Difference between revisions of "GTK+"

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(GTK+ 3.x: Removed no longer relevant information, librsvg shouldn't always be installed, Adwaita comes with both gtk2 and 3 components)
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[[Category:Desktop environments]]
 
[[Category:Desktop environments]]
 
[[cs:GTK+]]
 
[[cs:GTK+]]
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[[de:GTK+]]
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[[es:Improve GTK Application Looks]]
 
[[it:GTK+]]
 
[[it:GTK+]]
 
[[uk:GTK+]]
 
[[uk:GTK+]]
 
[[zh-CN:GTK+]]
 
[[zh-CN:GTK+]]
{{Temporary i18n}}
 
 
{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary start}}
 
{{Article summary text|This articles details theme configuration of GTK+ applications. GTK+ (GIMP Toolkit) is a cross-platform widget toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces. This article will explore the tools used to configure the GTK+ theme, style, icon, font and font size, and also detail manual configuration.}}
 
{{Article summary text|This articles details theme configuration of GTK+ applications. GTK+ (GIMP Toolkit) is a cross-platform widget toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces. This article will explore the tools used to configure the GTK+ theme, style, icon, font and font size, and also detail manual configuration.}}
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  # pacman -S gtk-theme-switch2
 
  # pacman -S gtk-theme-switch2
  
See also [[Uniform Look for Qt and GTK Applications#How do I set styles for each toolkit?]]
+
See also [[Uniform Look for Qt and GTK Applications#Changing styles in each toolkit]].
  
 
== Themes ==
 
== Themes ==
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}}
 
}}
  
{{Note| The above example requires the packages {{Pkg|ttf-dejavu}}, {{Pkg|tango-icon-theme}}, {{Pkg|gtk-engine-murrine}} from the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]], and {{AUR|murrine-themes-collection}} from the AUR.}}
+
{{Note| The above example requires the packages {{Pkg|ttf-dejavu}}, {{Pkg|tangerine-icon-theme}}, {{Pkg|gtk-engine-murrine}} from the [[Official Repositories|official repositories]], and {{AUR|murrine-themes-collection}} from the AUR.}}
  
 
=== GTK+ 3.x ===
 
=== GTK+ 3.x ===
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If you use GNOME 3, the theme can be changed with the {{pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}}.
 
If you use GNOME 3, the theme can be changed with the {{pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}}.
  
If you use [[Xfce]] 4.8, both GTK+ 3.x and GTK+ 2.x themes can be managed by Appearance tool. Go to Settings-->Appearance. If selected style has both GTK+ 2.x and GTK+ 3.x themes, they will be used. If selected style has only GTK+ 2.x theme, it will be used for GTK+ 2.x applications and (ugly) defaults will be used for GTK+ 3.x applications. If selected style has only GTK+ 3.x theme, it will be used for GTK+ 3.x applications and (ugly) defaults will be used for GTK+ 2.x applications. Thus for uniform UI appearance and best experience one can use style that has both GTK+ 2.x and GTK+ 3.x themes. Search packages and [[AUR]]. One example of this is theme {{AUR|clearwaita-gtk-theme}}.
+
If you use [[Xfce]] 4.8, both GTK+ 3.x and GTK+ 2.x themes can be managed by Appearance tool. Go to Settings-->Appearance. If selected style has both GTK+ 2.x and GTK+ 3.x themes, they will be used. If selected style has only GTK+ 2.x theme, it will be used for GTK+ 2.x applications and (ugly) defaults will be used for GTK+ 3.x applications. If selected style has only GTK+ 3.x theme, it will be used for GTK+ 3.x applications and (ugly) defaults will be used for GTK+ 2.x applications. Thus for uniform UI appearance and best experience one can use style that has both GTK+ 2.x and GTK+ 3.x themes. Search packages and [[AUR]]. One example of this is theme {{AUR|clearlooks-phenix-gtk-theme-git}}.
  
If you use a GTK+ 2.x based DE, like [[Xfce]], [[LXDE]], gnome-tweak-tool won't work; see {{bug|23644}}. You need to [[pacman|install]] {{pkg|librsvg}}, and set your theme manually in {{ic|{XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}} (this is usually {{ic|~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}. An example {{ic|settings.ini}} file:
+
If you prefer not to install {{pkg|gnome-tweak-tool}}, your theme can be set manually in {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}} (this is usually {{ic|~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini}}). An example {{ic|settings.ini}} file:
{{hc|{XDG_CONFIG_HOME}/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|2=
+
{{hc|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/gtk-3.0/settings.ini|2=
 
[Settings]
 
[Settings]
 
gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme = false
 
gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme = false
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}}
 
}}
  
If it still does not change, delete old gtk-3.0 folder in {XDG_CONFIG_HOME} and copy gtk-3.0 folder from /path-to-the-theme to {XDG_CONFIG_HOME}. example:  
+
If it still does not change, delete old {{ic|gtk-3.0}} folder in {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME}} and copy {{ic|gtk-3.0}} folder from /path/to/theme to {{ic|$XDG_CONFIG_HOME}}. Example:  
  rm -r ~/.config/gtk-3.0/
+
 
  cp -r /usr/share/themes/Zukitwo/gtk-3.0/ ~/.config/   
+
  $ rm -r ~/.config/gtk-3.0/
 +
  $ cp -r /usr/share/themes/Zukitwo/gtk-3.0/ ~/.config/   
 +
 
  
 
After this, you need to set the same theme in your DE's appearance configuration tool. There are only a few themes which provide a uniform look for GTK+ 3.x and GTK+ 2.x apps. A few examples:
 
After this, you need to set the same theme in your DE's appearance configuration tool. There are only a few themes which provide a uniform look for GTK+ 3.x and GTK+ 2.x apps. A few examples:
#Adwaita for GTK+ 3 and Advaicium for GTK+ 2
+
#Adwaita (part of {{pkg|gnome-themes-standard}})
 
#Newlooks for GKT+ 3 and Clearlooks for GTK+ 2
 
#Newlooks for GKT+ 3 and Clearlooks for GTK+ 2
 
#Zukitwo
 
#Zukitwo
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#Hope
 
#Hope
  
You could find what themes installed on your system  have both an Gtk2 and Gtk3 version by using this command (don't work with names containing spaces) :
+
{{Note|Some themes may require {{pkg|librsvg}} to display correctly, but not all specify it as a dependencyTry installing it if the chosen theme looks broken.}}
find $(find ~/.themes /usr/share/themes/ -wholename "*/gtk-3.0" | sed -e "s/^\(.*\)\/gtk-3.0$/\1/")\
+
  -wholename "*/gtk-2.0" | sed -e "s/.*\/\(.*\)\/gtk-2.0/\1"/
+
  
 +
{{Note|There probably are other themes. Some of these themes are available in the AUR. Also, some of them are not usable as-is for displaying a GTK+ 2.x panel (light text over light background), so you need to use the provided [http://i.imgur.com/QmeyN.png panel background].}}
  
{{Note|There probably are other themes. Some of these themes are available in the AUR. Also, some of them are not usable as is for displaying a GTK+ 2.x panel (light text over light background), so you need to use the provided [http://i.imgur.com/QmeyN.png panel background].}}
+
You could find what themes installed on your system  have both an GTK+ 2.x and GTK+ 3.x version by using this command (don't work with names containing spaces):
 +
find $(find ~/.themes /usr/share/themes/ -wholename "*/gtk-3.0" | sed -e "s/^\(.*\)\/gtk-3.0$/\1/")\
 +
-wholename "*/gtk-2.0" | sed -e "s/.*\/\(.*\)\/gtk-2.0/\1"/
  
 
=== GTK+ and Qt ===
 
=== GTK+ and Qt ===
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{{Note|See the [http://library.gnome.org/devel/gtk/stable/GtkSettings.html#GtkSettings.properties ''GtkSettings'' properties] in the GTK+ programming reference manual for the full list of GTK configuration options.}}
 
{{Note|See the [http://library.gnome.org/devel/gtk/stable/GtkSettings.html#GtkSettings.properties ''GtkSettings'' properties] in the GTK+ programming reference manual for the full list of GTK configuration options.}}
  
The purpose of this section is to collect GTK configuration settings which can e.g. be used within  {{Ic|~/.gtkrc-2.0}}.  
+
The purpose of this section is to collect GTK+ configuration settings which can e.g. be used within  {{Ic|~/.gtkrc-2.0}}.  
  
 
=== Enabling Customizable Keyboard Shortcuts ===
 
=== Enabling Customizable Keyboard Shortcuts ===
  
You can customize your GTK applications' keyboard shortcuts (those are called ''accelerators'' in GTK terminology) by hovering your mouse over a menu item and pressing your desired key combination. However, this feature is disabled by default. To enable it, set  
+
You can customize your GTK+ applications' keyboard shortcuts (those are called ''accelerators'' in GTK+ terminology) by hovering your mouse over a menu item and pressing your desired key combination. However, this feature is disabled by default. To enable it, set  
 
  gtk-can-change-accels = 1
 
  gtk-can-change-accels = 1
  

Revision as of 07:28, 13 February 2013

Summary help replacing me
This articles details theme configuration of GTK+ applications. GTK+ (GIMP Toolkit) is a cross-platform widget toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces. This article will explore the tools used to configure the GTK+ theme, style, icon, font and font size, and also detail manual configuration.
Related
Uniform Look for Qt and GTK Applications
Qt
GNU Project

From the GTK+ website:

GTK+, or the GIMP Toolkit, is a multi-platform toolkit for creating graphical user interfaces. Offering a complete set of widgets, GTK+ is suitable for projects ranging from small one-off tools to complete application suites.

GTK+, The GIMP Toolkit, was initially made by the GNU Project for the GIMP but is now a very popular toolkit with bindings for many languages.

Configuration programs

These GUI programs allow theme selection and at least customising of a font. They generally overwrite the ~/.gtkrc-2.0 file.

Example install command:

# pacman -S gtk-theme-switch2

See also Uniform Look for Qt and GTK Applications#Changing styles in each toolkit.

Themes

GTK+ 1.x

Old GTK+ 1 apps (like xmms) often do not look very nice at first. This is because they use ugly themes by default. To change this, you need to:

  1. download and install some nice themes
  2. change the theme

Some nice themes are in the AUR. To install them, see gtk-smooth-engineAUR.

To change the theme you can use gtk-theme-switch2. Run it with the 'switch' command.

GTK+ 2.x

Major desktop environments provide tools to configure the GTK+ theme, icons, font and font size. Alternatively, tools such as those mentioned above may be used.

It is recommended to install some GTK+ 2 themes as well. The popular Clearlooks theme is included within the gtk-engines package.

Further themes can be found in the AUR:

Alternatively, GTK+ settings can be configured manually by editing ~/.gtkrc-2.0. A list of GTK+ settings can be found in the GNOME library. To manually change the GTK+ theme, icons, font and font size, add the following to ~/.gtkrc-2.0:

~/.gtkrc-2.0
gtk-icon-theme-name = "[name-of-icon-theme]"
gtk-theme-name = "[name-of-theme]"
gtk-font-name = "[font-name] [size]"

For example:

~/.gtkrc-2.0
gtk-icon-theme-name = "Tango"
gtk-theme-name = "Murrine-Gray"
gtk-font-name = "DejaVu Sans 8"
Note: The above example requires the packages ttf-dejavu, tangerine-icon-theme, gtk-engine-murrine from the official repositories, and murrine-themes-collectionAUR from the AUR.

GTK+ 3.x

If you use GNOME 3, the theme can be changed with the gnome-tweak-tool.

If you use Xfce 4.8, both GTK+ 3.x and GTK+ 2.x themes can be managed by Appearance tool. Go to Settings-->Appearance. If selected style has both GTK+ 2.x and GTK+ 3.x themes, they will be used. If selected style has only GTK+ 2.x theme, it will be used for GTK+ 2.x applications and (ugly) defaults will be used for GTK+ 3.x applications. If selected style has only GTK+ 3.x theme, it will be used for GTK+ 3.x applications and (ugly) defaults will be used for GTK+ 2.x applications. Thus for uniform UI appearance and best experience one can use style that has both GTK+ 2.x and GTK+ 3.x themes. Search packages and AUR. One example of this is theme clearlooks-phenix-gtk-theme-gitAUR.

If you prefer not to install gnome-tweak-tool, your theme can be set manually in $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/gtk-3.0/settings.ini (this is usually ~/.config/gtk-3.0/settings.ini). An example settings.ini file:

$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/gtk-3.0/settings.ini
[Settings]
gtk-application-prefer-dark-theme = false
gtk-theme-name = Zukitwo
gtk-fallback-icon-theme = gnome
gtk-icon-theme-name = [icon theme name]
gtk-font-name = [font name] [font size]

If it still does not change, delete old gtk-3.0 folder in $XDG_CONFIG_HOME and copy gtk-3.0 folder from /path/to/theme to $XDG_CONFIG_HOME. Example:

$ rm -r ~/.config/gtk-3.0/
$ cp -r /usr/share/themes/Zukitwo/gtk-3.0/ ~/.config/  


After this, you need to set the same theme in your DE's appearance configuration tool. There are only a few themes which provide a uniform look for GTK+ 3.x and GTK+ 2.x apps. A few examples:

  1. Adwaita (part of gnome-themes-standard)
  2. Newlooks for GKT+ 3 and Clearlooks for GTK+ 2
  3. Zukitwo
  4. Elegant Brit
  5. Atolm
  6. Hope
Note: Some themes may require librsvg to display correctly, but not all specify it as a dependency. Try installing it if the chosen theme looks broken.
Note: There probably are other themes. Some of these themes are available in the AUR. Also, some of them are not usable as-is for displaying a GTK+ 2.x panel (light text over light background), so you need to use the provided panel background.

You could find what themes installed on your system have both an GTK+ 2.x and GTK+ 3.x version by using this command (don't work with names containing spaces):

find $(find ~/.themes /usr/share/themes/ -wholename "*/gtk-3.0" | sed -e "s/^\(.*\)\/gtk-3.0$/\1/")\
-wholename "*/gtk-2.0" | sed -e "s/.*\/\(.*\)\/gtk-2.0/\1"/

GTK+ and Qt

If you have GTK+ and Qt (KDE) applications on your desktop then you know that their looks do not blend well. If you wish to make your GTK+ styles match your Qt styles please read Uniform Look for Qt and GTK Applications.

Configuration file

Note: See the GtkSettings properties in the GTK+ programming reference manual for the full list of GTK configuration options.

The purpose of this section is to collect GTK+ configuration settings which can e.g. be used within ~/.gtkrc-2.0.

Enabling Customizable Keyboard Shortcuts

You can customize your GTK+ applications' keyboard shortcuts (those are called accelerators in GTK+ terminology) by hovering your mouse over a menu item and pressing your desired key combination. However, this feature is disabled by default. To enable it, set

gtk-can-change-accels = 1

Speed up your GNOME menu

This setting controls the delay between you pointing the mouse at a menu and that menu opening in GNOME. Change this to a setting you prefer. I guess the number is in milliseconds, e.g. 250 being a quarter of a second.

gtk-menu-popup-delay = 0

Reduce widget sizes

If you have a small screen or you just do not like big icons and widgets, you can resize things easily. To have icons without text in toolbars, use

gtk-toolbar-style = GTK_TOOLBAR_ICONS

To use smaller icons, use a line like this:

gtk-icon-sizes = "panel-menu=16,16:panel=16,16:gtk-menu=16,16:gtk-large-toolbar=16,16\
:gtk-small-toolbar=16,16:gtk-button=16,16"

Or to remove icons from buttons completely:

gtk-button-images = 0

You can also remove icons from menus:

gtk-menu-images = 0

There is some more tweaking to do in your themes gtkrc like explained here and there's another theme that does it all.

Development

When writing a start-from-scratch GTK+ 3 program with C, it's necessary to add CFLAGS for gcc:

gcc -g -Wall `pkg-config --cflags --libs gtk+-3.0` -o base base.c

-g and -Wall parameters are not necessary since they are only for verbose debugging outputs. You may try out the official Hello World example.

Write a simple message dialog app

You can write your own GTK+ 3 message dialog easily in many programming languages through GObject-Introspection or bindings, or you can simply use bash.

The following examples display a simple "Hello world" in a message dialog.

Bash

hello_world.sh
#!/bin/bash
zenity --info --title='Hello world!' --text='This is an example dialog.'

Boo

  • Dependency: gtk-sharp-gitAUR from AUR (boo)
  • Makedependency: boo
  • Build with: booc hello_world.boo
  • Run with: mono hello_world.exe (or booi hello_world.boo)
hello_world.boo
import Gtk from "gtk-sharp"
Application.Init()
Hello = MessageDialog(null, DialogFlags.Modal, MessageType.Info, ButtonsType.Close, "Hello world!")
Hello.SecondaryText = "This is an example dialog."
Hello.Run()

C

  • Dependency: gtk3
  • Build with: gcc -o hello_world `pkg-config --cflags --libs gtk+-3.0` hello_world.c
hello_world.c
#include <gtk/gtk.h>
void main (int argc, char *argv[]) {
	gtk_init (&argc, &argv);
        GtkWidget *hello = gtk_message_dialog_new (NULL, GTK_DIALOG_MODAL, GTK_MESSAGE_INFO, GTK_BUTTONS_OK, "Hello world!");
	gtk_message_dialog_format_secondary_text (GTK_MESSAGE_DIALOG (hello), "This is an example dialog.");
        gtk_dialog_run(GTK_DIALOG (hello));
}

C++

  • Dependency: gtkmm3
  • Build with: g++ -o hello_world `pkg-config --cflags --libs gtkmm-3.0` hello_world.cc
hello_world.cc
#include <gtkmm/main.h>
#include <gtkmm/messagedialog.h>
int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
	Gtk::Main kit(argc, argv);
	Gtk::MessageDialog Hello("Hello world!", false, Gtk::MESSAGE_INFO, Gtk::BUTTONS_OK);
	Hello.set_secondary_text("This is an example dialog.");
	Hello.run();
}

C#

  • Dependency: gtk-sharp-gitAUR from AUR
  • Build with: mcs -pkg:gtk-sharp-3.0 hello_world.cs
  • Run with: mono hello_world.exe
hello_world.cs
using Gtk;
public class HelloWorld {
	static void Main() {
		Application.Init ();
		MessageDialog Hello = new MessageDialog (null, DialogFlags.Modal, MessageType.Info, ButtonsType.Close, "Hello world!");
		Hello.SecondaryText="This is an example dialog.";
		Hello.Run ();
	}
}

Genie

  • Dependency: gtk3
  • Makedependency: vala
  • Build with: valac --pkg gtk+-3.0 hello_world.gs
hello_world.gs
uses 
	Gtk
init
	Gtk.init (ref args)
	var Hello=new MessageDialog (null, Gtk.DialogFlags.MODAL, Gtk.MessageType.INFO, Gtk.ButtonsType.OK, "Hello world!")
	Hello.format_secondary_text ("This is an example dialog.")
	Hello.run ()

Java

  • Dependency: java-gnomeAUR from AUR
  • Makedependency: java-environment
  • Build with: mkdir HelloWorld && javac -classpath /usr/share/java/gtk.jar -d HelloWorld HelloWorld.java
  • Run with: java -classpath /usr/share/java/gtk.jar:HelloWorld HelloWorld
HelloWorld.java
import org.gnome.gtk.Gtk;
import org.gnome.gtk.Dialog;
import org.gnome.gtk.InfoMessageDialog;

public class HelloWorld
{
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Gtk.init(args);
        Dialog Hello = new InfoMessageDialog(null, "Hello world!", "This is an example dialog.");
        Hello.run();
    }
}

JavaScript

hello_world.js
#!/usr/bin/gjs
Gtk = imports.gi.Gtk
Gtk.init(null, null)
Hello = new Gtk.MessageDialog({type: Gtk.MessageType.INFO,
                               buttons: Gtk.ButtonsType.OK,
                               text: "Hello world!",
                               "secondary-text": "This is an example dialog."})
Hello.run()

Perl

hello_world.pl
#!/usr/bin/perl
use Gtk3 -init;
my $hello = Gtk3::MessageDialog->new (undef, 'modal', 'info', 'ok', "Hello world!");
$hello->set ('secondary-text' => 'This is an example dialog.');
$hello->run;

Python

hello_world.py
#!/usr/bin/python
from gi.repository import Gtk
Gtk.init(None)
Hello=Gtk.MessageDialog(None, Gtk.DialogFlags.MODAL, Gtk.MessageType.INFO, Gtk.ButtonsType.CLOSE, "Hello world!")
Hello.format_secondary_text("This is an example dialog.")
Hello.run()

Vala

  • Dependency: gtk3
  • Makedependency: vala
  • Build with: valac --pkg gtk+-3.0 hello_world.vala
hello_world.vala
using Gtk;
public class HelloWorld {
	static void main (string[] args) {
		Gtk.init (ref args);
		var Hello=new MessageDialog (null, Gtk.DialogFlags.MODAL, Gtk.MessageType.INFO, Gtk.ButtonsType.OK, "Hello world!");
		Hello.format_secondary_text ("This is an example dialog.");
		Hello.run ();
	}
}

Visual Basic .NET

  • Dependency: gtk-sharp-gitAUR from AUR
  • Makedependency: mono-basic
  • Build with: vbnc -r:/usr/lib/mono/gtk-sharp-3.0/gio-sharp.dll -r:/usr/lib/mono/gtk-sharp-3.0/glib-sharp.dll -r:/usr/lib/mono/gtk-sharp-3.0/gtk-sharp.dll hello_world.vb
  • Run with: mono hello_world.exe
hello_world.vb
Imports Gtk
Public Class Hello
	Inherits MessageDialog
	Public Sub New
		MyBase.New(Me, DialogFlags.Modal, MessageType.Info, ButtonsType.Close, "Hello world!")
		Me.SecondaryText = "This is an example dialog."
	End Sub
	Public Shared Sub Main
		Application.Init
		Dim Dialog As New Hello
		Dialog.Run
	End Sub
End Class

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