GNOME Keyring (简体中文)

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翻译状态: 本文是英文页面 GNOME Keyring翻译,最后翻译时间:2019-01-31,点击这里可以查看翻译后英文页面的改动。

GNOME Keyring is "a collection of components in GNOME that store secrets, passwords, keys, certificates and make them available to applications."

安装

When using GNOME, gnome-keyring is installed automatically as a part of the gnome group. Otherwise install the gnome-keyring package. Install libsecret to allow applications to use your keyrings. libgnome-keyring is deprecated, however, some applications may require it.

Extra utilities related to GNOME keyring include:

  • secret-tool — Access the GNOME keyring (and any other service implementing the DBus Secret Service API) from the command line.
https://wiki.gnome.org/Projects/Libsecret || libsecret
  • gnome-keyring-query — Provides a simple command-line tool for querying passwords from the password store of the GNOME Keyring. (uses the deprecated libgnome-keyring)
|| gnome-keyring-queryAUR
  • gkeyring — Query passwords from the command line. (uses the deprecated libgnome-keyring)
https://github.com/kparal/gkeyring || gkeyringAUR, gkeyring-gitAUR

用GUI管理

You can manage the contents of GNOME Keyring using Seahorse. Install it with the package seahorse.

It is possible to leave the GNOME keyring password blank or change it. In seahorse, in the "View" drop-down menu, select "By Keyring". On the Passwords tab, right click on "Passwords: login" and pick "Change password." Enter the old password and leave empty the new password. You will be warned about using unencrypted storage; continue by pushing "Use Unsafe Storage."

在GNOME外部使用钥匙环

没有可视化管理软件的情况下

自动登陆

If you are using automatic login, then you can disable the keyring manager by setting a blank password on the login keyring.

Note: The passwords are stored unencrypted in this case.

控制台登陆

When using console-based login, the keyring daemon can be started by either PAM or xinitrc. PAM can also unlock the keyring automatically at login.

用PAM的方法

Start the gnome-keyring-daemon from /etc/pam.d/login:

Add auth optional pam_gnome_keyring.so at the end of the auth section and session optional pam_gnome_keyring.so auto_start at the end of the session section.

/etc/pam.d/login
#%PAM-1.0
 
auth       required     pam_securetty.so
auth       requisite    pam_nologin.so
auth       include      system-local-login
auth       optional     pam_gnome_keyring.so
account    include      system-local-login
session    include      system-local-login
session    optional     pam_gnome_keyring.so auto_start

For SDDM, edit instead the configuration file /etc/pam.d/sddm.

Next, for GDM, add password optional pam_gnome_keyring.so to the end of /etc/pam.d/passwd.

/etc/pam.d/passwd
#%PAM-1.0

#password	required	pam_cracklib.so difok=2 minlen=8 dcredit=2 ocredit=2 retry=3
#password	required	pam_unix.so sha512 shadow use_authtok
password	required	pam_unix.so sha512 shadow nullok
password	optional	pam_gnome_keyring.so
Note:
  • To use automatic unlocking, the same password for the user account and the keyring have to be set.
  • You will still need the code in ~/.xinitrc below in order to export the environment variables required.
用xinitrc的方法

Start the gnome-keyring-daemon from xinitrc:

~/.xinitrc
eval $(/usr/bin/gnome-keyring-daemon --start --components=pkcs11,secrets,ssh)
export SSH_AUTH_SOCK

See Xfce#SSH agents for use in Xfce.

If using i3 and ssh is not showing the password prompt, giving the following error:

sign_and_send_pubkey: signing failed: agent refused operation
Permission denied (publickey).

then you need to add the DISPLAY environment variable to dbus-daemon via the .xinitrc:

~/.xinitrc
dbus-update-activation-environment --systemd DISPLAY
eval $(/usr/bin/gnome-keyring-daemon --start --components=pkcs11,secrets,ssh)
export SSH_AUTH_SOCK

...
exec i3
Note: If you use a different location for ~/.Xauthority (XAUTHORITY) then you will have to also include this environment variable in the aforementioned dbus-update-activation-environment command.

有可视化管理软件的情况下

When using a display manager, the keyring works out of the box for most cases. The following display managers automatically unlock the keyring once you log in:

For GDM and LightDM, note the keyring must be named login to be automatically unlocked.

To enable the keyring for applications run through the terminal, such as SSH, add the following to your ~/.bash_profile, ~/.zshenv, or similar:

~/.bash_profile
if [ -n "$DESKTOP_SESSION" ];then
    eval $(gnome-keyring-daemon --start)
    export SSH_AUTH_SOCK
fi

SSH钥匙

To add your SSH key:

$ ssh-add ~/.ssh/id_rsa
Enter passphrase for /home/mith/.ssh/id_rsa:

To list automatically loaded keys:

$ ssh-add -L

To disable all keys:

$ ssh-add -D

Now when you connect to a server, the key will be found and a dialog will popup asking you for the passphrase. It has an option to automatically unlock the key when you log in. If you check this, you will not need to enter your passphrase again!

Alternatively, to permanently save the a passphrase in the keyring, use ssh-askpass from package seahorse:

/usr/lib/seahorse/ssh-askpass my_key
Note: You have to have the corresponding .pub file in the same directory as the private key (~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub in the example). Also, make sure that the public key is the file name of the private key plus .pub (for example, my_key.pub).

Start SSH and Secrets components of keyring daemon

If you are starting Gnome Keyring with a display manager or the Pam method described above and you are NOT using Gnome, Unity or Mate as your desktop you may find that the SSH and Secrets components are not being started automatically. You can fix this by copying the desktop files gnome-keyring-ssh.desktop and gnome-keyring-secrets.desktop from /etc/xdg/autostart/ to ~/.config/autostart/ and deleting the OnlyShowIn line.

$ cp /etc/xdg/autostart/{gnome-keyring-secrets.desktop,gnome-keyring-ssh.desktop} ~/.config/autostart/
$ sed -i '/^OnlyShowIn.*$/d' ~/.config/autostart/gnome-keyring-secrets.desktop
$ sed -i '/^OnlyShowIn.*$/d' ~/.config/autostart/gnome-keyring-ssh.desktop

禁止钥匙环的守护进程组件

If you wish to run an alternative SSH agent (e.g. ssh-agent or gpg-agent, you need to disable the ssh component of GNOME Keyring. To do so in an account-local way, copy /etc/xdg/autostart/gnome-keyring-ssh.desktop to ~/.config/autostart and then append the line Hidden=true to the copied file. Then log out.

Note: In case you use GNOME 3.24 or older on Wayland, gnome-shell will overwrite SSH_AUTH_SOCK to point to gnome-keyring regardless if it is running or not. To prevent this, you need to set the environment variable GSM_SKIP_SSH_AGENT_WORKAROUND before gnome-shell is started. One way to do this is to add the line GSM_SKIP_SSH_AGENT_WORKAROUND DEFAULT=1 to ~/.pam_environment.

提示与小技巧

软件中的插件

去除密码

gnome-keyring-daemon -r -d

This command starts gnome-keyring-daemon, shutting down previously running instances.

Git的插件

The GNOME keyring is useful in conjuction with Git when you are pushing over HTTPS.

Install the libsecret package.

Set Git up to use the helper:

$ git config --global credential.helper /usr/lib/git-core/git-credential-libsecret

Next time you do a git push, you are asked to unlock your keyring, if not unlocked already.

GnuPG的插件

Several applications which use GnuPG require a pinentry-program to be set. Set the following to use Gnome 3 pinentry for Gnome Keyring to manage passphrase prompts.

~/.gnupg/gpg-agent.conf
pinentry-program /usr/bin/pinentry-gnome3

Another option is to force loopback for GPG which should allow the passphrase to be entered in the application.

故障排除

密码没被记住

如果你每次登陆的时候都收到密码提示框,并且你发现你的密码没有被自动保持你可能需要创建或设置一个默认钥匙环

确保 seahorse 包已经 安装了, 打开它 (系统设置中的"密码和密钥") 并且选中“视图” > “根据钥匙环”。 如果在左边的一竖排中没看到钥匙环 (一个锁一样的图标), 打开“文件” > “新建” > “密码钥匙环”,然后取一个名字,你可能会被要求输入一个密码。如果你没有给钥匙环密码,钥匙环将会自动解锁,即使使用自动登陆,密码也不会被安全保存。最后,右键你创建的钥匙环并选择“设为默认”。

重置钥匙环

If you get the error "The password you use to login to your computer no longer matches that of your login keyring", you can simply reset your gnome keyring.

Remove "login.keyring" and "user.keystore" from /home/{username}/.local/share/keyrings/. After removing the files, simply log out and log in again. Obviously, this will remove your saved keys.

参见