Difference between revisions of "GNU Project"

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[[Category:Development]] [[Category:System administration]]
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[[Category:Development]]
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[[Category:System administration]]
 
[[es:GNU Project]]
 
[[es:GNU Project]]
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[[ja:GNU プロジェクト]]
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{{Related articles start}}
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{{Related|Arch Linux}}
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{{Related|Core Utilities}}
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{{Related articles end}}
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{{Poor writing|Add Template:App}}
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From http://www.gnu.org/:
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:The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop the GNU operating system, a complete Unix-like operating system which is free software—software which respects your freedom. Unix-like operating systems are built from a software collection of applications, libraries, and developer tools—plus a program to allocate resources and talk to the hardware, known as a kernel. [...] The combination of GNU and Linux is the GNU/Linux operating system, now used by millions and sometimes incorrectly called simply “Linux”. The name “GNU” is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix!”
  
{{Article summary start}}
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The aim of the GNU Project is to produce a totally free operating system. While the GNU kernel has not reached a stable version, the project has resulted in the creation of many tools that power most Unix-like operating systems. [[Arch Linux]] is such a system, using GNU software like the [[GRUB]] bootloader, [[Bash]] shell, and numerous other utilities and libraries.
{{Article summary text|This article describes the GNU Project and lists some of the essential tools that qualify Arch Linux as a GNU/Linux distribution.}}
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{{Article summary heading|Overview}}
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{{Article summary text|The aim of the GNU Project is to produce a totally free operating system. While the GNU kernel has not reached a stable version, the project has resulted in the creation of many tools that power most Unix-like operating systems. Arch Linux is such a system, using GNU software like the [[GRUB]] bootloader, [[Bash]] shell, and numerous other utilities and libraries.}}
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{{Article summary heading|Related}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Arch Linux}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Beginners' Guide}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Arch User Repository}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Arch Compared to Other Distributions}}
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{{Article summary wiki|Core Utilities}}
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{{Article summary end}}
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From http://www.gnu.org/
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:''The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop the GNU operating system, a complete Unix-like operating system which is free software—software which respects your freedom.
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:''Unix-like operating systems are built from a software collection of applications, libraries, and developer tools—plus a program to allocate resources and talk to the hardware, known as a kernel. [...]''
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:''The combination of GNU and Linux is the GNU/Linux operating system, now used by millions and sometimes incorrectly called simply “Linux”.''
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:''The name “GNU” is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix!”''
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Since [[Arch Linux]] is a GNU/Linux based distribution, many of its basic tools are from the GNU Project. This article will give a brief description of the core components, as well as some other useful applications.
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== The Base System ==
 
== The Base System ==
  
At the end of the installation process, an Arch system is nothing more than the Linux Kernel, the GNU toolchain, and a few other useful command line tools. The minimal install normally contains the entire [http://www.archlinux.org/groups/i686/base/ base group].
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At the end of the installation process, an Arch system is nothing more than the Linux Kernel, the GNU toolchain, and a few command line tools. The minimal install normally contains the entire {{Grp|base}} group.
  
 
=== Kernel ===
 
=== Kernel ===
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=== Software Collection ===
 
=== Software Collection ===
'''bootloader:''' [[GRUB]] is the standard bootloader for Arch Linux, which is now maintained by [http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/ GNU].
 
  
'''C library:''' {{Pkg|glibc}} is ''"the library which defines the `system calls' and other basic facilities such as open, malloc, printf, exit..."''[http://www.gnu.org/software/libc/ ]
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* {{App|[[GRUB]]|bootloader|http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/|{{Pkg|grub}}}}
 
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* {{App|[[Wikipedia:glibc|glibc]]|C library. "defines the 'system calls' and other basic facilities such as open, malloc, printf, exit..."|http://www.gnu.org/software/libc/ |{{Pkg|glibc}}}}
'''binary utilities:''' {{Pkg|binutils}} provides the ''"collection of programming tools for the manipulation of object code in various object file formats"''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Binutils  ].
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* {{App|[[Wikipedia:binutils|binutils]]|"a collection of binary tools"|https://www.gnu.org/software/binutils/ |{{Pkg|binutils}}}}
 
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* {{App|[[bash]]|"an sh-compatible shell that incorporates useful features from the Korn shell (ksh) and C shell (csh)"|https://www.gnu.org/software/bash/|{{Pkg|bash}}}}
'''shell:''' [[Bash]], another GNU based application[http://www.gnu.org/software/bash/ ], is the default shell.
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* {{App|[[coreutils]]|"the basic file, shell and text manipulation utilities of the GNU operating system."|https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/|{{Pkg|coreutils}}}}
 
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* {{App|[[Wikipedia:gzip|gzip]]|"popular data compression program"|https://www.gnu.org/software/gzip/|{{Pkg|gzip}}}}
'''core utilities:''' The {{Pkg|coreutils}} package contains ''"the basic file, shell and text manipulation utilities"''[http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/ ].
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* {{App|[[tar]]|"provides the ability to create tar archives, as well as various other kinds of manipulation"|https://www.gnu.org/software/tar/|{{Pkg|tar}}}}
 
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'''compression:''' {{Pkg|gzip}} and [[Tar]] handle many packages for GNU/Linux systems. For example, those from the [[Arch User Repository]] come as [http://www.gnu.org/software/gzip/ Gzipped] [http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/ tarballs].
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== Development Tools ==
 
== Development Tools ==
  
Though not necessary, users have the option of installing the [http://www.archlinux.org/groups/i686/base-devel/ base-devel] group for some software development tools. This group is a requirement for building packages from the [[Arch User Repository]].
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Though not necessary, users have the option of installing the {{grp|base-devel}} group for some software development tools. This group is a requirement for building packages from the [[Arch User Repository]].
  
 
Among '''base-devel''' are several members of the [[Wikipedia:GNU toolchain|GNU toolchain]], a ''"suite of tools used in a serial manner [...] for developing applications and operating systems"''. The key components of this toolchain are:
 
Among '''base-devel''' are several members of the [[Wikipedia:GNU toolchain|GNU toolchain]], a ''"suite of tools used in a serial manner [...] for developing applications and operating systems"''. The key components of this toolchain are:
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'''linker, assembler and other tools:''' {{Pkg|binutils}}
 
'''linker, assembler and other tools:''' {{Pkg|binutils}}
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:[[w:gold (linker)]], [[w:GNU Binutils]], [[w:GNU linker]]
  
 
'''parser generator:''' {{Pkg|bison}}
 
'''parser generator:''' {{Pkg|bison}}
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== Other Tools ==
 
== Other Tools ==
  
Many other optional GNU tools are available in the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]]:
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Many other optional GNU tools are available in the [[official repositories]]:
  
 
'''widget toolkit:''' [[GTK+]]
 
'''widget toolkit:''' [[GTK+]]
  
 
'''desktop environment:''' [[GNOME]]
 
'''desktop environment:''' [[GNOME]]
 
'''flash player:''' {{Pkg|gnash}}
 
  
 
'''spreadsheet:''' [[Gnumeric]]
 
'''spreadsheet:''' [[Gnumeric]]
  
'''image editor:''' [[Multimedia#GIMP|GIMP]]
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'''image editor:''' [[GIMP]]
  
 
'''full-screen window manager:''' [[GNU Screen]]
 
'''full-screen window manager:''' [[GNU Screen]]
  
== Links ==
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== See also ==
  
For a list of all current GNU projects, see [http://www.gnu.org/software/software.html#allgnupkgs All GNU Packages]
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For a list of all current GNU projects, see [http://www.gnu.org/software/software.html#allgnupkgs All GNU Packages].

Latest revision as of 12:06, 28 March 2016

Related articles

Tango-edit-clear.pngThis article or section needs language, wiki syntax or style improvements.Tango-edit-clear.png

Reason: Add Template:App (Discuss in Talk:GNU Project#)

From http://www.gnu.org/:

The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop the GNU operating system, a complete Unix-like operating system which is free software—software which respects your freedom. Unix-like operating systems are built from a software collection of applications, libraries, and developer tools—plus a program to allocate resources and talk to the hardware, known as a kernel. [...] The combination of GNU and Linux is the GNU/Linux operating system, now used by millions and sometimes incorrectly called simply “Linux”. The name “GNU” is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix!”

The aim of the GNU Project is to produce a totally free operating system. While the GNU kernel has not reached a stable version, the project has resulted in the creation of many tools that power most Unix-like operating systems. Arch Linux is such a system, using GNU software like the GRUB bootloader, Bash shell, and numerous other utilities and libraries.

The Base System

At the end of the installation process, an Arch system is nothing more than the Linux Kernel, the GNU toolchain, and a few command line tools. The minimal install normally contains the entire base group.

Kernel

While Hurd, the GNU Kernel, is under active development, there is not yet a stable version. For this reason Arch and most other GNU based systems use the Linux Kernel. The Arch Hurd Project aims to port Arch Linux to the Hurd kernel.

Software Collection

  • GRUB — bootloader
http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/ || grub
  • glibc — C library. "defines the 'system calls' and other basic facilities such as open, malloc, printf, exit..."
http://www.gnu.org/software/libc/ || glibc
  • binutils — "a collection of binary tools"
https://www.gnu.org/software/binutils/ || binutils
  • bash — "an sh-compatible shell that incorporates useful features from the Korn shell (ksh) and C shell (csh)"
https://www.gnu.org/software/bash/ || bash
  • coreutils — "the basic file, shell and text manipulation utilities of the GNU operating system."
https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/ || coreutils
  • gzip — "popular data compression program"
https://www.gnu.org/software/gzip/ || gzip
  • tar — "provides the ability to create tar archives, as well as various other kinds of manipulation"
https://www.gnu.org/software/tar/ || tar

Development Tools

Though not necessary, users have the option of installing the base-devel group for some software development tools. This group is a requirement for building packages from the Arch User Repository.

Among base-devel are several members of the GNU toolchain, a "suite of tools used in a serial manner [...] for developing applications and operating systems". The key components of this toolchain are:

compilation and build: make

compiler collection: gcc

linker, assembler and other tools: binutils

w:gold (linker), w:GNU Binutils, w:GNU linker

parser generator: bison

macro processor: m4

GNU Build System (autotools):

automatically configure source code: autoconf
automatically create Makefiles: automake
library support script: libtool

Other Tools

Many other optional GNU tools are available in the official repositories:

widget toolkit: GTK+

desktop environment: GNOME

spreadsheet: Gnumeric

image editor: GIMP

full-screen window manager: GNU Screen

See also

For a list of all current GNU projects, see All GNU Packages.