain a list of possible hotkeys, each unchanged line commented out with a leading ";" that has to be removed for a change to become active. For example to replace the hotkey used by Files to move files to the trash folder, change the line:

; (gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/DirViewActions/Trash" "<Primary>Delete")

to this:

(gtk_accel_path "<Actions>/DirViewActions/Trash" "Delete")

The file is regenerated regularly so do not comment the file. The uncommented line will stay but every comment you add will be lost.

Keyboard switch with command

To have keyboard shortcut Alt + Shift switch keyboards:

Open Gnome-Tweak-Tool (or Keyboard Settings, in GNOME 3.16) and set Typing > Modifiers-only input sources > select Alt-shift. For more information see also the forum thread.

XkbOptions keyboard options

Using the dconf-editor, navigate to the key named org.gnome.desktop.input-sources.xkb-options and add desired XkbOptions (e.g. caps:swapescape) to the list.

See /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/xorg for all XkbOptions and /usr/share/X11/xkb/symbols/* for the respective descriptions.

Note: To enable the Ctrl+Alt+Backspace combination to terminate Xorg, use the gnome-tweak-tool. Within the Tweak Tool, navigate to Typing > Key sequence to kill the X server and select the option Ctrl+Alt+Backspace from the dropdown menu.

De-bind Windows key

By default, the 'Windows key' will open the GNOME Shell overview mode. You can unbind this key by running the command below

$ gsettings set org.gnome.mutter overlay-key 'Foo'

Disks

GNOME provides a disk utility to manipulate storage drive settings. These are some of its features:

  • Enable write cache is a feature that most hard drives provide. Data is cached and allocated at chosen times to improve system performance. Not recommended unless the computer has a backup battery pack or is a laptop as data would be lost on power failure.
Settings > Drive Settings > Write Cache > On
  • Automatic Mount Options can mount drives and partitions that are GPT based - will use default, recommended options.
Warning: This setting erases related fstab entries
Partition Settings > Edit Mount Options > Automatic Mount Options > On

Hiding applications from the menu

Tip: Desktop entries can be hidden by editing the .desktop files themselves. See Desktop entries#Hide desktop entries.

Use the Main Menu application (provided by the alacarte package) to hide any applications you do not wish to show in the menu.

Screencast recording

GNOME features built-in screencast recording with the Ctrl + Shift + Alt + R key combination. A red circle is displayed in the bottom right corner of the screen when the recording is in progress. After the recording is finished, a file named Screencast from %d%u-%c.webm is saved in the Videos directory. In order to use the screencast feature the gst plugins need to be installed.

Screenshot

Default save directory:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.gnome-screenshot auto-save-directory file:///home/USER/Desktop

Check the gnome-screenshot manual page for more options.

Log out delay

To eliminate the default 60 second delay when logging out:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.SessionManager logout-prompt false

Disable animations

To disable Shell animations (such as "Show Applications" and the wave animation in the top left activities hot corner), run:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface enable-animations false

Retina (HiDPI) display support

GNOME introduced HiDPI support in version 3.10. If your display does not provide the correct screen size through EDID, this can lead to incorrectly scaled UI elements. As a workaround you can open dconf-editor and find the key scaling-factor in org.gnome.desktop.interface. Set it to 1 to get the standard scale.

Also see HiDPI.

Passwords and keys (PGP Keys)

You can use the Passwords and Keys program (seahorse) to create a PGP key as it is a front end for GnuPG and installs it as dependency. This may be useful in the future (for instance if to encrypt a file). Create a key as shown below (the process may take about 10 minutes):

File > New > PGP Key > Name > Email > Defaults > Passphrase.

Terminal

Change default terminal size

The default size of a new terminal can be adjusted in the menu Edit > Profile preferences .

New terminals adopt current directory

By default new terminals open in the $HOME directory. To have new terminals adopt the current working directory: source /etc/profile.d/vte.sh. Add the command to the shell configuration to retain the behaviour. [4]

Pad the terminal

To pad the terminal (create a small, invisible border between the window edges and the terminal contents) create the file below:

~/.config/gtk-3.0/gtk.css
VteTerminal,
TerminalScreen {
    padding: 10px 10px 10px 10px;
    -VteTerminal-inner-border: 10px 10px 10px 10px;
}

Disable blinking cursor

Since GNOME 3.8 and the migration to GSettings and DConf the key required to modify in order to disable the blinking cursor in the Terminal differs slightly in contrast to the old GConf key. To disable the blinking cursor in GNOME 3.8 and above use:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.interface cursor-blink false

To disable the blinking cursor in Terminal only use (make sure profile uid is correct one):

$ dconf write /org/gnome/terminal/legacy/profiles:/:b1dcc9dd-5262-4d8d-a863-c897e6d979b9/cursor-blink-mode "'off'"

Note that gnome-settings-daemon, from the package of the same name, must be running for this and other settings changes to take effect in GNOME applications - see #Configuration.

Disable confirmation window when closing Terminal

The Terminal will always display a confirmation window when trying to close the window while one is logged in as root. To avoid this, execute the following:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.Terminal.Legacy.Settings confirm-close false

Middle mouse button

By default, GNOME 3 disables middle mouse button emulation regardless of Xorg settings (Emulate3Buttons). To enable middle mouse button emulation use:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.peripherals.mouse middle-button-enabled true

Enable button and menu icons

Since GTK+ 3.10, the GSettings key 'menus-have-icons' has been deprecated. Icons in buttons and menus can still be enabled by setting the following overrides:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.xsettings overrides "{'Gtk/ButtonImages': <1>, 'Gtk/MenuImages': <1>}"

Use custom colours and gradients for desktop background

To use custom colours and gradients for your desktop background, you will first need to set either a transparent picture or else a non-existent picture as your desktop background. For instance, the command below will set a non-existent picture as the background.

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-uri none

At this point, the desktop background should be a flat colour - the default colour setting is for a deep blue.

For a different flat colour you need only change the primary colour setting:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background primary-color <my color>

where <my color> is a hex value (such as ffffff for white).

For a colour gradient, you will also need to change secondary colour setting org.gnome.desktop.background secondary-color and select a shading type. For instance, if you want a horizontal gradient, execute the following:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background color-shading-type horizontal

If you are using a transparent picture as your background, you can set the opacity by executing the following:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.background picture-opacity <value>

where value is a number between 1 and 100 (100 for maximum opacity).

Transitioning backgrounds

GNOME can transition between different wallpapers at specific time intervals. This is done by creating an XML file specifying the pictures to be used and the time interval. For more information on creating such files, see the following article.

Alternatively, a number of tools are available to automate the process:

  • mkwlppr — This script creates XML files that can act as dynamic wallpapers for GNOME by referring to multiple wallpapers.
http://pastebin.com/019G2rCy || see mkwlppr
  • Wallpapoz — Wallpapoz is a tool that provides dynamic wallpapers for GNOME and Xfce desktops.
https://vajrasky.wordpress.com/ || wallpapozAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]
  • CreBS — A Python/GTK application used to create and set desktop wallpaper slideshows for GNOME.
http://www.obfuscatepenguin.net/ || crebsAUR[broken link: archived in aur-mirror]

For setting the XML file as the default background, see #Lock screen and background.

Custom GNOME sessions

It is possible to create custom GNOME sessions which use the GNOME session manager but start different sets of components (Openbox with tint2 instead of GNOME Shell for example).

Two files are required for a custom GNOME session: a session file in /usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/ which defines the components to be started and a desktop entry in /usr/share/xsessions which is read by the display manager. An example session file is provided below:

/usr/share/gnome-session/sessions/gnome-openbox.session
[GNOME Session]
Name=GNOME Openbox
RequiredComponents=openbox;tint2;gnome-settings-daemon;

And an example desktop file:

/usr/share/xsessions/gnome-openbox.desktop
[Desktop Entry]
Name=GNOME Openbox
Exec=gnome-session --session=gnome-openbox
Note: GNOME Session calls upon the .desktop files of each of the components to be started. If a component you wish to start does not provide a .desktop file, you must create a suitable desktop entry in a directory such as /usr/local/share/applications.

Troubleshooting

Shell freezes

In the event of a Shell freeze (which might be caused by certain appearance tweaks, malfunctioning extensions or perhaps a lack of available memory) restarting the Shell by pressing Alt + F2 and then entering r may not be possible.

In this case, try switching to another TTY (Ctrl + Alt + F2) and entering the following command: pkill -HUP gnome-shell. It may take a few seconds before the Shell successfully restarts. Restarting the shell in this fashion should not log the user out but it is a good idea to try and ensure that all work is saved anyway.

If this fails, the Xorg server will need to be restarted either by: pkill X for console logins or: systemctl restart gdm for GDM logins. Bear in mind that restarting the Xorg server will log the user out so try to ensure that all work is saved before attempting this.

Incorrect application defaults

When installing applications for the first time you may find that GNOME has the wrong application associated to a certain protocols - for instance, easytag becomes the folder handler instead of GNOME Files.

For GNOME Files see the following page: GNOME Files#Files is no longer the default file manager.

For Document Viewer, run the following command:

$ xdg-mime default evince.desktop application/pdf

For other applications, default handler settings are detailed on the following page: Default applications.

Optionally, you can install gnome-defaults-listAUR. It will place your configuration file at /etc/gnome/defaults.list.

Tracker & Documents do not list any local files

In order for Tracker (and, therefore, Documents) to detect your local files, they must be stored in an XDG compliant directory (such as 'Documents' or 'Music'). For more information, see Xdg user directories.

You can also configure Tracker to recursively search inside specific directories such as your home directory. These settings can be made using tracker-preferences.

Unable to add accounts in Empathy and GNOME Online Accounts

Empathy, the engine behind integrated messaging, GNOME Online Accounts, and all other system settings based on messaging accounts will not function correctly unless the telepathy group of packages or at least one of the backends (telepathy-gabble, or telepathy-haze, for example) is installed. View descriptions of telepathy components on the freedesktop.org telepathy wiki.

Note: Avahi daemon is required for connecting with the People Nearby account, and also in order for some desktop extensions to work correctly like Chat Status

Cannot change settings in dconf-editor

When one cannot set settings in dconf, it is possible their dconf user settings are corrupt. In this case it is best to delete the user dconf files in ~/.config/dconf/user* and set the settings in dconf-editor after.

When an extension breaks the shell

When enabling shell extensions causes GNOME breakage, you should first remove the user-theme and auto-move-windows extensions from their installation directory.

The installation directory could be one of ~/.local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions, /usr/share/gnome‑shell/extensions or /usr/local/share/gnome‑shell/extensions. Removing these two extension-containing folders may fix the breakage. Otherwise, isolate the problem extension with trial‑and‑error.

Removing or adding an extension-containing folder to the aforementioned directories removes or adds the corresponding extension to your system. Details on GNOME Shell extensions are available at the GNOME web site.

If you have trouble with uninstalling an extension via extensions.gnome.org/local, then probably they have been installed as system-wide extensions with the gnome-shell-extensions package. Removing the package again obviously affects all user accounts.

Extensions do not work after GNOME 3 update

Note: Please bear in mind that whilst the methods below will allow you to try and activate an extension with an unsupported version of GNOME Shell, it is by no means a guarantee that the extension will work successfully. The most likely outcome of trying to activate such an extension is that GNOME Shell will crash and then restart.

Before trying the workarounds below, check if an update is available for the extension by visiting extensions.gnome.org/local.

If there is no update for your current GNOME version yet, use the following command to disable version validation for extensions:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell disable-extension-version-validation true

Alternatively, you could modify the extension itself, changing the supported shell version to satisfy the version validation. See the method below.

Locate the folder where your extensions are installed. It might be ~/.local/share/gnome-shell/extensions or /usr/share/gnome-shell/extensions.

Edit each occurrence of metadata.json which appears in each extension sub-folder.

Insert: "shell-version": ["3.x"]
Instead of (for example): "shell-version": ["3.4"]

"3.x" indicates the extension works with every shell version. If it breaks, you will know to change it back.

Keyboard shortcut do not work with only conky running

The GNOME shell keyboard shortcuts like Alt+F2, Alt+F1, and the media key shortcuts do not work if conky is the only program running. However, if another application like gedit is running, then the keyboard shortcuts work.

Solution: edit .conkyrc

own_window yes
own_window_transparent yes
own_window_argb_visual yes
own_window_type dock
own_window_class Conky
own_window_hints undecorated,below,sticky,skip_taskbar,skip_pager

Unable to apply stored configuration for monitors

If you encounter this message try to disable the xrandr gnome-settings-daemon plugin:

$ dconf write /org/gnome/settings-daemon/plugins/xrandr/active false

Consistent cursor theme

See Cursor themes#Desktop environments.

Windows cannot be modified with Alt-Key + mouse-button

In GNOME 3.6 and above, the mouse button modifier (the key that allows you to drag a window from a location other than the titlebar) is the Super key instead of the Alt key which was used in the past. The change was made in response to the following bug report.

To change the mouse button modifier back to the Alt key, execute the following:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.desktop.wm.preferences mouse-button-modifier '<Alt>'  
Note: It is not possible to change this with System settings > Keyboard > Shortcuts

Slow loading of system icons/slow GDM login

Problems with the loading of system icons, such the ones in the title bar of Files, might be solved by executing the following command:

# gdk-pixbuf-query-loaders --update-cache

Running the aforementioned command may also fix repeated occurrences of the "Oh no! Something has gone wrong!" error screen and/or very slow loading and login with GDM as described in the following forum thread.

Artifacts when maximizing windows

Maximizing windows may cause artifacts as of GNOME 3.12.0 - see the following forum thread and bug report. A solution is detailed in the following section: #Tear-free video with Intel HD Graphics.

Tear-free video with Intel HD Graphics

DRI3

According to this bug report, DRI3 includes the buffer_age extension that allows GNOME Shell's Mutter compositor to sync windows to vblank in an efficient way. Enable it in the Xorg driver. You can change AccelMethod to your preference in the configuration file created, but the line must be included when the file is created; otherwise, gnome-session will crash upon login in a non-Wayland session.

Intel TearFree

Enabling the Xorg Intel TearFree option is a known workaround for tearing problems on Intel adapters. However, the way this option acts makes it redundant with the use of a compositor (it increases memory consumption and lowers performance, see the original bug report's final comment).

Mutter tweaks
Note: This workaround has been reported to have side effects and may not fix tearing in all cases.

GNOME Shell's Mutter compositor has a tweak known to address tearing problems (see the original suggestion for this fix and its mention in the Freedesktop bug report). To enable this tweak, append the following line to /etc/environment: CLUTTER_PAINT=disable-clipped-redraws:disable-culling. Then restart the Xorg server.

Window opens behind other windows when using multiple monitors

This is possibly a bug in GNOME Shell which causes new windows to open behind others. To fix this issue, one can run the following command:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.shell.overrides workspaces-only-on-primary false

Lock button fails to re-enable touchpad

Some laptops have a touchpad lock button that disables the touchpad so that users can type without worrying about touching the touchpad. Currently, it appears that although GNOME can lock the touchpad by pressing this button, it cannot unlock it. If the touchpad gets locked you can run the following to unlock it:

$ xinput set-prop "SynPS/2 Synaptics TouchPad" "Device Enabled" 1

GNOME Shell keyboard sources menu not visible

A menu showing the keyboard input sources (for example 'en' for an English keyboard layout) should be visible next to the status area containing icons for network, volume and power sources. If the keyboard sources menu is not visible, this is probably because you have configured your Xorg keyboard layout in a way which GNOME does not recognise.

To ensure that the menu is visible, remove any Xorg keyboard configuration you might have created and set the keyboard locale using localectl.

Upon running the command and then logging out, you should find that the keyboard input sources menu is visible in GDM and in the GNOME Shell desktop. See Input sources in GNOME for more information.

Mouse cursor missing

When using a separate window manager with gnome-settings-daemon, the mouse cursor may vanish. Run:

$ gsettings set org.gnome.settings-daemon.plugins.cursor active false

No restart button in session menu when screen is locked

If XScreenSaver is installed, ensure that it is not running at startup, see #Startup applications.

PulseAudio system-wide causes delay in GNOME and GDM

If you are running PulseAudio in system-wide mode, the PulseAudio 7.0 upgrade breaks GDM and GNOME. See this forum post for more information.

GNOME crashes when trying to reorder applications in the GNOME Shell Dash

The dash is the "toolbar" that appears, by default, on the left when you click Activities. Applications can be reordered in the dash by dragging and dropping. If this fails, and/or causes GNOME to crash, try changing your icon theme.

See also