Difference between revisions of "GTK+"

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:''GTK+, or the GIMP Toolkit, is a multi-platform toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces. Offering a complete set of widgets, GTK+ is suitable for projects ranging from small one-off tools to complete application suites.''
 
:''GTK+, or the GIMP Toolkit, is a multi-platform toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces. Offering a complete set of widgets, GTK+ is suitable for projects ranging from small one-off tools to complete application suites.''
  
GTK+, The GIMP Toolkit, was initially made by the [[GNU Project]] for [[Gimp]] but is now a very popular toolkit with bindings for many languages.  
+
GTK+, The GIMP Toolkit, was initially made by the [[GNU Project]] for the [[GIMP]] but is now a very popular toolkit with bindings for many languages.  
  
 
== Configuration programs ==
 
== Configuration programs ==
  
These GUI programs allow theme selection and at least customising of a font. They generally overwrite the ~/.gtkrc-2.0 file.
+
These GUI programs allow theme selection and at least customising of a font. They generally overwrite the {{ic|~/.gtkrc-2.0}} file.
  
 
* {{Pkg|lxappearance}}: A configuration tool from the [[LXDE]] project, which does not require any other parts of LXDE or other desktop environment. More flexible customisation than the other programs.
 
* {{Pkg|lxappearance}}: A configuration tool from the [[LXDE]] project, which does not require any other parts of LXDE or other desktop environment. More flexible customisation than the other programs.
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# change the theme
 
# change the theme
  
Some nice themes are in [[AUR]]. To install them, see [http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?ID=43501 gtk-smooth-engine].
+
Some nice themes are in the [[Arch User Repository|AUR]]. To install them, see {{AUR|gtk-smooth-engine}}.
  
 
To change the theme you can use ''gtk-theme-switch2''. Run it with the 'switch' command.
 
To change the theme you can use ''gtk-theme-switch2''. Run it with the 'switch' command.
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=== GTK+ 2.x ===
 
=== GTK+ 2.x ===
  
Major [[desktop environment]]s provide tools to configure the GTK+ theme, icons, font and font size. Alternatively, tools such as those mentioned above may be used.
+
Major [[Desktop Environment|desktop environments]] provide tools to configure the GTK+ theme, icons, font and font size. Alternatively, tools such as those mentioned above may be used.
  
It is recommended to install some GTK+ 2 themes as well. The popular ''Clearlooks'' theme is included within the {{Pkg|gtk-engines}} package:
+
It is recommended to [[pacman|install]] some GTK+ 2 themes as well. The popular ''Clearlooks'' theme is included within the {{Pkg|gtk-engines}} package.
# pacman -S gtk-engines
+
  
Further themes can be found in [[AUR]]:
+
Further themes can be found in the [[Arch User Repository|AUR]]:
*http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=gtk2-theme&do_Search=Go
+
*{{AUR|gtk2-theme}}
*http://aur.archlinux.org/packages.php?O=0&K=gtk-theme&do_Search=Go
+
*{{AUR|gtk-theme}}
  
Alternatively, GTK+ settings can be configured manually by editing {{ic|~/.gtkrc-2.0}}. A list of GTK+ settings can be found in the [http://library.gnome.org/devel/gtk/stable/GtkSettings.html gnome library]. To manually change the GTK+ theme, icons, font and font size, add the following to {{ic|~/.gtkrc-2.0}}:
+
Alternatively, GTK+ settings can be configured manually by editing {{ic|~/.gtkrc-2.0}}. A list of GTK+ settings can be found in the [http://library.gnome.org/devel/gtk/stable/GtkSettings.html GNOME library]. To manually change the GTK+ theme, icons, font and font size, add the following to {{ic|~/.gtkrc-2.0}}:
  
 
{{hc|~/.gtkrc-2.0|2=
 
{{hc|~/.gtkrc-2.0|2=
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}}
 
}}
  
{{Note| The above example requires the packages {{Pkg|ttf-dejavu}}, {{Pkg|tango-icon-theme}}, {{Pkg|gtk-engine-murrine}} and murrine-themes-collection (from AUR).}}
+
{{Note| The above example requires the packages {{Pkg|ttf-dejavu}}, {{Pkg|tango-icon-theme}}, {{Pkg|gtk-engine-murrine}} from the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]], and {{AUR|murrine-themes-collection}} from the AUR.}}
  
 
=== GTK+ 3.x ===
 
=== GTK+ 3.x ===
  
If you use GNOME 3 DE, the theme can be changed with gnome-tweak-tool. Install with
+
If you use GNOME 3, the theme can be changed with the {{pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}}.
# pacman -S gnome-tweak-tool
+
  
If you use a GTK+ 2.x based DE, like Xfce, LXDE, gnome-tweak-tool won't work; see [https://bugs.archlinux.org/task/23644 FS#23633]. You need to install librsvg
+
If you use a GTK+ 2.x based DE, like [[Xfce]], [[LXDE]], gnome-tweak-tool won't work; see {{bug|23644}}. You need to [[pacman|install]] {{pkg|librsvg}}, and set your theme manually in {{ic|{XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}} (this is usually {{ic|~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}. An example {{ic|settings.ini}} file:
# pacman -S librsvg
+
and set your theme manually in {{ic|{XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}} (this is usually {{ic|~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}. An example {{ic|settings.ini}} file:
+
 
{{hc|{XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|2=
 
{{hc|{XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|2=
 
[Settings]
 
[Settings]
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#Hope
 
#Hope
  
Note: There probably are other themes. Some of these themes are available in AUR. Also, some of them are not usable as is for displaying a GTK+ 2.x panel (light text over light background), so you need to use the provided [http://i.imgur.com/QmeyN.png panel background].
+
{{Note|There probably are other themes. Some of these themes are available in the AUR. Also, some of them are not usable as is for displaying a GTK+ 2.x panel (light text over light background), so you need to use the provided [http://i.imgur.com/QmeyN.png panel background].}}
  
 
=== GTK+ and QT ===
 
=== GTK+ and QT ===

Revision as of 19:00, 2 January 2012

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Summary help replacing me
This articles details theme configuration of GTK+ applications. GTK+ (GIMP Toolkit) is a cross-platform widget toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces. This article will explore the tools used to configure the GTK+ theme, style, icon, font and font size, and also detail manual configuration.
Related
Uniform Look for QT and GTK Applications
Qt
GNU Project

From the GTK+ website:

GTK+, or the GIMP Toolkit, is a multi-platform toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces. Offering a complete set of widgets, GTK+ is suitable for projects ranging from small one-off tools to complete application suites.

GTK+, The GIMP Toolkit, was initially made by the GNU Project for the GIMP but is now a very popular toolkit with bindings for many languages.

Configuration programs

These GUI programs allow theme selection and at least customising of a font. They generally overwrite the ~/.gtkrc-2.0 file.

Example install command:

# pacman -S gtk-theme-switch2

See also Uniform Look for QT and GTK Applications#How do I set styles for each toolkit?

Themes

GTK+ 1.x

Old GTK+ 1 apps (like xmms) often do not look very nice at first. This is because they use ugly themes by default. To change this, you need to:

  1. download and install some nice themes
  2. change the theme

Some nice themes are in the AUR. To install them, see gtk-smooth-engineAUR.

To change the theme you can use gtk-theme-switch2. Run it with the 'switch' command.

GTK+ 2.x

Major desktop environments provide tools to configure the GTK+ theme, icons, font and font size. Alternatively, tools such as those mentioned above may be used.

It is recommended to install some GTK+ 2 themes as well. The popular Clearlooks theme is included within the gtk-engines package.

Further themes can be found in the AUR:

Alternatively, GTK+ settings can be configured manually by editing ~/.gtkrc-2.0. A list of GTK+ settings can be found in the GNOME library. To manually change the GTK+ theme, icons, font and font size, add the following to ~/.gtkrc-2.0:

~/.gtkrc-2.0
gtk-icon-theme-name = "[name-of-icon-theme]"
gtk-theme-name = "[name-of-theme]"
gtk-font-name = "[font-name] [size]"

For example:

~/.gtkrc-2.0
gtk-icon-theme-name = "Tango"
gtk-theme-name = "Murrine-Gray"
gtk-font-name = "DejaVu Sans 8"
Note: The above example requires the packages ttf-dejavu, tango-icon-theme, gtk-engine-murrine from the official repositories, and murrine-themes-collectionAUR from the AUR.

GTK+ 3.x

If you use GNOME 3, the theme can be changed with the gnome-tweak-tool.

If you use a GTK+ 2.x based DE, like Xfce, LXDE, gnome-tweak-tool won't work; see FS#23644. You need to install librsvg, and set your theme manually in {XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini (this is usually ~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini. An example settings.ini file:

{XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme = false
gtk-theme-name = Zukitwo
gtk-fallback-icon-theme = gnome

If it still does not change, delete old gtk-3.0 folder in {XDG_CONFIG_HOME} and copy gtk-3.0 folder from /path-to-the-theme to {XDG_CONFIG_HOME}. example:

rm -r ~/.config/gtk-3.0/
cp -r /usr/share/themes/Zukitwo/gtk-3.0/ ~/.config/  

After this, you need to set the same theme in your DE's appearance configuration tool. There are only a few themes which provide a uniform look for GTK+ 3.x and GTK+ 2.x apps. A few examples:

  1. Adwaita for GTK+ 3 and Advaicium for GTK+ 2
  2. Newlooks for GKT+ 3 and Clearlooks for GTK+ 2
  3. Zukitwo
  4. Elegant Brit
  5. Atolm
  6. Hope
Note: There probably are other themes. Some of these themes are available in the AUR. Also, some of them are not usable as is for displaying a GTK+ 2.x panel (light text over light background), so you need to use the provided panel background.

GTK+ and QT

If you have GTK+ and QT (KDE) applications on your desktop then you know that their looks do not blend well. If you wish to make your GTK+ styles match your QT styles please read Uniform Look for QT and GTK Applications.

Configuration file

Note: See the GtkSettings properties in the GTK+ programming reference manual for the full list of GTK configuration options.

The purpose of this section is to collect GTK configuration settings which can e.g. be used within ~/.gtkrc-2.0.

Enabling Customizable Keyboard Shortcuts

You can customize your GTK applications' keyboard shortcuts (those are called accelerators in GTK terminology) by hovering your mouse over a menu item and pressing your desired key combination. However, this feature is disabled by default. To enable it, set

gtk-can-change-accels = 1

Speed up your GNOME menu

This setting controls the delay between you pointing the mouse at a menu and that menu opening in GNOME. Change this to a setting you prefer. I guess the number is in milliseconds, e.g. 250 being a quarter of a second.

gtk-menu-popup-delay = 0

Reduce widget sizes

If you have a small screen or you just do not like big icons and widgets, you can resize things easily. To have icons without text in toolbars, use

gtk-toolbar-style = GTK_TOOLBAR_ICONS

To use smaller icons, use a line like this:

gtk-icon-sizes = "panel-menu=16,16:panel=16,16:gtk-menu=16,16:gtk-large-toolbar=16,16\
:gtk-small-toolbar=16,16:gtk-button=16,16"

Or to remove icons from buttons completely:

gtk-button-images = 0

You can also remove icons from menus:

gtk-menu-images = 0

There is some more tweaking to do in your themes gtkrc like explained here and there's another theme that does it all.

Development

When writing a start-from-scratch GTK+ 3 program with C, it's necessary to add CFLAGS for gcc:

gcc -g -Wall `pkg-config --cflags --libs gtk+-3.0` -o base base.c

-g and -Wall parameters are not necessary since they are only for verbose debugging outputs. You may try out the official Hello World example.

Write a simple message dialog app

You can write your own GTK+ 3 message dialog easily in many programming languages through GObject-Introspection or bindings, or you can simply use bash.

The following examples display a simple "Hello world" in a message dialog.

Bash

hello_world.sh
#!/bin/bash
zenity --info --title='Hello world!' --text='This is an example dialog.'

C

  • Dependency: gtk3
  • Build with: gcc -o hello_world `pkg-config --cflags --libs gtk+-3.0` hello_world.c
hello_world.c
#include <gtk/gtk.h>
void main (int argc, char *argv[]) {
	gtk_init (&argc, &argv);
        GtkWidget *hello = gtk_message_dialog_new (NULL, GTK_DIALOG_MODAL, GTK_MESSAGE_INFO, GTK_BUTTONS_OK, "Hello world!");
	gtk_message_dialog_format_secondary_text (GTK_MESSAGE_DIALOG (hello), "This is an example dialog.");
        gtk_dialog_run(GTK_DIALOG (hello));
}

C++

  • Dependency: gtkmm3
  • Build with: g++ -o hello_world `pkg-config --cflags --libs gtkmm-3.0` hello_world.cc
hello_world.cc
#include <gtkmm.h>
#include <gtkmm/messagedialog.h>
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
	Gtk::Main kit(argc, argv);
	Gtk::MessageDialog Hello("Hello world!", false, Gtk::MESSAGE_INFO, Gtk::BUTTONS_OK);
	Hello.set_secondary_text("This is an example dialog.");
	Hello.run();
}

Genie

  • Dependency: gtk3
  • Makedependency: vala
  • Build with: valac --pkg gtk+-3.0 hello_world.gs
hello_world.gs
uses 
	Gtk
init
	Gtk.init (ref args)
	var Hello=new MessageDialog (null, Gtk.DialogFlags.MODAL, Gtk.MessageType.INFO, Gtk.ButtonsType.OK, "Hello world!")
	Hello.format_secondary_text ("This is an example dialog.")
	Hello.run ()

JavaScript

hello_world.js
#!/usr/bin/gjs
Gtk = imports.gi.Gtk
Gtk.init(null, null)
Hello = new Gtk.MessageDialog({type: Gtk.MessageType.INFO,
                               buttons: Gtk.ButtonsType.OK,
                               text: "Hello world!",
                               "secondary-text": "This is an example dialog."})
Hello.run()

Python

hello_world.py
#!/usr/bin/python
from gi.repository import Gtk
Gtk.init(None)
Hello=Gtk.MessageDialog(None, Gtk.DialogFlags.MODAL, Gtk.MessageType.INFO, Gtk.ButtonsType.CLOSE, "Hello world!")
Hello.format_secondary_text("This is an example dialog.")
Hello.run()

Vala

  • Dependency: gtk3
  • Makedependency: vala
  • Build with: valac --pkg gtk+-3.0 hello_world.vala
hello_world.vala
using Gtk;
public class HelloWorld {
	static void main (string[] args) {
		Gtk.init (ref args);
		var Hello=new MessageDialog (null, Gtk.DialogFlags.MODAL, Gtk.MessageType.INFO, Gtk.ButtonsType.OK, "Hello world!");
		Hello.format_secondary_text ("This is an example dialog.");
		Hello.run ();
	}
}

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